Arbitration between Abu Dhabi and Saudi Arabia
1

'Abd al-Rahman 'Azzam (ed.). Memorial of the Government of Saudi Arabia. Arbitration... for the settlement of the territorial dispute between Muscat and Abu Dhabi on the one side and Saudi Arabia on the other. [Cairo], al-Maaref Press, 1955. [Cairo], al-Maaref Press, 1955. Folio. 3 vols. (12), 539 pp. (20), 343 pp. (8), 624 pp. Numerous illustrations and maps. Modern library cloth. With the maps (supplement to vol. II) in separate matching slipcase.

EUR 15,000.00

Only edition. Includes sections, "The geographical setting"; "The people and the tribes"; "Historical background relating to the disputed areas, 1765-1955"; "The diplomatic background, 1911-1954"; "Legal submissions of Saudi Arabia"; etc. The documents here presented are those representing the Saudi argument. Abdel Rahman Azzam (Azzam Pasha), a firebrand Arab nationalist who first accused Britain of stealing Arab oil in the region, here acts as the agent of King Saud. In fact, this Memorial was the work of the historical section of Aramco, headed by George Rentz. It seeks to legitimize Saudi claims to the disputed territory through the production of "tax" records paid by tribesmen. The counter-argument held that these payments were little more than extortion. - Scarce.
¶ OCLC 34095034. Not in Macro.

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The principal Renaissance treatise on mining
6

Agricola, Georg. Vom Bergkwerck XII. Bücher darinn alle Empter, Instrument,... Gezeug und alles zu diesem Handel gehörig [...]. Basel, Hieronymus Froben & Nikolaus Episcopius, 1557. Basel, Hieronymus Froben & Nikolaus Episcopius, 1557. Folio (225 x 326 mm). (8), 491, (13) pp. With printer's woodcut device on title-page and verso of final leaf, a double-page-sized woodcut plate and numerous large woodcuts in the text (some 70 of which are page-sized). Contemporary limp vellum with fore-edge flap.

EUR 35,000.00

First translation ever of the principal Renaissance treatise on mining, prepared for German readers by Philipp Bech. Significantly rarer than the Latin first edition (PMM 79) published the previous year, as most of the printed sheets ended up being used for the 1580 second German edition. "A book that has earned its place in history as a masterpiece of Renaissance technical writing and technical illustration" (Hoover). "Treats the entire field of mining and metallurgy, including the overlapping subjects of geology and chemistry, but in particular mechanical engineering and machine technology" (cf. Koch). "Of the 292 woodcuts, 269 concern mining, economic geology, surveying instruments, tools and machinery, mine workings, and even salt production from the sea, a glass foundry, etc. They were cut in Basel after designs by Basilius Wefring of Joachimsthal. At least two known masters had a hand in the woodcuts: the draughtsman H. R. Manuel Deutsch from Bern and the woodcutter Z. Specklin from Strasbourg" (Horst). - Light, mostly even browning throughout; some fingerstaining to title with edges somewhat frayed, but well preserved in the unusual and entirely contemporary limp vellum binding with a generous flap protecting the fore-edge. Early 16th century bibliographical note concerning Porta's "De refractione" penned to lower pastedown. Provenance: early handwritten ownership of "Andreas Virizius" on front pastedown. While the "possessor huius libri" calls himself a "conterfecter" (portrait painter), he may be identical with the like-named student of the Flemish humanist Justus Lipsius who flourished in Danzig around 1599, gave private instruction and produced several translations from Latin into German (cf. Jöcher IV, 1645).
¶ VD 16, A 935. IA 101.560. Hoover 22. Koch 6 & pp. 34ff. Darmstaedter, Agricola 45 & 88. Michaelis-Prescher 22. Horst 771ff. Lipperheide Pd1. Cf. Horblit 2b. Sparrow 4. Dibner 88. PMM 79 (1556 Latin first edition).

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An illustrated Latin manuscript of Al Madkhal, bound with occult texts by Raymund Lull and others
11

Al-Qabisi, Abu Al Saqr 'Abd Al-'Aziz Ibn 'Uthman Ibn 'Ali (Alchabitius). Libellus isagogicus (Al-madkhal), with the commentary of Johannes... de Saxonia and additional works on astronomy, medicine and logic, compiled by Hieronymus Paulus of Limburg. Latin manuscript. Likely Germany (Limburg an der Lahn), 1500-1524. Likely Germany (Limburg an der Lahn), 1500-1524. Folio (220 x 305 mm). Latin composite manuscript (black ink) on paper. (100), (7 blank) ff. Some rubrication and red highlights; a few initials in gilt and red or blue. - (Bound with) II: Rolewinck, Werner. Fasciculus temporum. Cologne, Ludwig von Renchen?, not after 1483. (73 [instead of 74]) ff. With numerous woodcuts in the text, coloured by a contemporary hand. Index and first half rubricated, a few Lombardic initials. Contemporary wooden boards (upper board restored) with calf spine on three raised double bands.

EUR 165,000.00

Early 16th century Latin manuscript of al-Qabisi's most influential work, "al-Madkhal" (in the translation of Joannes Hispalensis from 1144): an introduction to some of the fundamental principles of genethlialogy, the astrological science of casting nativities, or divination as to the destinies of newborns. The author, known as Alchabitius in the Latin tradition, flourished in Aleppo, Syria, in the middle of the tenth century. "Although al-Qabisi's education was primarily in geometry and astronomy, his principal surviving treatise, 'Al-madkhal ila sina'at ahkam al-nujum' ('Introduction into the Art of Astrology') in five sections [...], is on astrology. The book, as the title indicates, is an introductory exposition of some of the fundamental principles of genethlialogy; its present usefulness lies primarily in its quotations from the Sassanian Andarzghar literature and from al-Kindi, the Indians, Ptolemy, Dorotheus of Sidon, Masha'allah, Hermes Trismegistus, and Valens" (DSB). Together with the writings of Abu Ma'shar and Sacrobosco's "Sphaera mundi", "al Madkhal" became Europe's authoritative introduction to astrology between the 13th and the 16th century. - Al-Qabisi's text (fol. 28r-50v) is followed by the extensive commentary of Johannes de Saxonia (51r-100r). In addition, the manuscript comprises a number of shorter additional parts, worked upon by various hands and prefixed to the "Madkhal": 1. Ramon Lull. Ars brevis ("Incipit ars brevis artis generalis ad omnes sciencias"). With several diagrams and tables in the text (fol. 1r-13r). Thorndike/K. 1315. - 2. Macer Floridus. "Herbarum quasdam dicturus carmine vires" (fol. 14r-21r). Thorndike/K. 610. Departs from the text of Choulant's 1832 edition. With later annotations, including German translations of plant names. - 3. German recipes (fol. 21r). - 4. "Nota dignas regulas de tempore flembotome multum utilis" (fol. 21v). - 5. "Prima dies vene sit moderatio cene" (fol. 21v). Six verses on phlebotomy. Thorndike/K. 1090. - 6. De temporis aptis pro flebotomia ("Rogatus a quibusdam et de tempore minucionis aliquid edocerem volens", fol. 22r-25v). A part from Johannes de Procida's "De occultis nature". Thorndike/K. 1364. - 7. De sortibus cum tabulis ("Quia verissime omnis sciencie perfecta congregacionis", fol. 25v-26r). Thorndike/K. 1226. Followed by astrological tables and diagrams with instructions for use. - 8. A short ophthalmological prescription ("Aqua sodalis", fol. 26r). - 9. Alexander Hispanus. "Melleus liquor physicae artis" (fol. 26v). Recipes relating to urine and fever. The front flyleaf bears a contemporary table of Lullist philosophical terms (likely corresponding to the "Ars brevis" opposite) and a verse against astrology in a late 17th century hand. - The editio princeps of Al-Qabisi's "Al Madkhal" had appeared at Mantua in 1473. The present text and commentary would appear to be derived from the Ratdolt edition published at Venice in 1485 (GW 844), or possibly from that published by Gregorius de Gregorii in 1491 (GW 845). The compiler Hieronymus Paulus of Limburg states his name twice (with the date): in the colophon, he substitutes his own name for that of the printer; he also appears at the end of Al-Qabisi's text on fol. 50v ("Finit textes Alkabicii per me Hieronymum Pauli anno salutis 1520"). A similar composite manuscript ("Introductiones ad astrologiam") written by the same Paulus is in the New York Public Library, Spencer Coll. Ms. 51: here, too, the writer has added various parts and annotations. Krämer (Scriptores possessoresque codicum medii aevi) references a third ms. compiled by Paulus, a Sammelhandschrift with mathematical texts (Wiesbaden, Landesbibliothek, Ms. 79), but this was lost in WWII. - Bound at the end of the volume is one of the many incunabular editions of the "Fasciculus temporum", Rolewinck's popular history of the world from Creation to Pope Sixtus IV, in an appealingly coloured copy with several early 16th century marginalia, possibly also in Paulus's hand (flaw to upper corner of a2, rebacked with some loss to text, and rebacked flaw to blank lower corner of b8; wants first blank; final leaf of the index, bound at the end, shows fraying and some loss, rebacked). - Some light browning and dampstaining throughout. Binding professionally repaired. Provenance: old sanguine inventory no. "22" on fol. 1r. Front pastedown has fragment of engraved armorial bookplate of Elector Johann Friedrich von Ostein (1689-1763), Archbishop of Mainz. His nephew Johann Franz von Ostein (1735-1809), Imperial counsellor and chamberlain, was married to Louise Charlotte von Dalberg, whose family inherited the library after the death of her husband, by which his line was extinguished. The noble family of Dalberg owned several properties in Germany and Austria; the present volume was long kept in the library of one of their smaller castles in Lower Austria before being sold to a Swiss private collection, whence it was now acquired.
¶ I: Thorndike-Kibre 1078, 351, 1713, 913. - II: HC 6914. Goff R-269. GW M38689. Proctor 1284. BMC I, 269.

