Melanchthon on Marriage

Melanchthon, Philipp, humanist and reformer (1497-1560). Autograph letter signed ("Philippus"). [Wittenberg, 19 March] 1530. [Wittenberg, 19 March] 1530. Folio. 1 p. With autogr. address and traces of seal.

EUR 28,000.00

To Johannes Weber, priest in Neustadt an der Orla, praising him for a decision in a matter of matrimony and giving him further advice: the marriage of Georg Jüngkling and Else Moser is declared invalid; Jüngkling must separate from her as long as the fate of her first husband remains uncertain. However, for the time being he must not remarry, and the marriage will become valid if it is proved that the first husband is dead: "S[alutem] D[ico] | Bene facis, quod con[s]tanter attingis controversias matrimoniales. De negocio d. georgii sic sencio[:] Quod illud matrimonium contractum, cum mulier incerta esset de vita, ac voluntate viri prioris, qui ipsa consenciente abiit, sit irritum. Est igitur liber georgius. Sed movet me scandali racio, ne statim concedam ei ducere aliam uxorem. Agendum prius est per magistratus, cum illa muliere, aut per nos cum amicis mulieris, ut res exploretur de vita prioris mariti certo. Si ipsa mulier volet abire ad priorem maritum, non detineas eam, quia hoc secundum coniugium non est iure contractum. Habes meam sentenciam, quam te rogo, ut ita modereris, ne plus offensionum ex hac re oriatur [...] Prohibebis etiam, ne georgius et illa mulier, re inexplorata, redeant ad se mutuo. Sed si consentit virum esse mortuum, scandali caussa, velim georgium hanc mulierem re[tin]ere". - The background is explored in Luthers Briefwechsel, vol. V, note to no. 1494: Else Moser had been married to the gunsmith Hieronymus Malter, who had fought in the service of King Louis of Hungary and had been taken prisoner at the Battle of Mohács in 1526. A letter written by Malter, requesting his wife to visit him in Hungary, where he was being held prisoner of war, arrived only in 1529, shortly after she had remarried. Thus, it had to be determined whether or not the first husband was still alive. - Slightly dust-soiled and some edge damage; slight tears to folds remargined.
¶ Melanchthons Briefwechsel (ed. H. Scheible), vol. IV (Stuttgart 2007), p. 878.

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Original manuscript on "The Oscillation of the Balance"

Mendeleev, Dmitri Ivanovich, Russian chemist and inventor who formulated the Periodic Law (1834-1907). O kolebanii vesov. Rech' dlja obshhego sobranija X-ogo... S'ezda Russkih Estestvoispytatelej v g. Kieve (avg. 1898g.). No place, 1898. No place, 1898. Folio. Autograph manuscript. 24 ff., some leaves written on both sides. Revised by the author throughout. Stored in custom-made blue half morocco solander case.

EUR 125,000.00

The original manuscript of Mendeleev's speech on "The Oscillation of the Balance", delivered at the General Meeting of the 10th Congress of Russian Naturalists in Kiev (August 1898). In his annotated bibliography of his own works, self-compiled in 1899, Mendeleev writes: "Predmet schitaju ochen' vazhnym i interesnym" ("A subject I find very important and interesting"). After the end of his teaching career at the University of St. Petersburg in 1890, Mendeleev was variously employed by the government bureaucracy. From 1892 on he was "concerned in the regulation of the system of weights and measures in Russia, a task that he discharged 'with enthusiasm, since here the purely scientific was closely interwoven with the practical.' In 1893 he was named director of the newly created Central Board of Weights and Measures, a post which he held until his death, and in connection with which he frequently traveled abroad" (DSB IX, 292). - "The great importance of Mendeleev's work", write Kayak and Smirnova, "was that in his approach to the development of the theory of balances and methods of accurate weighing he took into account the physical essence of the phenomena investigated, whereas many investigators before and even after him attempted to solve all the problems on the basis of purely mechanical conceptions [...] Mendeleev's interest in balances as the most important instrument in physical and chemical investigations was manifested from the very beginning of his scientific work. Long before his move to the Depot of Standard Weights and Measures he devoted much attention to the perfection of balances, and methods of accurate weighing. In 1861 Mendeleev succeded in observing the oscillations of balances from a distance, thereby eliminating the influence of the heat radiated by the observer on the balance; he also proposed the use of a heat distributor made of copper for a balance beam. Mendeleev's most important work on the development of the theory of balances and methods of accurate weighing was made at the Principal Bureau of Weights and Measures, where he took upon himself the entire responsibility for organizing and equipping the weight laboratory" (p. 25). - Occasional insignificant edge defects, but altogether a very well preserved manuscript. Includes a copy of the published text.
¶ Published: Sochineniya 7, pp. 577-591. Reference: Sochineniya 25, p. 752, no. 275. - Cf. L. K. Kayak and N. A. Smirnova, Theory of balances and accurate weighing in the investigations of Mendeleev and later developments, in: Izmeritel'naya Tekhnika 9 (Sept. 1969), pp. 25-28.

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Seeking a graphological character analysis

Neutra, Richard, Austrian-American architect (1892-1970). Autograph letter signed. No place, 25. I. 1956. No place, 25. I. 1956. 4to. 1 page.

EUR 1,500.00

To the graphologist Fritz Schweighofer, expressing his interest in graphology. - Slightly wrinkled, some traces of mounting,

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The transfer of power and law in Palestine

[Palestine]. Ordinances and Public Notices. Jerusalem, Hassolel, 1921. Jerusalem, Hassolel, 1921. 8vo. A set of 6 volumes: Ordinances and Public Notices issued between Jan. 1st and March 31st 1921; April 1st and June 30th 1921; July 1st and September 30th 1921; October 1st and December 31st 1921; Ordinances, Public Notices, Orders, etc., published during the months of April, May & June, 1922; July 1st and September; Ordinances and Public Notices issued between July 1st and September 30th 1922. Original printed wrappers.

EUR 2,500.00

Rare collection of the offical quarterly publications of legislation issued in British Palestine in 1921 and 1922 (a complete run for 1921, and vols. 2 and 3 for 1922). The laws governing the administration of the Palestine Mandate which followed the Balfour Declaration constitute crucial documents for understanding the transfer of power and the gradual replacement of Ottoman, Islamic, customary law by British and eventually Israeli law. - Occasional slight browning and staining, mainly confined to wrappers; a good set.
¶ OCLC 614078576, 237391175.

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The first two Arabic books ever printed: an Arabic dictionary containing 30,000 entries, accompanied by a grammar

Pedro de Alcala. Arte para ligeramente saber la lengua araviga, emendada... y anadida y segundamente imprimida. (And:) Vocabulista aravigo en letra castellana. (Granada, Juan Varela de Salamanca, 1505). (Granada, Juan Varela de Salamanca, 1505). 4to. Two parts in one volume. (48) ff. (270) ff. Each part with separate woodcut title page, full-page woodcut on verso, and full-page woodcut on final page as well as a woodcut table of Arabic letters (a4v) and numerous initials throughout. Final quire of first part printed in red and black. 19th-century dark brown morocco with giltstamped spine title; leading edges gilt; ornate gilt dentelles. Marbled endpapers. All edges gilt.

EUR 250,000.00

A fine copy, with notable provenance, of what is undoubtedly one of the rarest and most important books related to the Arab world: the first published grammar and the first vocabulary of Arabic (2nd edition of the former, 1st edition of the latter), issued as two separate works but usually encountered together (cf. Schnurrer, p. 16). The author, publisher and date are all stated only in the colophon at the end of the "Vocabulista". Geoffrey Roper has characterised this Arabic primer, written by the Spanish monk Pedro de Alcalá, as the first "serious attempt to spread knowledge of the language [...] Entitled 'Arte para ligeramente saber la lengua araviga', it, like the accompanying 'Vocabulista aravigo', renders the Arabic words entirely in romanisation [...] There is, however, on f. c4, a table of the Arabic alphabet with romanised names of the letters, executed in woodcut like that of Reuwich for Breydenbach. But the shapes of the letters are Maghribi [...], as one would expect in Spain at that time, and a number of initial and medial forms are given: the total number of characters is 58, as compared with 31 in Breydenbach. The work was written and published to aid Catholic attempts to convert the Muslim inhabitants of southern Spain, which had come entirely under Christian rule only 13 years previously" (Roper, p. 130f.). "In 1492, the last Muslim kingdom of Andalusia fell to the Spanish Catholic sovereigns Ferdinand and Isabella [...] Anxious to bring the Andalusians back to Christianity, the Spanish rulers ordered missionaries to evangelize the country again. It soon became apparent that this goal could not be attained without using the Arabic language. In 1505, Archbishop Fernando de Talavera [...] had two Arabic textbooks printed for use by missionaries who could not speak that language: ['The art of learning the rudiments of the Arabic language' and 'Arab glossary in Castilian characters'. Their author, the scholar Pedro de Alcala, a native of the prestigious university city of Alcala de Henares near Madrid, wrote them in Latin script, The typeface is Gothic. The first 21 pages of the 'Arte' are given over to grammar, and the next 27 consist of Catholic prayers in Arabic, instructions for confession in Spanish and in Arabic, the ordinary of the mass, and instruction for votive masses, all in Arabic. By way of introduction to the vocabulary, a short three-page note explains the author's method of transcription: the vocabulary is in alphabetical order, but under each letter three separate categories contain first verbs, then nouns and lastly adverbs, conjunctions and prepositions. The verbs are given in three forms: present, perfect and imperative; nouns are given in both the singular and the plural. This work, which is a curiosity in the history of both linguistics and typography, is also the first and perhaps the most practical of all attempts to transcribe Arabic into Latin characters. The alphabet [...] is in north African script, and the language taught in both of Pedro de Alcala's works is the vernacular, which the Spanish missionaries needed to communicate with the converted Moors. In a few places, the author indicates differences between this and the written language" (C. Aboussouan, First impressions: Arabic early printed texts, in: UNESCO Courier 1988). - Occasional slight browning; first t. p. duststained; a few edge defects inconspicuously repaired. The name of the author has been added in ink on the t. p. by a 17th century owner. A fine, clean copy with wide margins. OCLC lists only six complete copies in institutional collections, no copy traceable on the market for nearly two decades. - Provenance: 1. José Antonio Conde, Spanish orientalist (1766-1820). Sold for £10 at Conde's 1824 sale (by Evans of London, lot 1191: "very rare"). 2. Sir Richard Ford, bibliophile (his signed armorial bookplate with the motto "Que sera sera" on front pastedown), who purchased the book from "Mr. Rich, who brought Conde's library to England" (his autogr. note on flyleaf). 3. William Tyssen-Amherst, 1st Baron Amherst of Hackney (1835-1909), M.P. and collector of books and Egyptian artefacts (his armorial bookplate with motto "Victoria concordia crescit" below Ford's). Amherst's library was dispersed in 1908. 4. Quaritch catalogue, November 1917 (lot 406, clipped description pasted on flyleaf).
¶ BM-STC Spanish 68. Adams P 548-549. Palau 5697. Schnurrer 37. Panzer VII, 64, 1. Salva (Cat. de la bibliotheca) II, 2190-2191. Norton 16 & 163, 349. G. Roper, Early Arabic Printing in Europe, in: Middle Eastern Languages and the Print Revolution. A Cross-Cultural Encounter (Westhofen 2002), pp. 129-150, at 130f., and p. 480, with fig. 65. Vater/Jülg 26. Zaunmüller 18 ("Important source"). Ebert 16078 ("Extremely rare").