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The location of pearl banks in the Gulf
15

Al-Tifashi, Shihab al-Din Abu'l-Abbas Ahmad ibn Yusuf / Rainer, Antonio (ed.). [Azhar al-adkar fi jawahir al-ahjar.] Fior di pensieri... sulle pietre preziose di Ahmed Teifascite. Opera stampata nel suo originale arabo, colla traduzione italiana appresso, e diverse note. Florence, nell'imp. E R. tipografia orientale Mediceo-Laurenziana, 1818. Florence, nell'imp. E R. tipografia orientale Mediceo-Laurenziana, 1818. 1 blank f., (7), 55, 118, (2) pp. Contemporary full calf with gilt borders and spine label to prettily gilt spine. Marbled pastedowns. All edges gilt.

EUR 18,000.00

First edition of one of the most important Arabic lapidaries, edited by Antonio Rainer (1780-1839) from the Arabic manuscript in the Laurentian library. The Arabic text is accompanied by an Italian translation (the latter was reprinted separately in 1906). The author was a 13th century Egyptian physician and gem dealer from the Kairouan region. The work is influenced by the pseudo-Aristotelian "De lapidibus" and is important for our knowledge of Arabic mineralogy. Extracts from the manuscript (in the Laurenziana, Florence) were first printed in 1784 by Sebald Fulco Jan Rau in his "Specimen arabicum" (Utrecht, 1784) and later by J. J. Clement-Mullet in his "Essai sur la mineralogie arabe" (Paris, 1868). "In this version the following are treated: pearls, jacinth, emerald, topaz, balas ruby, benfesc [bezoar?], garnet, diamond, cat'-eye, belzuardo, turquoise, carnelian, onyx, magnet (lodestone), smeriglio (emerald), dahneg, lapis lazuli, coral, sabag, giemest, khamahan, iisem, diaspro, rock crystal, and tale. Other names for the same stones are also given, as well as their origin, sources, qualities, defects, magical & medicinal properties, values, and prices" (Sinkankas). "[Describes] the location of pearl banks in the Gulf, including Kish (Qays), Oman and Bahrain, and the qualities of pearls. Al Tifashi, a North African gem dealer, travelled in the Gulf in the 1240s AD" (Carter, Sea of Pearls, p. 50). - An excellent copy in an appealing, likely Russian binding. Traces of removed bookplates on front pastedown. From the orientalist library of Prince Grigory Gagarin (1810-93), an artist and traveller who had visited Italy, Turkey, Syria, Greece, and Egypt, with his ownership stamp ("Biblioteka Knyazya Gagarina") on title-page and endpapers, later overstamped with that of a French collection.
¶ GAL S I, 904. Sinkankas 6557. DSB XIII, 407. OCLC 20784738.

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Arabic script specimens
26

[Arabic epistolography]. A collection of more than 170 autograph Arabic letters. Algiers & Algeria, ca. 1770-1860, the bulk dated 1830-1850. Algiers & Algeria, ca. 1770-1860, the bulk dated 1830-1850. Small folio (ca 24 x 30 cm). Ca. 170 letters in Algerian Arabic, pasted to 100 numbered leaves. Contemporary papered boards (severely rubbed and bumped) with remnants of a green calfskin spine.

EUR 18,500.00

A vast ensemble of handwritten letters in Arabic, assembled by the Franco-Algerian typesetter A. Duchâteau who used the collection both to perfect his command of practical Arabic in various local dialects and as a typographical style guide. Most of the letters were written by local dignitaries, including Beys, Kaïds, Sheikhs, provincial leaders and village chiefs. To obtain them, Duchâteau must have drawn upon various sources such as his own relations and other Algerian families, the French community, and the military. About a third of the letters include Duchâteau's French translations or at least notes about their origin, giving dates or details of their content or identifying the recipient. - Duchâteau worked as typesetter for the Algiers-based "Bastide" printing house in the early 1850s. Specializing in Arabic typography, he was especially close to Louis-Jacques Bresnier (1814-69), the first professor of Arabic in Algiers. It was Duchâteau who attended to the printing of the Arabic parts of Bresnier's chrestomathies and language guides, and it is apparent that the album also served as documentation for the professor's own publications, such as his "Chrestomathie arabe: lettres, actes, et pièces diverses" (1857). In the preface to his "Cours pratique et théorique de langue arabe", published by Bastide in 1855, Bresnier explains that his work could only be realized thanks to the talent of Duchâteau: "Two modest and excellent artists, Messrs. Ch. Portmann, lithographer, and A. Duchateau, an Arabic typesetter, understood and supported the author's work with remarkable intelligence and skill." - Some of these letters are of great historical interest, enabling us to trace in them the frequently poorly-documented history of Algeria between the late 18th and mid 19th century. The ensemble includes, inter alia, a letter from the Bey of Constantine, Hussein Bey (1807); letters addressed to Napoleon III, who is referred to as "Sultan" and "Lord Prefet"; a letter from a brotherhood leader asking permission to bring a number of faithful into his Zaouira; a document regarding the prisoners of Constantine; a letter from Mufti Hanefi of Constantine requesting the replacement of the hezzab of the mosque; letters from the interpreter Ismael Ben El Had Mohammed Amin El Sekkat, from Kaïd Belkaum Ben Minia, from Messrs. El Hadj Merouan & El Hadj ben Fouka, from Sid Said EI Hadj, a regional chief (1817), several letters to and from physicians, letters related to invitations, festivities and gatherings, requests to the authorities for intervention, commercial letters, and letters of thanks. A single letter in Hebrew is also included. Inserted at the beginning are 6 lithographed leaves of letter specimens as used by Bresnier in his courses, annotated by hand (likely that of Bresnier himself) with extensive remarks in French and Arabic on the vocabulary and phrasing. - An important source for the history of French Algeria and the history of Arabic typography in the mid-19th century.

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Incunable on poisons, using various Arabic sources
32

Ardoynis, Santes de. De venenis. Venice, Bernardino Rizzo for Johannes Dominicus de Nigro, 19. VII. 1492. Venice, Bernardino Rizzo for Johannes Dominicus de Nigro, 19. VII. 1492. Folio (420 x 280 mm). (4), 101, (1) ff. Later calf with gold- and blind-tooling.

EUR 45,000.00

First edition of a work on poisons, compiled by Sante Arduino (or Ardoini) of Pesaro. "[T]he elaborate compendium on poisons in eight books which Sante Ardoini of Pesaro compiled in the years, 1424-1426, from Greek, Arabic and Latin works on medicine and nature, and which was printed at Venice in 1492, and at Basel in 1518 and 1562. … Although Ardoini quotes previous authors at great length, his work is no mere compilation, since he does not hesitate to disagree with such medical authorities of Peter of Abano and Gentile da Foligno, and refers to his own medical experience or observation of nature at Venice and to what fisherman or collectors of herbs have told him. He also seems to have known Arabic, and his occasional practice of giving the names of herbs in several Italian dialects is of some linguistic value" (Thorndike). Arduino makes extensive use of the works by Avicenna (Ibn Sina), who "held a high place in Western European medical studies, ranking together with Hippocrates and Galen as an acknowledged authority" (Weisser). Among the numerous other sources he used are Galen, Avenzoar (Ibn Zuhr), Rasis (al-Razi), Andromachus, Albucasis (Al-Zahrawi), Serapion the Younger and Dioscorides. - A very good copy, with only a few marginal waterstains. Binding slightly rubbed along the extremities and with a few scratches on boards.
¶ Hain-Copinger 1554. Goff A-950. Ohly-Sack 233. Walsh 2186. Proctor 4963. BMC V, 403. GW 2318. Thorndike III, 545. ISTC ia00950000.