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First edition of Chinese series of enormous prints celebrating the Emperor's conquests in Sichuan

Qianlong, Emperor of China. [Pingding Xiyu zhantu]. Suite of engravings representing the... military campaigns at the conquest of Jinchuan. [Beijing, Wu Ying Ting Press], 1778-1785. [Beijing, Wu Ying Ting Press], 1778-1785. Suite of 13 (out of 16) large copper-engraved plates (each measuring 505 x 864 mm approx.), laid down on slightly larger sheets with painted brown borders, with a printed poem in Chinese within each plate (based on Qianlong Emperor’s own personal commentary on the battles). Later morocco-backed and cornered marbled boards, cloth ties.

EUR 480,000.00

Chinese issue, following the Paris printing of 1755-59. The “Battle Copper Prints” are a series of prints from copper engravings dating from the second half of the 18th century. They were commissioned by the Qianlong Emperor of the Qing dynasty, who ruled from 1735 to 1796. They depict his 1772-76 military campaigns, led by General A-Kuei, against the Jinchuan tribes in China’s inner provinces and along the country’s frontiers in the ethnically Tibetan mountain regions of Szechuan. The master illustrations for the engravings were large paintings executed by European missionary artists employed at that time at the court in Beijing. They included the Jesuits Giuseppe Castiglione (1688-1766), Jean-Denis Attiret (1702-68), and Ignaz Sichelbarth (1708-80), as well as the Augustinian missionary Giovanni Damasceno Sallusti (d. 1781). The engravings of the first set of 16 paintings were not produced in China but in Paris, at that time home to the best European artisans working in this technique. The Emperor even decreed that the work must emulate the style of the Augsburg engraver Georg Philipp Rugendas (1666-1742), whose work he knew. Small-scale copies of the paintings by Castiglione and his Beijing colleagues were sent to Paris to be transferred onto copperplates, printed, and then sent back to China, along with the plates and prints. Later sets of engravings were executed in Beijing by Chinese apprentices of the Jesuits and differ markedly in style and elaborateness from those of the Paris series. - In the history of Chinese art, copper-print engraving remained an episode. Qianlong's "Battle Copper Prints" were just one of the means the Manchu emperor employed to document his campaigns of military expansion and suppression of regional unrest. They served to glorify his rule and to exert ideological control over Chinese historiography. Seen in their political context, they represent a distinct and exceptional pictorial genre and are telling examples of the self-dramatization of imperial state power. Later campaigns of Qianlong which were similarly commemorated include Taiwan (1786-88), Annam or Vietnam (1788), Gurkhas invasion of Tiber (1790), and Yunnan, Guizhou and Hunan (1795-1796). - The striking plates comprising this set appear to be examples of the Chinese versions printed later, with Chinese text within the plates and technical and stylistic differences which differ greatly from the earlier Paris "westernized" versions executed under the supervision of the accomplished Charles-Nicolas Cochin (1715-90). Such a large complement from this suite of sixteen from the Chinese printing is extremely rare: while copies of the earlier Paris printing have appeared on the market (a complete set sold at Christie’s Paris, on 29 Oct. 2012), we have been unable to trace a comparable copy of the Chinese issue. The Getty Research Institute owns a suite depicting one of Qianlong’s last print commissions, produced nearly 30 years after the first series, the "Ping ding Kuoerke zhan tu" ("Pictures of the Campaigns against the Gurkhas"), which likewise stands out as a highly unusual example of Chinese images executed with European graphic techniques. The Getty’s suite is the only complete set in American public collections of this later work. The Taipei Palace Museum has a complete set of this series with the Chinese text apparently of the same issue. - In perfect condition. From the collection of Jean R. Perrette.
¶ Shiqu Baoji, Imperial Catalogue. Chuang Chi-fa, Taipei Palace Museum - Ten Military Campaigns of Qianlong Emperor. W. Fuchs, in: Monumenta Serica, 4 (1939-40), p. 122. Paul Pelliot, "Les 'Conquêtes de l'Empereur de la Chine'", in: Toung pao 20 (1921), pp. 183-274. S. L. Shaw, Imperial printing, p. 22. Takata Tokio, "Qianlong Emperor's Copperplate Engravings of the 'Conquest of Western Regions'", in: The Memoirs of the Tokyo Bunko 70 (2012).

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No money for a coat

Schindler, Oskar, German industrialist (1908-1974), saved 1,200 Jewish lives during the Holocaust. Typed letter signed ("Oskar"). Frankfurt am Main, 8. X. 1957. Frankfurt am Main, 8. X. 1957. 4to (290 x 205 mm). 2 pp. With franked airmail envelope addressed to Emilie Schindler in Buenos Aires.

EUR 15,000.00

In 1949, Oskar Schindler and his wife, Emilie, emigrated to Argentina and invested in a chicken and nutria farming business. However, when the business failed in 1958, Schindler left Argentina and Emilie, returning alone to Germany, where he lived until his death in 1974. This letter is written to Emilie from Germany (in German) in 1957, where Schindler had travelled to seek restitution money for his factory and equipment. In the fifth paragraph of the letter, Schindler discusses these proceedings: "My affairs have gone well, I hope in 6 weeks to be able to request the money for the object." (At the time, Schindler had hoped he could claim 2 million DM, but only received DM 46,000). From the letter, it is clear that money was a struggle, with Schindler writing: "Above all, I have no money for a coat, it will soon become quite cold, so that I must wait until the end of the month, somehow I will pull through." Details of Oskar Schindler's acquaintances are also discussed. For example, Schindler writes: "Joel Brand, about whom I wrote to you in my last letter, mentioning that he had had a heart attack, is still in the university hospital and his wife has arrived from Israel. (Brand is the benificiary and publisher of the book in the matter of Dr. Kastner, also a friend of Dr. Sedlatschek)." These men are known for their efforts in saving Hungarian Jews from deportation to concentration camps, and similarly important figures are mentioned throughout the letter. - Folded with some wrinkling. One text correction and signed in red ballpoint. Provenance: From the estate of Emilie Schindler and thence by descent.

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Schindler's Longines

Schindler, Oskar, German industrialist (1908-1974), saved 1,200 Jewish lives during the Holocaust. A collection of ephemera. Germany, mainly 1930s-1950s. Germany, mainly 1930s-1950s. A 1938 Nazi medal; a Longines wristwatch; a compass; two fountain pens; a business card.

EUR 35,000.00

Comprises: a 1938 "Sudetenland Medal" having belonged to Oskar Schindler (the 1 October 1938 Commemorative Medal, which was awarded to all German officials and Wehrmacht and SS members who marched into Sudetenland, as well as to military personnel participating in the occupation of the remnants of Czechoslovakia in 1939); a Longines wrist watch having belonged to Oskar Schindler; a compass (manufactured by Bézard/Gotthilf Lufft) said to have been used by Oskar Schindler and his wife Emilie whilst fleeing Russian troops and heading for American occupied territory in 1945; a Parker fountain pen, and another in a Parker box, with the inscription by Emilie Schindler's biographer Erika Rosenberg: "Nachlaß Oskar Schindler 1957 in Buenos Aires bei Emilie hinterlassen. Oskar Schindler 1908-1974. Erika Rosenberg Weihnachten 2007" ("From the estate of Oskar Schindler, left with Emilie Schindler in Buenos Aires in 1957. Oskar Schindler 1908-1974. Erika Rosenberg, Christmas 2007"); a wooden business card belonging to Oskar Schindler, giving his address as Frankfurt am Main, where he moved in 1957. - Schindler moved to West Germany after the War; after receiving a partial reimbursement for his wartime expenses, he and his wife moved to Argentina, where they took up farming. When he went bankrupt in 1958, Schindler left his wife and returned to Germany, where he failed at several business ventures and relied on financial support from "Schindlerjuden" ("Schindler Jews") - the people whose lives he had saved during the war. He was named "Righteous Among the Nations" by the Israeli government in 1963 and is buried in Jerusalem on Mount Zion, the only member of the Nazi Party to be honoured in this way. - Provenance: From the estate of Emilie Schindler and thence by descent.

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Shelley, Percy Bysshe, English poet (1792-1822). Autograph letter signed ("Percy Bysshe Shelley"). Great Marlow, 1. I. 1818. Great Marlow, 1. I. 1818. 4to. 1 p. Addressed on reverse. Matted with a printed colour portrait.

EUR 15,000.00

To his bankers, Messrs. Brookes & Co. in London: "Gentlemen. Be so good as to send me Fifty Pounds which place to my account [...]". Ten days later, Shelley's "Ozymandias" appeared in "The Examiner". He would leave England for the last time about three months later in March 1818. - Seal tear from removal of waxed seal; one neat repair at top and several slight chips along margin. Traces of original folds.

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The most complete set known of an exceedingly rare Turkish costume book

Silvestre, C[harles] F[rançois]. Differents habillements de Turcs, dediez à monseigneur le... duc de Bourgogne. No place, [c. 1700]. No place, [c. 1700]. Large 4to (195 x 268 mm). Title and 30 captioned plates, engraved throughout (image size ca 110 x 170 mm). Late 19th century half calf with gilt spine rules and 18th or early 19th c. giltstamped lozenge label on upper cover.

EUR 20,000.00

Charming, rare suite of engravings showing the costumes of the Turks, including the Sultan and various courtiers of the Porte, Ottoman soldiers and janissaries, an Arabian preacher, a falconer, street salesmen, a porter smoking a long meerschaum pipe, and several Turkish ladies (one in surprisingly revealing attire). - Charles-Francois Silvestre (1667-1738) held the title of "Maître à dessiner du Roi" (Drawing Master to the King) and was in 1695 appointed art instructor to the young Dukes of Burgundy, Anjou and Berry, the grandsons of Louis XIV. The present suite, dedicated to Louis, Duke of Burgundy, reflects the orientalist fashion of its time but is also a highly original work of art demonstrating a vivid, flamboyant style and not apparently based on earlier illustrations. The title and 21 of the plates are signed in full with the Royal privilege: "F. Silvestre inv. et ex. C.P.R.", while eight are simply signed "S." and one ("Janissaire de la garde, Solac ou Pzyc") is not signed, though it is clearly executed in the same style as the others. Uncommon thus with 31 plates including the title: the copies listed by both Hiler and Colas, as well as that in the Gennadius Library at the American School of Classical Studies at Athens, are oblong volumes containing only 30 plates including the title, on a total of 15 leaves (Colas: "titre compris [...] Ces planches sont tirées à deux sur la même feuille"), while the Lipperheide copy comprised a mere 22 plates including the title, making this the most complete set known. - Insignificant browning and fingerstaining, more pronounced in title but on the whole confied to the wide margins.
¶ Hiler 799; Colas 2744 (both listing 30 plates including title). Lipperheide Lb 25 (listing title and 21 plates).

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Dreams supposedly predicting the fall of the Ottoman Empire

[Speer, Daniel]. Zwey nachdänkliche Traum-Gesichte, von dess Türcken Untergang. Zweifels... ohn von göttlicher Direction. Herauss gelassen von mehrmals zugetroffen erfahrnem Designante Somniatore. [Ulm, Matthäus Wagner, 1684]. [Ulm, Matthäus Wagner, 1684]. 4to. (2), "31" (= 29), (1) pp. With engraved frontispiece (an allegory of the 1683 Ottoman defeat) and headpieces. Side-stitched in modern wrappers, green edges.