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112 photographs of Cairo and Egypt by two of the most distinguished photographers of the Muslim world
41

Béchard, Henri and Pascal Sebah. [Binding title:] Egypten. [Cairo & Istanbul, ca. 1870-1880]. [Cairo & Istanbul, ca. 1870-1880]. 3 oblong photo albums (31 x 45 cm), containing 112 stunning photographs of Egypt (mostly measuring: 20.5 x 26.5 cm, some slightly smaller: 20 x 25 cm and some slightly larger: 26.5 x 21 cm), all mounted on paperboard leaves measuring 30 x 42 cm. 49 photos are signed, in the negatives, by Béchard, 35 by Sebah and 28 are unsigned, and several have numbers and titles as well. The photographs in each volume are numbered in a later hand on the leaves (48, "19"[=21], 43).Near contemporary gold-tooled black half morocco, with title in gold on front boards, boards with richly gold-tooled morocco corners, marbled pastedowns (nonpareil pattern, similar to Wolfe 147, dated 1840-1870). Kept in matching half morocco boxes, gold-tooled spines, identical title on front boards, the same marbled paper used for the edges.

EUR 95,000.00

An extensive set of stunning photographs of Egypt by two of the most distinguished photographers of the Islamic world: Henri Béchard and Pascal Sebah. The collection is very well preserved and unusual in its scope. The volumes are thematically divided: the first album shows Cairo and daily life in the city, the second shows antiquities outside the city (pyramids, temples, funeral chambers, hieroglyphics etc.), and the third shows cities other than Cairo, e.g. Karnak, Louqsor, Bal el Molouk, Thebes, Edfou, Assouan, etc., along with ruins and other sites from those places. The photographs therefore not only show us the famous views and antiquities, but also give an acute portrayal of Egypt as a country and its everyday life at the time, which is not common in the usual touristic photo albums. Henri Béchard (active 1870-1880) was awarded the Gold medal at the Universal Exposition in 1878. His studio was in the Ezbekiyeh Gardens, Cairo. "His work is distinguished by the superb quality of his prints and the generally spectacular presentation of even the most common sites, such as the pyramids. His studies of people and costumes are even more interesting and point to a very personal involvement of the photographer in the life and customs of the country. His cityscapes and urban scenes were mostly taken from unusual angles in an attempt to cope with the narrow and confined spaces" (Perez). Pascal Sebah (1823-1886) was a leading photographer based in Constantinople, who catered to the Western European interest in the exotic "Orient" and the growing numbers of tourists visiting the Islamic world who wished to take home images of the city, ancient ruins in the surrounding area, portraits, and local people in traditional costumes. "Sebah rose to prominence because of his well-organized compositions, careful lighting, effective posing, attractive models, great attention to detail, and for the excellent print quality" ( Saretzky ). Only an occasional speck on the album leaves, otherwise a fine copy, with the photographs of a very high quality. The bindings also fine, only the boxes have some very minor wear along the extremities.
¶ Cf. N. Perez, Focus East (1988); G. Saretzky, History of photography (online).

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The second book printed in Arabic from movable type and a primary source for Columbus’s second voyage to America
46

[Biblia polyglotta - Psalmi]. Psalterium Hebreum, Grecu[m], Arabicu[m], & Chaldaicu[m], cu[m] tribus... latinis i[n]terp[re]tat[ion]ibus & glossis. Genoa, Pietro Paulo Porro, 1516. Genoa, Pietro Paulo Porro, 1516. Folio (binding 250 x 335 mm, inner book 236 x 327 mm). 200 leaves, complete. Title printed in red and black within woodcut arabesque border, printer's device on final leaf. With parallel text in Hebrew, Latin, Greek, Arabic and Chaldaean (in their respective types), 4 columns to a page, 41 lines. 13 woodcut floriated initials (5 Latin, 4 Hebrew, 2 Greek and 2 Arabic). Rebound in near contemporary brown calf, carefully restored, edges and corners repaired, spine fully rebacked in seven compartments with modern gilt title and date.

EUR 48,000.00

First edition. - The first polyglot edition of any part of the Bible, and also the first polyglot work ever published. It is of the utmost importance in several further respects, constituting the second book printed in Arabic from movable type (following Gregorio de Gregorii's "Kitab salat as-sawa'i", a Horologion for the Lebanese Melchites, printed in 1514), as well as the earliest Arabic printing of any portion of the Bible. It also contains the first edition of the Aramaic text of the Psalter and offers for the first time Kabbalistic texts from the Zohar. Furthermore, Giustiniani’s commentary provides the first substantial biographical reference to Columbus, and is thus noted as an Americanum. - The learned Dominican Agostino Giustiniani (1470-1536) was Bishop of Nebbio in Corsica from 1514 and later became the first Professor of Arabic and Hebrew at Paris. On his death he bequeathed his extensive library to the state of Genoa. He edited, supervised and financed the present edition and also wrote the commentary. - His book is the first multilingual edition of any part of the Bible. Aldus Manutius had planned a Psalter in three languages as early as the late 15th century, but his project was not realised. Printed in eight parallel columns on double pages, Giustiniani’s work comprises the text in Hebrew, a literal Latin translation thereof, the Latin Vulgate, the Greek Septuagint, Arabic, Aramaic (Chaldee), a literal Latin translation from the Aramaic, and scholia in the same languages. While Giustiniani aimed to edit the entire Bibel in this form, no further sections were published. He described his difficulties in selling the edition in his History of Genoa (1537), recording an edition size of 2,000 paper copies and 50 copies on vellum. - Giustiniani’s extensive commentary includes a long note to Ps. 19:4 ("et in fines orbis omnia verba eorum"; C7r-D1r), about the Genoese Christopher Columbus, who had died in 1506, containing previously unpublished information on his second voyage: "In this interesting sketch of the life and voyages of his fellow-townsman, Bishop Giustiniani gives an interesting account of the discovery of the new world, and states some facts not mentioned elsewhere" (Sabin). - This edition is also the only book printed at Genoa in the 16th century. The Milanese printer Pietro Paulo Porro maintained a press at Turin with his brother Galeazzo. Giustiniani summoned Porro to Genoa especially for the production of this edition, and had set up a press in the house of his brother Nicolo Giustiniani Paulo. The types were designed and cut for this edition under Porro’s direction. - Mild browning throughout, with some occasional waterstaining (more pronounced near beginning).
¶ Adams B 1370. Darlow/Moule 1411, 1634 & 2401. Smitskamp, PO, 236. Alden-Landis 516/4. Harrisse, BAV no. 88 (pp. 154-158). Sabin 66468. Sander 5957. G. Roper, Early Arabic Printing in Europe, in: Middle Eastern Languages and the Print Revolution. A Cross-Cultural Encounter (Westhofen 2002), pp. 129-150, at p. 132, with colour ill. IV. StCB 25. Vinograd Genoa 1.

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Britain’s commercial, political and military influence in the Gulf in the early 20th century
59

[British Residency, Bandar Abbas]. Manuscript daybook. Bandar Abbas, 1905-1929. Bandar Abbas, 1905-1929. Folio ledger book (390 × 240 mm). (4), 276 pp., with numerous blank leaves at rear; pp. 164-165 typescript; letterpress memorandum pasted to pp. 273-275. Most agreements ratified with consular ink-stamps or pasted Consular Service postage stamps. Contemporary sheep dyed red, marbled pastedowns, inner hinges reinforced with cloth. Binding rubbed, inner hinge split between pp. 2-3. Very occasional ink-smudging, nevertheless in excellent condition.

EUR 48,000.00

Manuscript legal record book of the just-founded British consulate at Bandar Abbas: intended for the consulate's internal use only, this handwritten ledger constitutes a historical document of Britain's growing commercial, political and military influence in the Gulf throughout a crucial quarter of a century. - The daybook covers the formative period of the consulate at the key port of Bandar Abbas, from early in the tenure of the influential but ill-fated Captain William Shakespear (1904-09) to the flourishing of the Anglo-Persian Oil Company in the late 1920s. It shows how APOC and other British companies successfully cultivated networks of local agents (indeed, the final 50 pages are entirely taken up by contracts concerning oil and its by-products). Together, the records form a highly detailed primary source for the commercial and social life in Bandar Abbas, an increasingly cosmopolitan Gulf hub that has been called "the major entrepôt for the whole of southern Persia" (B. C. Busch, Britain and the Persian Gulf, 1894-1914 [1967], p. 44). They demonstrate the functioning of an important British outpost during an era marked by such convulsions as the Iranian Constitutional Revolution of 1905-11, the First World War, and the Persian coup d'etat of 1921, and for the rapid growth of APOC and the ongoing strategic contest between the British and Russian empires. - Mainly written in Persian or English (with a number in Arabic and a few in Sindhi) the records include fair copies of bills of sale, promissory notes, property leases, inheritance agreements, and other contracts. Parties include local merchants, of Persian as well as Arab and Indian origin, and various British companies which played an important role in the expansion of imperial influence in the region. The documents are neatly presented throughout; those in Persian are composed in an especially attractive flowing nasta'liq script. All are briefly described in English, then ratified, signed and stamped by the acting consul. The whole is very well preserved indeed, and forms a highly attractive historical record.

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A British surveyor in the Arabian Gulf
72

Collingwood, William, R.I.N. surveyor (fl. 1840s-1860s). Collection of watercolours showing Indian Navy ships in... the Arabian Gulf. Includes Collingwood's original surveying telescope. [Mostly Arabian Gulf], 1856-1858. [Mostly Arabian Gulf], 1856-1858. Three hand-drawn watercolours showing the "Coromandel" (148 x 225 mm), the "Tigris" (178 x 240 mm), and the "Georgiana" (142 x 240 mm), mounted on backing paper, separately matted. With a presentation leather-cased 1½-inch three-draw leather-covered surveying telescope and compass compendium by Andrew Ross, London, contained in 29 cm leather carry case with lid enclosing a lacquered-brass compass, collapsed length 25 cm, expands to 71 cm.

EUR 45,000.00

A striking collection of original watercolours drawn by Lieutenant William Collingwood, civil engineer in the Royal Indian Navy, during his surveying mission to the Middle East in the mid-1850s. The three ships, all built for the "Honourable [East India] Company", are the H.C. Screw Troop Ship "Coromandel" ("1112 Tons. Commander C. D. Campbell I.N. London to Madras Aug. to Nov. 1856"), the H.C. Brigantine "Tigris" ("Persian Gulf. Entering "Cheroo" Bay. August 1857"), and the H.C. Schooner "Georgiana" ("Lieut. Collingwood Comd. off 'Karack', Feb. 1858"). While the exact location of the "Coromandel" at the time of sketching is not identified (though Collingwood was undoubtedly in the Arabian area at the time), the other two ships are clearly sailing the Arabian Gulf. The "Tigris" is shown entering Cheroo Bay (Chiruyeh, Bandar-e Chiru), on the south coast of Persia, opposite Inderabi Island; the bay was popular with navigators in the region for offering safe shelter from western and northwestern winds, with regular soundings of up to ten fathoms quite near the shore. The "Georgiana" is pictured farther north off Kharg Island, 16 miles from the coast of Bushehr province. Kharg is mentioned in the 10th-century "Hudud al-'alam" as a good source for pearls and was visited by Jean de Thévenot in 1665, who recorded trade with Isfahan and Basra. After the Dutch Empire established both a trading post and a fort on the island in 1753, the Dutch fort was captured in 1766 by Mir Mahanna, the governor of Bandar Rig. The island was briefly occupied in 1838 by the British to block the 1838 Siege of Herat but was soon returned. - Slight loss to upper left corner of all three sheets; some brownstaining and traces of folds, but well-preserved on the whole. The ensemble is neatly complemented by Collingwood's presentation surveying telescope and compass compendium, the telescope being signed and inscribed: "From Comr. Selby, Surveyor in Mesopotamia, to Lieut. W. Collingwood, Asst. Surveyor, in kind remembrance of Services together in Babylonia & Irak Arabia". Commander W. B. Selby, who dedicated this fine telescope-cum-compass set, began his distinguished surveying career in 1837 when, as a midshipman, he embarked on the expedition first to lay navigation buoys in the mouths of the Indus River and then to chart some coastal areas in the "Horn of Africa". By 1846 he was back working off the mouths of the Indus, having made his reputation in Mesopotamia (in 1840-41), and thereafter achieved considerable acclaim for his numerous other surveys, including those during the military expedition to Persia in 1856, before returning to England at the end of 1862. He was succeeded as Surveyor of Mesopotamia by his protégé, Lt. William Collingwood (a distant cousin of the Admiral), who had already done much valuable work in the region, including the large-scale, though surreptitious, mapping of Baghdad in 1855, described by him as follows: "The survey of the city of Baghdad was completed entirely by myself and under very unpleasant restrictions [...] The Turkish Government were not to know anything about it [...] and I was left to survey the town as best I could, and under such difficulties that at times I had to note bearings and paces all over my white shirt, where best I could get the pencil at the time [...]". During this same expedition, Collingwood also surveyed the Shatt-ul-Arab, the city of Bussorah (also by stealth) and much of the country between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, and was undoubtedly one of the most gifted and productive R.I.N. surveyors of his day.

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Fine Ottoman costume watercolours, with distinguished provenance
76

[Costume drawings]. An album of eight fine watercolour drawings depicting... the costume of Constantinople and the Ottoman World. Constantinople, later 16th century. 4to (168 x 212 mm). 8 watercolour drawings, some heightened with white or gold, captioned in German in a late 16th-c. hand, on 8 leaves and a further 24 blank leaves (for the watermark cf. Briquet 917: Nuremberg 1554 or 1565-82). Contemporary limp vellum without ties.

EUR 85,000.00

An album of eight splendid costume paintings, by a talented, unidentified artist who may have been a member of the entourage of a German ambassador to the Porte. The subjects in this collection are captioned: "Der Kriechen Patriarch" (the Greek Patriarch); "Der Türckisch Keiser" (the Turkish Sultan); "Der Türckisch Babst" (the Grand Mufti); "Türckische weiber wie sie pflegen auf der gaßen zu gehen" (Turkish women, as it is their wont to dress in the street); "Also sizen die Türckischen weiber" (Thus sit the Turkish women); "Ein Epirotische frau wie sie in Iren Heusern zu Galata pflegen zu gehen" (a woman of Epirus, as they walk about in their houses in Galata); "Ein Kriegische fraw" (a Greek woman); and "Ein Armenerin" (an Armenian woman). - Great attention to both accuracy and details is shown: indeed, the suite may be related to another set of similar drawings in the Gennadius Library (A896 B), dated to about 1573 (cf. Blackmer Cat.). There is also some resemblance in style and presentation to certain of the costume illustrations in Nicolas de Nicolay's Navigations (1568, and later editions). Although Nicolay travelled in the Levant in the 1550s and was long thought to have drawn his costume subjects from life, doubt has been cast on this view, and it is now generally considered that he drew his subjects from the work of other artists and illustrators. - A little light dust-soiling, binding with minor wear, soiling and wormholes. Provenance: from the collection of Ferdinand Sigismund Kress von Kressenstein (1641-1704), councilman of Nuremberg whose father signed the Peace of Westphalia treaty (his armorial bookplate on the front pastedown). Later in the library of Franz Joseph II, Prince of Liechtenstein (1906-89), with his armorial bookplate on the flyleaf. Latterly in the collection of Henry Myron Blackmer II (1923-88), with his bookplate to the pastedown, sold at Sotheby's in 1989 (Blackmer sale, lot 80) and purchased by Herry W. Schaefer (1934-2016).
¶ Blackmer 1887 (with two illustrations: p. 42 and frontispiece facing p. 1). Cf. Haydn Williams, "Additional printed sources for Ligozzi's series of figures of the Ottoman Empire", in: Master Drawings, vol. 51, no. 2 [Summer 2013], pp. 195-220; Metin And, Istanbul in the 16th century: the city, the palace, daily life (Istanbul, 1994).

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First comprehensive description of ancient and modern Egypt
82

[Description de l'Égypte]. Description de l'Egypte, ou recueil des observations et... des recherches, qui ont été faites en égypte pendant l'expédition de l'armée Française. Paris, C. L. F. Panckoucke, 1820-1829. Paris, C. L. F. Panckoucke, 1820-1829. A total of 36 vols.: 26 text vols. (4to) and 10 atlas vols. (elephant folio). With coloured frontispiece and 899 engraved plates and maps, many double-page-sized and folded. Slightly later English half calf, professionally repaired in places.

EUR 185,000.00

Second edition of this monumental work (the first was published from 1809 onwards), the first comprehensive description of ancient and modern Egypt. Commissioned by Napoleon during his Egyptian campaign between 1798 and 1801, this encompassing historical, archaeological, art-historical, and natural-historical account of the country was realised through the efforts of the Institut d'Egypte in Cairo. Its influence was enormous, establishing Egyptology as an intellectual discipline and nurturing a passion for Egyptian art throughout the Western World. Edited by some of the leading intellectual figures in France, the Description also includes contributions from celebrated artists such as Jacques Barraband, Pierre-Joseph Redouté, Geoffrey Saint-Hilaire, Jules-César Savigny and others. More than 150 scholars and scientists and some 2000 artists, designers and engravers were involved in its preparation. The success of the publication was such that work on the second edition (known as the "Pancoucke edition") began before the first was completed. The text was expanded into a greater number of volumes, now printed in a smaller format; new pulls were taken from the plates, and these were bound with many of the large-format plates folded into the new, reduced dimensions. - A splendid, clean copy, complete with all the plates. An incomplete copy of the second edition of the Description de l'Egypte sold at Sotheby's for £68,750 in 2016.
¶ Blackmer 526. Gay 1999. Brunet II, 617. Graesse II, 366. Cf. Monglond VIII, 268-343 (for the first edition). Nissen, BBI 2234. Nissen, ZBI 4608. Heritage Library, Islamic Treasures, s. v. "Art" (illustration).

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“The acme of the age of reason”, complete with 3129 plates
83

Diderot, Denis & d'Alembert, Jean Le Rond. Encyclopédie, ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts... et des métiers, par une Societé de gens de lettres. Mis en ordre & publié par M. Diderot [...]; & quant à la partie mathematique, par M. d'Alembert [...]. Paris [i. e., Geneva], "1751-1772" [i.e., 1771-1776]. Paris [i. e., Geneva], "1751-1772" [i.e., 1771-1776]. Folio. 17 text vols., 11 plate vols., 5 vols. of supplements. Without the 2 index vols. Altogether 33 vols. with 3129 plates (doubles and triples counted as such) and the engraved frontispiece. Contemp. marbled calf, gilt, with double spine labels.