EUR 4,500.00

Rare pamphlet describing two dreams supposedly predicting the fall of the Ottoman Empire. It was written by the German composer and novelist Daniel Speer (1636-1707) under the pseudonym "Designante Somniatore" and opens with some remarks on prophetic dreams with reference to the Old Testament. Speer's pamphlet, written immediately after the 1683 Battle of Vienna, expresses a deep-seated fear of the Ottoman Empire, which, thrusting into the heart of Europe, seemed a serious threat to Christianity. With manuscript annotation on the back of the frontispiece by "Joannes Jacobus Hausmohr", 1685, and contemporary ownership of the Salzburg Theological Seminary ("Ex libris Seminarij Salisb.") on title page. In good condition.
¶ VD 17, 3:310364C. Not in Atabey or Blackmer.

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The first Book about America by a Muslim

Tarikh al-Hindi al-Gharbi. Tarikh al-Hind al-Garbi al-müsemma bi-Hadis-i nev [A History... of the Western Indies]. Qustantaniyah (Istanbul), Ibrahim Müteferrika, mid-Ramazan 1142 AH [= 1730 AD]. Qustantaniyah (Istanbul), Ibrahim Müteferrika, mid-Ramazan 1142 AH [= 1730 AD]. 4to (168 x 217 mm). (3), 91 ff. All pages ruled, border coloured in gilt. With an illuminated golden headpiece (serlevha), 4 double-page engraved plates in contemporary colour (celestial chart, diagram with table, 2 world maps), and 13 woodcut illustrations in the text, all coloured by a contemporary hand and partially heightened with gum arabic. Slightly later (c. 1840) half calf, with gilt ornament and the name of the previous owner in Arabic lettering gilt to spine. Marbled endpapers.

EUR 250,000.00

A unique copy, with notable provenance, of the first book published with Arabic lettering to contain illustrations, the earliest book about the New World published in the Islamic world, and one of the first titles printed by a Muslim in Turkey. Formerly in the possession of Ahmed Cevdet Pasha (1822-95), one of the most pre-eminent scholars of his time and a prominent figure in the Tanzimat reforms of the Ottoman empire, the present copy is ruled in gold throughout, printed on a variety of burnished papers (a total of 30 leaves dyed in yellow, green, and brown in addition to the standard white), and coloured throughout. It is especially the contemporary colouring of the woodcuts, which depict curious oddities, fantastic creatures and the native people of the New World, that lends the present specimen a visual appearance completely different from that of the rather plain copies in which this book is usually known (14 copies recorded by OCLC). The only similarly embellished copy of the Hindi al-Gharbi we could trace is the one held by the Lilly Library. - "Despite the title, this is not a history of the West Indies. It opens with a general geographical and cosmological discussion, and follows with an account of the discovery of the New World, with considerable fantastic elaboration in the spirit of the more fabulous passages of Abu Hamid and Qazwini. Among the illustrations are depictions of trees whose fruits are in human form, long-snouted horses, mermen at battle with land-dwellers, and other men and beasts of nightmarish aspect" (Watson). The present work, which survives in a number of mss. (though in less complete variants than this printed edition), was composed in Istanbul around 1580 by an unidentified author. After a synthesis of Islamic geographical and cosmographical writings, notably drawing from al-Mas'udi, who is the most frequently cited source, and Ibn al-Wardi, mentioned almost 20 times, the book relates the discovery of the New World. In this Chapter 3, which comprises the final two thirds of the text, the author describes the explorations and discoveries by Columbus, Balboa, Magellan, Cortés and Pizarro. As Goodrich's study of the book's sources shows, this section is derived directly from Italian editions of 16th-century texts - particularly works by López de Gómara, Peter Martyr, Agustín de Zárate, and Oviedo - which the author excerpted, rearranged, and translated into Turkish. The history of their discoveries is enlivened with fantastic elaboration, some of which is visible in the woodcuts. The two world maps derive from those in Mercator-Hondius "Atlas minor" and reappear in Katib Celebi's "Cihânnümâ" atlas, printed by Müteferrika two years later, with California represented as an island. Complete examples are rare: the book was printed in an edition of only 500 copies, many of which were subsequently defaced or destroyed for contravening the Islamic teachings against the representation of living things. Toderini appears to call for an astronomical chart in addition to the 4 plates, but Watson describes an astronomical chart and 3 plates. Sabin calls for 3 plates only, as does the John Carter Brown library catalogue. The Bibliothèque nationale copy, sent from Constantinople by the press's patron, Sad Aga, contains 4 plates, as does the present copy, including the Ptolemaic astronomical chart. - Old annotations in Arabic script to front flyleaf. Three leaves remargined. Celestial map with closed tears and 2.5 cm loss to upper right corner (though slightly less near center) and minor loss to the cartouche at lower right corner; the other plates including the two coloured world maps in excellent condition, as most of the printed pages.
¶ John Carter Brown 463. Toderini III, 41. Karatay 250. Sabin 94396. William J. Watson, "Ibrahim Müteferrika and Turkish Incunabula," in: Journal of the American Oriental Society 88, no. 3 (1968), pp. 435-441, no. 4. OCLC 416474553. Cf. T. D. Goodrich, The Ottoman Turks and the New World (Wiesbaden 1990).

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Thesis on Islamic marriage laws, attractively bound

Testa, Emile Frederique Eliodore. Specimen juris inaugurale de conjugiis jure moslimico... Leiden, Samuel and Johannes Luchtmans and J.H. Gebhard, 1843. Leiden, Samuel and Johannes Luchtmans and J.H. Gebhard, 1843. 8vo. (6), 116, (2) pp. Contemporary green textured morocco with gold-tooled sides and fore-edge flap. Edges gilt.