EUR 75,000.00

Complete copy of the second folio edition, issued simultaneously with the final volumes of the original edition and even reproducing its predecessor's imprint down to the original years of publication. It can be distinguished from the first edition only by the missing accent over the word "Mathématique" and two additional composition errors in the title, for which reason the trade usually offers it as the original edition: indeed, among the more than fifty "Paris" folio editions of the "Encyclopédie" auctioned during the last decades, not a single one is identified as the Geneva reprint, although this edition's press-run was fully half as great as that of the Paris original. - The supplement volumes, which "had no formal connection with the original 'Encyclopédie' and involved a new group of contributors" (Darnton 33), are here present in the 1776-1777 edition published in Paris and Amsterdam, which is generally treated as part of the Paris first edition.
¶ Lough 15-21 & 52-110. Darnton 34. Cf. PMM 200.

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Details of the coastline of Dubai, Sharjah, Ajman, Ras al-Khaimah, and Umm al-Qawain
118

[Hydrographic Office]. Collection of UK Admiralty Charts: The Arabian Gulf. London, published at the Admiralty, 1950s-1960s (with revisions). London, published at the Admiralty, 1950s-1960s (with revisions). A total of 34 nautical charts of the Gulf, including one showing the entire Gulf, seven of the present-day United Arab Emirates, nine of Qatar, Bahrain, and the Saudi coast immediately opposite, and seventeen following the Gulf north to Kuwait and the Shatt al-Arab. Charts display coastline, high and low water soundings, sailing directions, and navigational hazards. Standard issue, mostly 103 x 70 cm approx. with a single fold, though some are larger with two folds, and some unfolded in demi-size (ca. 51 x 70 cm). Printed mostly in black and white but with occasional colour for the coast.

EUR 20,000.00

An exceptionally large and encompassing set of British Admiralty Hydrographic Charts for the Gulf region, covering the entire north-eastern coastline of the Arabian Peninsula and even including a few details of the Persian side. This includes the comprehensive map of the entire Gulf (2858), covering the area from Basra to Ras al-Hadd. The area of the present-day UAE is represented in great detail: two charts (3956 & 3452) show the navigational hazards around the tip of the Musandam Peninsula (Ras al-Khaimah); two others (3791 & 2887) give precise details of the coastline of Dubai, Sharjah, Ajman, Ras al-Khaimah, and Umm al-Qawain. A lower-scale chart (3707) shows the entire coast from Qatar to Umm al-Qawain, while two others (3952 & 3780) focus on the area of Sir Bani Yas and Jebel Dhanna. An overview chart (2847) shows Qatar, Bahrain, and the Saudi coast north to the Shatt al-Arab; detail charts (3950 & 3787) focus on the east coast of Qatar, including Doha; the north of the Qatar Peninsula with Bahrain and Ras Tanura on the Saudi coast opposite (2886 & 3790); approaches to the Qatar-owned Halul island (3517), including several islands on the northern Gulf coast; Bahrain and its harbours (3792 & 3789); and Ras Tanura (3788). The Arabian Peninsula's coast north of this point is traced in detail by 17 additional charts, of which seven (1235, 3842-47) concentrate on the Shatt al Arab area. - The present charts were all released during the 1950s and 1960s. The practise was to print an initial edition based on a major hydrographic survey, and then to overprint them with subsequent data as it became available. Often the most recent information was added by hand, so that some of the charts have small manual annotations and markings on the map and in the information at the foot; occasionally the new information was issued in the form of paper sections to be pasted over the original. - A few occasional edge tears, but on the whole very well preserved. Provenance: from the archives of Lilley & Reynolds Ltd., suppliers of Navigation Equipment (their ink stamps appear on the back of each map). A detailed list of the charts here included is available upon request.

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Alhazen’s optics: the exceedingly rare first edition of a milestone in Arabic science
119

Ibn al-Haytham, Abu 'Ali al-Hasan (Alhazen). [Kitab al-Manazir, latine]. Opticae thesaurus. Alhazeni Arabis libri... septem, nunc primum editi. Eiusdem liber de crepusculis & Nubium ascensionibus. Item Vitellonis Thuringopoloni libri X [...]. (Ed. F. Risner). Basel, Eusebius Episcopius & heirs of Nicolaus Episcopius, (August) 1572. Basel, Eusebius Episcopius & heirs of Nicolaus Episcopius, (August) 1572. Folio (248 x 350 mm). 2 parts in 1 vol. 1st blank f., (6), 288 pp. (8), 474, (2) pp. With 2 different woodcut printer's devices on t. p. and colophon, half-page woodcut on reverse of t. p. (repeated on half-title of pt. 2), and numerous diagrams in the text. Near-contemporary full vellum binding with giltstamped red spine label. All edges sprinkled in red.

EUR 125,000.00

First edition of "the most important work of its kind in Arabic literature" (cf. Poggendorf). Ibn al-Haytham (965-c. 1040), known as Alhazen in the Latin tradition, has been hailed as "the greatest Muslim physicist and one of the greatest students of optics of all times [...] The Latin translation [...] exerted a great influence upon Western science. It showed a great progress in experimental method. [Alhazen's book contains] research in catoptrics, [a] study of atmospheric refraction, [a] better description of the eye, and better understanding of vision [as well as an] attempt to explain binocular vision [and the] earliest use of the camera obscura" (Sarton). "This combined edition served as the standard reference work on optics well into the 17th century, influencing scientists such as Brahe, Kepler, Galileo, and Descartes" (Norman). "The Arab physicist Alhazen preserved for us all that was known by the ancients in the field of optics and added some contributions of his own. His book remained a standard authority thru the 1600s. He understood that light emanated spherically from a point and greatly improved on Ptolemy's uncertain rule for refraction which, he showed, held true only for small angles. He covered many cases of reflection and refraction and his explanation of the structure and function of the eye was followed for 600 years" (Dibner). "Ibn al-Haytham's Book of Optics is now a thousand years old. It revolutionized optics and had great impact on science in Europe, being cited by Roger Bacon and Johannes Kepler, among others" (AR, p. 99). "It is remarkable that in the Islamic world the 'Optics' practically disappeared from view soon after its appearance in the 11th century until, in the beginning of the 14th century, the Persian scholar Kamal al-Din composed his great critical commentary on it [...] By this time the 'Optics' had embarked on a new career in the West where it was already widely and avidly studied in a Latin translation of the late 12th or early 13th century, entitled 'Perspectiva' or 'De aspectibus' [...] The Latin translation was published by Frederick Risner at Basel in 1572 in a volume entitled 'Opticae thesaurus', which included Witelo's 'Perspectiva' [...] Risner's Latin edition made [the 'Optics'] available to such mathematicians as Kepler, Snell, Beeckman, Fermat, Harriot, and Descartes, all of whom except the last directly referred to Alhazen", though Descartes "employed [the work] in his successful deduction of the sine law" (DSB, p. 194-197). The 'Liber de crepusculis', the work on dawn and twilight included in Risner's 'Opticae thesaurus' and attributed to Alhazen, is actually the work of his contemporary Abu 'Abdallah Muhammad ibn Mu'adh al-Jayyani (cf. Norman; DSB, p. 208). The optical study by the Polish scholar Witelo, likewise here included, is "a massive work that relies extensively on Alhazen [and] offers an analysis of reflection that was not surpassed until the 17th century" (Norman). - Variously browned due to paper, but altogether quite a crisp, wide-margined copy, with an apparently contemporary handwritten ownership to the title page (deleted some time in the 17th or 18th century), a very few inconspicuous repairs to the edges, a faint waterstain to the lower margin and some slight worming to the lower gutter. Binding tight and well-preserved, with 17th or early 18th century library shelfmarks to front pastedown. An unusually fine specimen of a principal work of Arabic science as received in the West.
¶ VD 16, H 693 (H 692, V 1761). Adams A 745. BM-STC 383. Dibner 138. Norman 1027. Honeyman I, 73. DSB VI, 205. GAL I, 470. Poggendorf I, 31. Duncan 113. Sarton I, 721. Carmody p. 140. Thorndike/Kibre 803, 1208. Vagnetti D62. BNHCat A 241. IA 103.705. Brunet I, 180. Arabick Roots Doha AR79.

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The Royal Württemberg stud, the first Arabian stud in Europe
142

Kuntz, Rudolf. Abbildungen Königlich Württembergischer Gestütts Pferde von orientalischen Racen.... Stuttgart, [Ebner], 1823-1824. Stuttgart, [Ebner], 1823-1824. Oblong folio (550 x 635 mm). Issues I and II (of 3). With 12 (out of 18) tinted chalk lithographs by L. Ekeman-Allesson after R. Kuntz. Wants text and table of subscribers. Stored loosely in 2 original wrappers with title label and green original half calf portfolio with gilt-lettered title and borders. Traces of ties.