EUR 1,250.00

First and only edition of a Latin thesis on Islamic marriage law, by Emile Frederique Eliodore Testa (1821-96), the oral defense held at the University of Leiden. It treats the traditional rites of marriage and the conceptions of lawful and unlawful marriage, divorce, re-marriage and polygamy, also discussing marriage between two Muslims of whom one is enslaved, between enslaved Muslims, and between a Muslim and a foreigner. Born in Constantinople (Istanbul), Testa was of Italian extraction and served as Dutch consul in Tunis and Tripoli. He composed his thesis at the University of Leiden under the supervision of the historian Johannes Matthias Schrant (1783-1866). Possibly the present copy was owned by him or even by the author, as it is carefully bound, with fore-edge flap, in oriental style. - Binding slightly rubbed along the extremities and spine a bit discoloured. Slightly browned and foxed, otherwise in very good condition.
¶ F. Pouillon, Après l'orientalisme (2011), p. 80f.

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The astrology of carrots and related root vegetables, by an eccentric and colourful charlatan travelling in Egypt and Asia Minor: rare coloured copy

Thurneisser zum Thurn, Leonhard. Historia unnd Beschreibung influentischer, elementischer und natürlicher Wirckungen,... aller fremden unnd heimischen Erdgewechssen, auch irer Subtiliteten, sampt warhafftiger und künstlicher Conterfeitung derselbigen [...]. (Berlin, Michael Hentzke, 1578). (Berlin, Michael Hentzke, 1578). Folio (255 x 381 mm). (12), 156 [but: 158], (24) pp. With the title in a large and elaborately decorated woodcut, 36 large botanical, 12 large astronomical and about 112 small woodcut illustrations in text, and the author’s woodcut heraldic device above the colophon, nearly all coloured by a near-contemporary hand. 17th century gold-tooled, dark brown tanned sheepskin.

EUR 35,000.00

Elaborately coloured copy of the first German edition of a bizarre astrologico-botanical work, translated from the Latin edition published earlier that same year, by the Basel-born Berlin physician, alchemist, astrologist, botanist and linguist Leonard Thurneysser (1531-96). It discusses astrological influences on the growth, composition and medical efficacy of plants, and includes an index of plant names in the usual Latin and German, but also more interestingly in Hebrew, Syriac, Arab and Persian. "Hand-colored copies [...] are rare” (Macphail). - Thurneysser, son of a Basel goldsmith, frequently came into trouble as a con-artist and swindler, travelled in Egypt and Asia Minor in the 1560s collecting information on medicinal plants, astrology and other subjects under the patronage of Archduke Ferdinand of Austria, then settled in Berlin under patronage of the Elector of Brandenburg. He intended the present book on umbelliferous plants (carrots and related root vegetables) as the first in a ten-volume series covering all plants, but published only this first volume. Apart from the larger botanical and astrological woodcut illustrations, there are smaller ones showing human skeletons and organs (indicating where the plants supposedly takes its medicinal effect), as well as distilling and other equipment. While the book's "botanical value, as well as its medical value, was absolutely nil" (Anderson), it nevertheless proved influential. It is a typographic tour de force, set mostly in two columns with numerous headings, and notes printed in the fore-edge margins and sometimes in a third column between the text columns. - With two 20th-c. bookplates of the Italian physician and collector Piergiorgio Borio on the front pastedown. Waterstained at the head throughout and sometimes also along the fore-edge, mostly confined to the margins; slight browning, an occasional stain not affecting the colours of the illustrations. Margins of the title-page thumbed, but still generally in good condition. A rare, extensively coloured copy of an extraordinary work, as colourful as the text and the author’s life.
¶ VD 16, T1172 (7 copies). Adams T 690. Nissen 1964. Durling 4353. Wellcome 6300. Ferguson II, 451. Anderson, Herbals, 181-186. Arber 215-218. Hunt 135. Macphail, Alchemy & Occult 45.

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The abbot takes stock

[Urbarium]. Urbarium Über des Gottshauß St. Pauls güetter in... Steyr. So Herrn Abbt Hieronymo in antröttung seiner Regierung des 1616 Jahr ist eingeandtwort worden. [Sankt Paul im Lavanttal, 1616]. [Sankt Paul im Lavanttal, 1616]. Folio (210 x 320 mm). Title, 13 blank leaves, 3 written leaves, 2 blank leaves, 144 written leaves, mostly written on both sides (including some pages of empty tables at the end). Bound in contemporary wooden boards with bevelled edges; blind-tooled quarter pigskin spine on four raised double bands, handwritten spine title and shelfmark (31a / N. 38). Brass clasps.

EUR 3,800.00

A Carinthian urbarium, or register of fief ownership, listing the feudal possessions located in Styria (today largely in northern Slovenia) belonging to Saint Paul's Abbey in Lavanttal, the famous Benedictine monastery in Carinthia, Austria. The register was drawn up in 1616 for Hieronymus Marchstaller (1576-1638), the new abbot who was setting out to restore order to the derelict administration of the monastery. Including not only the various manors and farmsteads, but also the names of all the peasants with their respective taxes, feudal duties and tithes owed, it forms a record of Marchstaller's grand stocktaking at the beginning of his office. - When Engelbert von Spanheim in 1091 had invited twelve Benedictine monks from Hirsau Abbey in Swabia to form a monastery in the Lavant Valley in eastern Carinthia, he had endowed the abbey with large estates not only in the local valley, but also in Styria and in Friuli. While the monastery quickly prospered and, with its own scriptorium and a grammar school, evolved to the most significant abbey in Carinthia, the abbots soon had to cope with the resentment of the local nobility. During the 15th century conflict of Duke Frederick III with the Counts of Celje, the troops of Count Ulrich II devastated the premises; the abbey was again ravaged by Ottoman forces in 1476 and besieged by the Hungarian king Matthias Corvinus in 1480. With the advent of Reformation, large parts of Carinthia turned Protestant. In addition, the Austrian rulers increasingly encumbered the monastery with tributes to finance their wars with the Ottoman Empire, and conventual life decayed. The resurgence of St. Paul's began in 1616 with the arrival of Marchstaller, who found the abbey in a badly neglected condition, owing in part to the mismanagement of his predecessors. He immediately reintroduced monastic culture and enclosure, abolishing private ownership among the monks. The derelict premises around the church were rebuilt according to plans modelled on the Spanish Escorial. While the reconstruction was not completed until 1683, under Marchstaller's successors, the present-day appearance of the complex is essentially due to his plans. - Some browning and fingerstaining; some worming, but well preserved. An invaluable economic and legal source for the history of a major Austrian monastery during early modern feudalism.