EUR 48,000.00

First and only edition. Commissioned by the Board of the Württemberg Stud, the first Arabian stud in Europe, this almost unobtainable series of large format plates shows the Stud's full-blooded Arabian horses with decorative oriental backgrounds. The plates constitute extremely early examples of chalk lithographs (listed individually by Winkler, Frühzeit der dt. Lithographie, 180, 57). Kuntz (1797-1848) was known for his "excellent depictions of horses" (cf. Thieme/B.); throughout his brief career he studied thoroughbreds in England, Hungary, and Paris as well as in Germany. In 1832 he became Painter to the Court of Karlsruhe, Baden; he suffered a stroke in 1846 and died in the newly-founded Illenau mental hospital. - Very slightly stained in places, three plates slightly browned. Of the utmost rarity. This copy removed from the collection of the House of Hanover, dispersed from 2005 (largely through Sotheby's). Includes a publisher's ad (by L. Harrison, Strand) for "A Series of Lithographic Drawings of Celebrated Horses" after James Ward, dedicated to George IV.
¶ Nissen 2327. Thieme/B. X, 444 & XXII, 116. Winkler, Die Frühzeit der dt. Lithographie 180.57.

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The Louvre, bound in green morocco gilt for the Duke of Berry
147

[Louvre.] Croze-Magnan, S. C. Le Musée Français. Paris, Herhan, 1803-1809. Paris, Herhan, 1803-1809. Large folio (570 x 320 mm). 4 vols. With 4 engr. title vignettes, 8 engravings in the text, and 344 engr. plates. (And:) Laurent, H., Musée Royal. Paris, Didot, 1816-1818. 2 vols. With engr. title vignette, 4 engravings in the text, and 161 engr. plates. (4), 28 pp. 113; 85 ff. A total of 6 vols. in contemp. dark-green morocco, sumptuously gilt, with giltstamped coat of arms on covers.

EUR 85,000.00

First edition; the best documentation of the famous Louvre's holdings and collections, here complete with all illustrations. A splendid copy including all the supplements, uniformly bound in gilt green period morocco for Charles Ferdinand d'Artois, duc de Berry (1778-1820) and his wife Marie-Caroline of Naples and Sicily (1798-1870), with their marriage arms (1816); their "Bibliothèque de Rosny" bookplate is on the pastedown. - A few plates misbound; occasional staining. Published in only 600 copies, "Musée Français" was dedicated to Napoleon Bonaparte. The supplement, published after the Emperor's abdication, was dedicated to the King. - A magnificent set of this great work in perfect state of preservation and from a noble library.
¶ Cohen/R. 743. Vicaire V, 1229.

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The first book printed in Egypt
153

Marcel, [Jean Joseph]. Alphabet arabe, turk et persan, à l'usage de... l'imprimerie orientale et française. Alexandria, Imprimerie orientale et française, an VI [1798]. Alexandria, Imprimerie orientale et française, an VI [1798]. Small 4to. 16 pp. Modern brown half calf with red label to giltstamped spine, bound to style.

EUR 65,000.00

The first book ever printed in Egypt, unquestionably the rarest and most important of the early books printed in the Middle East, published in the very year when modern printing was introduced to the Arab world. Only in October 1798 did J. J. Marcel arrive in Cairo with his employees and types to organize the Imprimerie Orientale. "The expedition of Napoleon Bonaparte to Egypt from 1798 until 1801 was a prelude to modernity. It was to change permanently the traditional Arab world [...] The French brought Arabic typography to Egypt, where it was practised under the supervision [...] of Jean Joseph Marcel [...]. Only a few days after the French troops landed [...] they set up the Imprimerie Orientale et Française there. It was an extraordinarily important turning point. For, leaving aside the Hebrew printing presses in Egypt of the 16th to the 18th centuries, until this date announcements and news adressed to Arabs there, as well as in other parts of the Arab-Islamic world, had been spread only in hand-writing or orally, by criers, preachers or storytellers" (Glass/Roper). - Slightly spotty in places, but well preserved. No copy in auction records or in libraries within the Arab world.
¶ Geiss, Imprimerie en Égypte, p. 146, no. 1. D. Glass/G. Roper, The Printing of Arabic Books in the Arab World, in: Middle Eastern Languages and the Print Revolution (Gutenberg Museum Mainz 2002), p. 177-225, at 182. Querard V, 506. Bigmore/Wyman, II, 22. Schnurrer (Bibliotheca Arabica) 140 note. OCLC 245958561. For the importance of the first modern printing press in the Arab world cf. also Albert Hourani, Arabic Thought in the Liberal Age 1798-1939 (Cambridge University Press 1983).

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The latest and by far the best edition of the Cosmographia, with 68 new maps
169

Münster, Sebastian. Cosmographia, das ist: Beschreibung der gantzen Welt [...]. Basel, (Sebastian Henricpetri), 1628. Basel, (Sebastian Henricpetri), 1628. Folio (265 x 398 mm). Engr. allegorical title (with a portrait of Sebastian Münster within a cartouche at the bottom by Mathäus Merian), (24), 1752, (12) pp. Title page printed in red and black. With 26 double-page woodcut maps, woodcut portrait of Münster on verso of t. p., 72 double-page woodcut maps, plans and views, and about 1500 smaller woodcut illustrations of maps, plans, views, plants, animals, monsters, etc. in the text (including repeats). Contemp. vellum. All edges red.

EUR 48,000.00

A fine, tall, and very clean example of the final, largest and most important edition of Münster's monumental work. The "Cosmographia" by Sebastian Münster (1488-1552), a German cartographer and cosmographer, was one of the most successful and popular books of the 16th century. The most highly valued of all cosmographies, it passed through 24 editions in 100 years and was of paramount importance for the revival of geography in 16th-century Europe. The present copy is of the last German edition, the best and most extensive one. It contains the newly cut woodblocks by Sebastian Petri in the "copperplate style" after the corresponding maps in the pre-1587 editions of Ortelius's "Theatrum". This includes the famous map of Sumatra with the inset of an elephant that had been moved from the map of Ceylon in the 1540 edition, as opinion shifted to make Sumatra the preferred candidate for the island of "Taprobana". Furthermore, 68 other maps and plans were published here for the first time. The famous map of Europe in the form of a queen (after Bucius 1537) appears on the verso of fol. E3. - In very good condition, with remargined paper (and some text) loss to the last leaf but one of the index at the end (but supplied with a replacement from a smaller copy of the 1614 edition). The best and most extended edition of the Cosmographia. Provenance: removed from the library of Ericsberg Castle near Katrineholm, Sweden, built for the Swedish statesman Erik Karlsson Gyllenstierna (1602-57), in the 1650s (two engraved views of the castle, from Dahlberg's "Suecia antiqua et hodierna", are laid in; several annotations in Swedish on the pastedowns).
¶ Burmeister 86. Nordenskiöld collection 2, 159. Sabin 51396. Cf. Wessel, Von einem, der daheim blieb (Frankfurt, 2004); facsimile of this edition with introduction (1978).

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Very Early Photographs of Muslim Holy Sites in Jerusalem
188

Pierotti, Ermete, Italian engineer, topographer and archaeologist (1820-1880). Le Mont Moria. Album of original photographs and... manuscript plans of Jerusalem. Jerusalem, February/March 1861. Jerusalem, February/March 1861. Landscape folio (400 x 530 mm). Private album with 13 original albumenised salt prints by Mendel Diness (but the view of the Al-Aqsa Mosque taken by the Austrian photographer Othon von Ostheim), 4 original manuscript maps and plans in delicate hand-colour, and 2 large engraved or photographically reproduced plans. Presentation binding of contemporary "native" brown sheepskin. Smooth spine with simple wavy-line banding, sides with roll-tool border of foliate motifs and urns (in gilt on front, in blind on back) enclosing a single-line panel with scrolling corner pieces, gilt lettered on front cover.