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The first steps of Egyptian archaeology

Vaucelle de Ravigny, Louis de. Journal de voyage en Egypte et en Nubie... 1826. Autograph manuscript signed. Egypt, 1826. Egypt, 1826. 4to (235 x 185 mm). 177 pp. Contemporary wrappers (wanting spine). Ms. title and name on front cover.

EUR 85,000.00

An early 19th century egyptologist's fascinating travel notes documenting his journey through the Nile valley, profusely illustrated with more than 230 sketches showing hieroglyphs and Greek and Coptic inscriptions. At the age of 27, Louis Vaucelle (1798-1851) undertook an expedition to Egypt to explore the banks of the Nile from Cairo to Aswan. He set out from Marseille on 27 January 1826 and reached the second cataract on 27 May. In his journal he accurately reproduces all cartouches and inscriptions of the temples, tombs and palaces visited up to the first cataract south of Aswan. He gives the condition of monuments (sometimes mere ruins), identifies traces of Christian chapels and churches, translates hieroglyphs dedicated both to pharaohs and Roman emperors, indicates (in cursive script) several Arabic words and names, and mentions the orientalists who preceded him: his mentor Champollion as well as Denon, Maillé, Belzoni, and Niebuhr. Among the temples and sites he describes are Ipsamboul, Edfu, Dakka ("un des mieux conservés"), Thèbes ("Louqsor"), Karnak, Denderah Assouan, Elephantine and Philae as well as the pyramids of Giza, Cleopatra's Needle, the Sphinx (the head of which is said to be "extrêmement mutilée"), Alexandria, and the Nile Delta. The final fifty-odd pages are devoted to contemporary Egyptian cities, their people, and their Arab, Jewish and Coptic traditions. As Vaucelle notes, Coptic Christians are free to practice their religion due to the unrivalled tolerance of the Muslim faith ("tant il est vrai qu’il n’y a pas de religion plus tolérante que la religion mahométane"). He also provides details of medical operations such as castration, circumcision, and excision, as well as of the "Kalisch" festivities held in Cairo at the time of the opening of the dikes. - Louis de Vaucelles de Ravigny was trained by Jean-François Champollion, who in 1824 published his "Précis du système hiéroglyphique des anciens Égyptiens". Apart from the present travel journal he also produced a "Chronologie des monuments antiques de la Nubie" (1829), based on the interpretation of the royal legends contained in the hieroglyphic reliefs, a book in which he pays tribute to the German egyptologist François-Christian Gau. - Slight fraying to edges; wants wrappers' spine. A fine survival.

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First illustrated edition of the only architectural treatise to survive from classical antiquity

Vitruvius Pollio, Marcus. [De architectura libri decem]. (Venice, Giovanni Tacuino, 22 May 1511). (Venice, Giovanni Tacuino, 22 May 1511). Folio (232 x 323 mm). (4), 110, (9) ff., final blank. Four-piece woodcut title-border with dolphins and 136 woodcut illustrations and diagrams most within a double frame. Outline initials within a double frame; woodcut orb and cross device on final page. Modern full vellum.

EUR 75,000.00

The first illustrated edition of the only architectural treatise to survive from classical antiquity, considered the supreme authority by Italian Renaissance architects: the single most influential work for the later development of European architecture. The previous three editions contain diagrams only, making this the first to include non-schematic illustrations. The woodcuts depict ornaments, plans, elevations, proportions of the human body, heating systems, machinery, a ship with an odometer and siege machines, among other subjects. The title border with dolphins is itself "one of the most influential pieces of ornamentation of the sixteenth century" (Mortimer). The 1511 edition is also the first to be edited by Fra Giovanni Giocondo (1433-1515), a working architect, as well as an editor for the Aldine Press and an authority on classical inscriptions. During the last year of his life he collaborated with Raphael and Sangallo on St. Peter's after Bramante's death in 1514. - Title page remargined along gutter and fore edge (no loss to text, but possibly supplied from another copy); some browning and faint waterstaining. Leaves G8 and K1 torn and repaired, B1-8 bound out of sequence. Still a good copy of a rare and important edition.
¶ Adams V 902. Fowler 393. Kat. der Ornamentstichslg. Berlin 1798. Sander 7694. Millard Italian 156. Mortimer Italian 543. Essling 1702. Norman 2157. Sander 7694.Cicognara 696. RIBA 3491. Cf. PMM 26.

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Islamic architecture, illustrated

Vogüé, Melchior, de. Syrie centrale. Architecture civile et religieuse du Ier... au VIIe siècle. Paris, J. Baudry, 1865-1877. Paris, J. Baudry, 1865-1877. Folio (285 x 358 mm). 2 volumes. (4), 12, 154, (6) pp. (8) pp. With a total of 3 maps (2 in colour) & 152 mostly full-page plates, several with tinted lithographed backgrounds. Later red half morocco with giltstamped spine titles.

EUR 25,000.00

First edition of this detailed study of Syrian decorative architectural art. "De Vogüé travelled with William Waddington in 1853 and 1854, exploring the area from Aleppo to Damascus, Palmyra and Basra. It was an important expedition and much new material was uncovered. The author became ambassador to the Porte in 1871" (Blackmer). - Occasional foxing to plates, but a fine set.
¶ Blackmer 174. Not in Weber.