EUR 90,000.00

Fascinating and important dedication album of original photographs and hand-coloured manuscript maps of Muslim holy sites in Jerusalem. Assembled by the Jerusalem-based archaeologist Ermete Pierotti for presentation to Edmond de Barrère (1819-90), the French consul general in Jerusalem, with Pierotti's (partially erased) inscription on the large map: "L'auteur á Monsieur [Consul de France], chevalier de la Légion d'Honneur". - Of the 13 photographs, 6 are devoted to the great Ayyubid Mosque of Omar and a further 2 to the Al-Aqsa Mosque and Haram al-Sharif. The 4 manuscript maps and plans are delicately hand-coloured, finely detailed and extensively annotated, reflecting Pierotti's painstaking approach. They show Jerusalem, the Church of St Anne, the Church of the Holy Sepulchre and the Greek Convent, and Bethlehem. The photo reproduction of the plan of Haram al-Sharif notes that the original was presented to the British consul James Finn. - Pierotti was a colourful figure of Palestine archaeology. A former captain in the Corps of Royal Piedmontese Army Engineers, he was appointed architect and engineer of Jerusalem by the Ottoman governor Sureyya Pasha in 1858, and "this gave him the opportunity to explore various places in the city, including the Haram al-Sharif, something which hardly any non-Muslims had done at the time" (Legouas). A respected authority who assisted British, French and Russian researchers and pilgrims during his time in Jerusalem, Pierotti was entrusted with important research commissions and stood in direct contact with the French consul. It is likely the present ensemble to which Pierotti referred in an autobiographical note (quoted by the French historian Legouas), stating that in 1856 he "had already placed in an album several plans, sections and photographs of Jerusalem, of which I had acquired part from Mr. Diness, and others had been given to me by Padre Andrea, a Franciscan amateur in photography." In 1857, he writes, "M. de Barrère, the French Consul, employed me in measuring the Church of St Anne and all the neighbouring ground, and ordered me to make a plan, sections, and levels on a large scale, which I did." Pierotti would draw on several of the photos here present for his 1864 book "Jerusalem Explored". All but one of them were contributed by the long-neglected Jewish photographer Mendel Diness (1827-1900), who today is hailed as one of the earliest photographers of Jerusalem, following the sensational rediscovery of some 130 of his glass negatives in 1989. - Spine sunned, some wear to extremities, large strip across back cover neatly repaired, large map of Jerusalem with old tape repairs on verso, some cockling where photographic prints have been mounted yet overall very good. Detailed list of contents available upon request.
¶ Cf. Jean-Yves Legouas, "Saving Captain Pierotti?", in: Palestine Exploration Quarterly 145.3 [2013], pp. 231-250. Dror Wahrman, Capturing the Holy Land: M. J. Diness and the Beginnings of Photography in Jerusalem, Harvard, 1993.

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195

[Portuguese military manuscript]. Instructional manual for army and navy training. Portugal, ca. 1720. Portugal, ca. 1720. Folio (216 x 302 mm). 224 (instead of 378?) pages, numbered 21-26, 31-227 (with 58 repeated), 236-243, 364-375. Includes numerous diagrams showing battle formations. Text area ruled throughout with wide ink borders. Modern vellum binding on five raised bands with giltstamped black spine label and ties.

EUR 12,500.00

Intriguing, very attractively written and illustrated manuscript. Likely composed by a Portuguese military officer for the purpose of military instruction, this early 18th century manual was written at a time of transition from the Spanish "tercio" infantry organization that had dominated early modern European warfare for centuries to the modern linear formation that would shape the battlefields of the Age of Reason. The preliminary matter (of which only a page remains) consists of a sequence of algebraic squares from 406 to 450 that reveals the infantry's ongoing fascination with the carré organization. The substance of the book is taken up by 123 chapters on forming, deploying and moving the "gente armada" in military units, often in square-shaped "escuadras", other times in a series of "filleiras" (ranks and files). Variously, the army's weaponry (arquebuses and pikes) is discussed. The longest chapter, "capitollo 50", spans some 65 pages and includes a wealth of diagrammatic battle formations (a total of 75, often in two parts), indicating the infantry's vanguard and rearguard ("bemguarda" and "rettaguarda") as well as their marching and field positions ("marcha" and "a seus postos"). This section is followed by a series of chapters on navigation and naval warfare. Other parts discuss the deployment of ammunition (with a sketch showing cannonballs of various materials and weight). - Rebound in the 20th century; occasional ink corrosion to rules; several repairs and careful remarginings. In spite of the gaps in the page numbering, the manuscript appears substantially complete save for most of the preliminary matter and chapters 6-12 of the text; at the end a final leaf of the index is missing. An appealing survival, showing the practices of one of Europe's oldest and once most redoubtable ground and naval forces at a time of momentous organizational change.

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The earliest obtainable printed map of the Arabian Peninsula
199

Ptolemaeus. Sexta Asiae Tabula. Rome, 1478 (1490?) Rome, 1478 (1490?) Engraved map of the Arabian peninsula, printed (as usual) on two joined sheets. 521 x 267 mm. Framed (79:63 cm).

EUR 65,000.00

Appealing full colour example of the earliest obtainable map of the Arabian Peninsula and adjoining regions, which first appeared in the 1478 Rome edition of Ptolemy's Geography, "Claudii Ptholomei Alexandrini. Cosmographia […]" created under the direction of Conrad Swenheym (who apprenticed with Guttenberg) and published after Swenheym's death (1477) by Arnold Buckinck. The 1478 Rome edition is the earliest printed map of the Arabian Peninsula, preceded only by the unobtainable Bologna edition of Ptolemy. The present map is an excellent example of Conrad Swenheym's finely engraved map of Arabia, based upon Ptolemy. As noted by Rodney Shirley: "The new copper plates engraved at Rome for the 1478 edition of Ptolemy's 'Geography' are much superior in clarity and craftsmanship to those of the Bologna edition. There is evidence that work on the Rome edition had been started in 1473 or 1474, and several of the plates may well have been engraved before those printed [by Taddeo Crivelli] at Bologna in 1477. The printing was carried out by two skilled printers of German origin: Conrad Sweynheym and his successor Arnold Buckinck; the publisher was Domitius Calderinus. Many consider the Rome plates to be the finest Ptolemaic plates produced until Gerard Mercator engraved his classical world atlas of 1578." Swenheym (and Arnold Pannartz) introduced the printing press to Italy at the height of the Renaissance, having been apprenticed to Gutenberg. Initially, under the enthusiastic patronage of Pope Paul II, Swenheym concentrated on publishing texts, but later turned to producing the first illustrated "Cosmographia" in the early 1470s, when enthusiasm was not sustained by the Pope's successor, Sixtus IV. The work was ultimately published one year after Swenheym's death in 1477. The plates for the 1478 Rome Ptolemy were later purchased by Petrus de Turre in 1490, who published the second edition of the map. Until the 1477 edition was definitively dated, the 1478 edition was believed to be the first printed atlas. It was printed by Arnoldus Buckinck, and is thought to be the only known book with his imprint. Buckinck completeed the work started by Conrad Sweynheym, whose method of using a printing press for the copperplate maps, together with the fine engraving, produced an excellent result. The text was edited by Domitius Calderinus of Verona; he collated various Latin manuscripts in the translation by Jacobus Angelus with an ancient Greek Manuscript, which had been amended by Geirgius Gemistus (d. 1450). Calderinus was a careful worker, and his edition had been much admired for the correctness of the text, the fine typography and the brilliant engraving. Christopher Colombus owned a copy of this edition, which he annotated. The run of the edition is not known, but it is considered to be scarce, and is therefore rare and important. Conrad Swehnheym's 1478 edition of Ptolemy's work is also of tremendous importance as the first set of maps to employ the "punched letter" printing process. As noted by Tony Campbell, "The development of lettering and numeral punches in fifteenth-century Italy, as a semi-mechanical alternative to the engraver's burin, marks a little-known point of contact between the histories of engraving and cartography. One of the unique features of a map is its necessarily dense toponymy, requiring the time-consuming skills of an experienced lettering engraver. Very early in the history of printed maps, indeed during preparation of the first set of maps to be engraved (if not quite the first to be published), punching was devised as a labour-saving alternative. Conrad Sweynheym does not expressly claim responsibility for inventing punched lettering. But the dedication to the 1478 Rome edition of Ptolemy's Cosmographia (or Geographia), which appeared the year after his death, referred to the three years (i.e. 1474-77) during which, 'calling on the help of mathematicians, he gave instruction in the method of printing [the maps] from copper plates'. On this passage and the evidence of the engraved maps which Arnoldus Buckinck issued after Sweynheym's death, hangs the German-born printer's claim to a technique that would be used fairly widely on Italian maps for the next century or more." Conrad Swenheym (Mainz), is widely thought to have been present at the birth of printing while an apprentice of Johann Guttenberg. After Mainz was sacked in 1462, Swenheym fled south to Italy and arrived at the Benedictine Monastery of Subiaco, at the suggestion of the great humanist and cartographer Cardinal Nicholas of Cusa. In 1464-5, Swenheyn and Arnold Pannartz introduced the first printing press to Italy. Over the next few years, Pope Paul II was to become so enthusiastic about the new medium that he liquidated scriptoria and commissioned several newly established printers to publish vast quantities of religious and humanist texts. In 1467, Swenheym and Pannartz moved to Rome under the Pope's patronage where they printed over fifty books from their press at the Massimi Palace. Unfortunately, when the pope died in 1471, the new pontiff Sixtus IV disavowed the numerous unpaid orders of his predecessor. Swenheym and Pannartz elected to refocus there efforts on creating the first printed illustrated edition of Ptolemy's "Cosmographia", By 1474, Swenheym is recorded as having trained "mathematicians" to engrave maps on copper. Unfortunately, he did not survive to see the book's publication, but his contribution to the history of printing and map making places him at the highest level of importance in the evolution of the printed map. The 1478 and 1490 editions are identical, although there are different watermarks in the paper. There is some debate as to whether the watermarks are in fact completely reliable in determining the editions.
¶ Campbell, Letter Punches: a Little-Known Feature of Early Engraved Maps. Print Quarterly IV.2 (June 1987), pp. 151-154.

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A history of the kings of Persia and Hormuz: one of the earliest western books to mention Qatar
241

Teixeira, Pedro, [Mir Khwand and Turan Shah]. Relaciones de Pedro Teixeira d'el origen descendencia y... succession de los reyes de Persia, y de Harmuz, y de un viage hecho por el mismo autor dende la India Oriental hasta Italia por tierra. Antwerp, Hieronymus Verdussen, 1610. Antwerp, Hieronymus Verdussen, 1610. 8vo. (8), 384, (8), 115 [but: 215], (17) pp. With a woodcut on title-page, a woodcut initial and some woodcut tailpieces. 17th century marbled calf with gilt label to richly gilt spine, red edges.

EUR 45,000.00

First edition of a "history of the kings of Persia compiled from the Persian histories of Mir Khwand and Turan Shah" (Howgego), in the original Spanish, by the Portuguese merchant and adventurer Pedro Teixeira (1563-1645?). It is one of the earliest European sources to mention Qatar, relating to the pearl fishery in the region: "The pearl fishery at Bahren begins some years in June, but generally in July, an lasts all that month and August … They generally go a fishing to Katar, a port on the coast of Arabia, 10 leagues to the southward of the Island Bahren. As soon an oyster is brought up, they open it, and take out the pearl. The pearls of this sea surpass all others in goodness and weight…" (English translation). The work is divided into three parts. The first, which is the largest, deals with the kings of Persia. It is a summarized translation of the voluminous Rawzat al-Safa by the Persian historian Mir Khwand (ca. 1434-1498), and is probably the first translation of the text into an European language. The second part is a translation of the Ayyibud emir Turan Shah's (d. 1180) chronicle of the kings of Hormuz, a text which is today only extant in translations. Though Teixeira's adventures started in 1586, he reached Hormuz in 1593, where he resided for several years to study its history. Both parts contain a chronological account of the kings, but also provide a more general history of the area. The last and third part contains an account of Teixeira's later travels from India to Italy in the 1600-1601 and 1604-1605, visiting China, Mexico and the Middle East. In his preface Teixeira states that he originally wrote the work in Portuguese, but that it was translated into Spanish to appeal to a wider audience. The work appeared in a French translation in 1681, and extracts appeared in an English translation appeared in 1711, followed by a translation of the full text in 1715. - Binding slightly rubbed and with a small defect to upper spine. Slightly browned, otherwise immaculate copy in its first binding.
¶ Howgego, to 1800, T19. Maggs Bros., Spanish books 1014a. Not in Blackmer.

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The formation of the UAE armed forces
249

[Trucial Oman Scouts and Union Defence Force]. A collection of photographs and printed material relating... to the founding of the United Arab Emirates' first army. Ajman, Dubai, Sharjah, Aden and other places, 1960s-1970s. Ajman, Dubai, Sharjah, Aden and other places, 1960s-1970s. 208 photographs (black-and-white and colour, ranging from 16 x 21 to 9 x 13 cm). With six broadsheets, a poster-size printed announcement, a hand-assembled "Wanted" poster, an official TOS pocket dictionary of Arabic, 3 magazines, and a quantity of personal identification documents.

EUR 25,000.00

A substantial ensemble of rare photographs and printed matter collected by the British military officer Graham A. Hill, who served as a major first in the Trucial Oman Scouts (TOS), the Trucial States' paramilitary unit of British and Arab officers formed in the 1950s, and then in the Union Defence Force, which replaced it upon the founding of the United Arab Emirates in 1971, establishing the official armed forces of the new federal monarchy. The collection includes 8 black-and-white photographs (13 x 18 cm) of Sheikh Rashid bin Saeed Al Maktoum, the ruler of Dubai, with his sons Hamdan bin Rashid Al Maktoum, minister of finance and industry, and Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum, minister of defence, as well as several British officers. 17 black-and-white photographs (9 x 14 cm) show early 1970s street views of Sharjah's main street, Sharjah Port, and Sharjah Town's clock in Zahra Square. A group of 20 black-and-white and 2 colour photographs (mostly ca. 9 x 14 cm) show soldiers and officers at Manama, Ajman, at exercises, dress rehearsal for the Passing Out parade, etc., including portraits of Sheikh Khalid bin Muhammad al-Qasimi of Sharjah and other of members of the royal family, while 29 larger black-and-white photographs (16 x 21 cm) focus on the 1971 Passing Out parade in Manama. Another series of 26 black-and-white photos is mounted to cardboards, showing desert scenes and the animals of the desert, an oasis, plains, and jebels. A group of 105 private colour photographs (ca. 9 x 13 cm) shows desert excursions, ancient fortifications, the local population and private quarters; they are accompanied by original colour negatives. - The printed matter includes an intriguing set of six illustrated broadsheets (ca. 21 x 25 cm), printed in Arabic (and annotated in English), offering rewards for information regarding terrorists or the location of hand grenades, rockets, bazookas or other weaponry. Also, a large (60 x 85 cm) two-part English-Arabic poster announcing a "Protected Place": "No entry without permission - if you enter this place without permission, you commit an offence. Armed guards on duty" (some repaired paper flaws to English half). Also, a broadsheet showing four men (their photographs mounted on a sheet of paper with typed and handwritten descriptions) wanted in connection with a shooting in Ma'alla, Aden (with a colour map and a photograph taken on Jebel Samsan, April 1966). Also, the "Trucial Oman Scouts Word List", a 248-page pocket dictionary printed in Dubai in 1969 for the use of the British officers in the TOS (bound in original cloth, in excellent condition with some annotations). Also, three magazines: the British "Sharjah 1970", commemorating the Fifth Anniversary of the Accession of Sheikh Kalid bin Mohammed Al-Qasimi, ruler of Sharjah; the May/June 1976 issue of "Globe and Laurel", the journal of the Royal Marines, with an article anticipating the withdrawal of the last British marines from the United Arab Emirates; and the 1973 issue of an Arabic-language Dubai periodical. In addition, the collection includes four Arabic identification cards for Major Hill (among which are his Saudi Arabian driver's licence, an ID from the Royal Commission for Jubail and Yanbu, and a foreigner work permit). - A fascinating ensemble documenting from the perspective of the armed forces the crucial period of transition between the British protectorate and the sovereignty of the United Arab Emirates, eased by the ongoing cooperation between the British and the Arab military corps.

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The first oriental manuscript to be reproduced in facsimile: an Iranian calendar with Turkish commentary, from Weikmann's Kunstkammer
259

Welsch (Velschius), Georg Hieronymus (ed.). Commentarius in Ruzname Naurus sive Tabulae aequinoctiales novi... Persarum & Turcarum anni. Nunc primum editae è Bibliotheca, cujus accedit Dissertatio, de earundem usu. Augsburg, Johann Schönigk f. Theophil Göbel, 1676. Augsburg, Johann Schönigk f. Theophil Göbel, 1676. Small 4to. (14), 137, (19) pp. With engr. frontispiece and 22 engr. plates by Melchior Haffner. Contemporary calf.

EUR 25,000.00

First facsimile edition of any oriental manuscript. 16 of the 22 finely engraved plates show a Persian perpetual calendar with Ottoman Turkish "commentarius" and floral borders. Welsch had acquired the ms. from Christoph Weikmann's Kunstkammer in Ulm. The remaining six plates are concerned with Arabian astronomy: astrolabe, orrery, zodiac, circular table of Sundays and names of the months in various languages. - The calculation of this calendar is today attributed to the 9th-c. Persian mathematician Wafâ al Buzjâni (cf. BSB München; Humboldt-Universität Berlin). The predominant attribution to one Turkish Sheikh Wafâ had been disputed by Babinger as early as 1927. Abu'l-Wafâ al Buzjâni is regarded as "the last great representative of the mathematics-astronomy school that arose around the beginning of the ninth century, shortly after the founding of Baghdad" (DSB I, 39). His astronomic oeuvre is preserved merely in fragments. The calligraphic commentary, however, is Turkish and (according to Babinger) was prepared by a 17th-c. magistrate, 'Ajn-i 'Alî Mueddinzâde. - Welsch (1624-77) was a physician and "a researcher of the very first magnitude [...] while the works of this polymath were mainly dedicated to the Arabian and Persian sciences, he also has provided proof of his close study of Ottoman Turkish. In this connexion, his important 'Commentarius in Ruzname Naurus' must be cited" (cf. Babinger 1919). Welsch's "Dissertatio" (with Arabic typeface) is aimed at the usefulness of the calendar for relative oriental chronology: he also compares the works of Schall von Bell and Andreas Müller on Chinese astronomy and chronology. - Bookplate of South Library on front pastedown. Occasionally browned.
¶ Zenker, Bibliotheca Orientalis I, 1077. Schnurrer 465. Babinger, Geschichtsschreiber der Osmanen (1927), 116 & 141. Babinger, Die türkischen Studien in Europa, in: Die Welt des Islams VII, 1919, 117. Not in Balagna, L'Imprimerie Arabe en Europe.

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