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An Abolitionist's Design Album

Wadström, Carl Bernhard, Swedish engineer, industrial spy, traveller and abolitionist (1746-1799). Collection of watercolors and drawings of projected dams,... mills, and other industrial buildings. Various places, mainly in Sweden, but including Hamburg and Hull, ca. 1767-1773. Various places, mainly in Sweden, but including Hamburg and Hull, ca. 1767-1773. Large folio (395 x 552 mm). A total of ca. 60 hand drawings: 22 double-page-sized and 8 single-page watercolours and 26 pen-and-ink drawings (some on the reverse of watercoloured plates). Various sizes, some folded (measuring as much as a metre in length). Captioned in Swedish and occasionally in German. Contemporary full calf, floral giltstamping to spine, upper cover bearing gilt title "Ritningar" ("drawings").

EUR 45,000.00

Remarkable, wide-ranging collection of highly detailed technical drawings by the young Swedish engineer C. B. Wadström, a versatile man whose mystical leanings eventually led him to embrace alchemy and the philosophy of Swedenborg. Following a 1787/88 expedition to West Africa, he would achieve lasting fame as a champion of Abolition. - The drawings in the present album compiled by Wadström show dams, watermills and windmills, mines, bridges, waterworks, a stove, a lighthouse and various other buildings, as well as technical details of levers, millwheels, flywheels, and other machinery, often copied after designs by some of the leading Swedish engineers of the day, Johan and Abraham Eurenius as well as Samuel Sohlberg. Locations include Brinkebergskulle dam in Vänersborg, Vivsta in Medelpad, Hult manorhouse (apparently near the Götä river, with a mounted flap to show both ground floor and upper storey), the Mölndal papermill, an oil windmill in Hull (England), Nordantill (Norrköping), the Harmsarfvets iron mine at Kopparberg, and the Falun copper mine. Other towns and sites mentioned are Alingsås, Strömsbruk, Ljung in Östergötland, the Wiken shipyard in Gothenburg, Landskrona, Åsbro (salmon fishing), Göteborg, Malmviks Kronogruva, Östergötland, a lighthouse in Utö (Finland), and the Lidköping church. - Wadström, a native of Stockholm, trained at the Uppsala mining school and first entered Swedish service as an engineer, then in 1767-69 directed the construction of the Trollhätte canal. In 1770 he went to Avesta, where he was appointed to build the first Swedish rolling mill for copper sheet. He soon "became a successful industrial spy in Germany for the Eskilstuna ironworks" (Howgego I, p. 1086) and made numerous trips abroad, including one to Solingen in 1774, where he studied the craft of the local gunsmiths, some of whom he tried to lure into Swedish service. In 1776 he made a tour of European ironworks, and two years later he established the first Swedish factory for surgical instruments. As early as 1769 he was made superintendent of the copper mines at Åtvidaberg. "His competence was quickly recognized by the Swedish King Gustaf III who appointed him as chief director of the Royal Assay and Refining Office. Although his job was to ensure the purity of these precious metals in Sweden, he was drawn into fanciful plots to produce gold by alchemy in order to flood the world markets. Strongly influenced by many of the radical thinkers of the day, Wadström developed a prejudice against commerce and commercial men. Instead of trying to bring about the downfall of the gold standard by alchemical means, Wadström and his friends strove to replace gold as a currency with corn and other more useful goods. In 1786 he visited London and made some influential acquaintances" (ibid.). Inspired by the Swedenborgian tenets which proclaimed the superior enlightenment of Africans, Wadström had in 1779 founded a society in Norköpping which sought to establish a colony in Africa built on agricultural trade as an alternative to slavery. His misson to Senegal, Guinea and Sierra Leone, financed by King Gustaf in hopes that Sweden might profit from such a venture, proved the turning point towards his future career: upon his return in 1788 he relocated to England, there becoming a central figure in the abolition movement and giving evidence of the horrors of slavery to the British Privy Council and a House of Commons committee. The famous cross-section of a slave ship published in his "Essay on Colonization" (1794), possibly engraved after a drawing by Wadström himself (a skilled technical draughtsman, as evidenced by this album), has been endlessly reprinted and to this day forms a staple illustration in the 'Slavery' section of history textbooks. - Some tears (mainly to folds) have been professionally repaired, as have the spine and corners of the binding, but well-preserved altogether. An intriguing collection of later 18th century technical and engineering drawings, executed by a singularly colourful character of that age.

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William Turner of Oxford, English painter (1789-1862). Autograph letter signed, with a fine illustration. Oxford, 6. VIII. 1841. Oxford, 6. VIII. 1841. 4to. 2¾ pp. on bifolium.

EUR 9,500.00

To an unidentified recipient: "I have been favoured by your letter of June 29th, in which you have given me your opinion of your drawing of Blenheim, for which I am very much obliged. As the drawing was then in London, I thought it best to defer replying to your letter till I should have it before me, or till I had made the alterations you mentioned, which I believe I have now completed, and which undoubtedly improve it very much. In the first place I have darkened the large green oak No. 1, on the right, also the lower part of the warm oak No. 2 on the left, the upper part, at present, I am unwilling to alter unless I find that it be your wish that I should do so. The Wych Elm No. 3 was very yellow, but I have now made it somewhat green, such as it might be when the foliage has undergone a partial change only. The small beech trees remain much the same, for some time I was unwilling to do any thing to them, I have however made them a little darker. I have endeavoured to work up the distance and building to the effect you desired; and the ferns in the foreground I have varied both in effect and colour. I should say that I have not done much to the building, and was unwilling for some time to touch it, but after making the other alterations, I ventured also to deepen and warm it a little, and I now think it better. I shall be much obliged if you will inform me if you recollect any other little thing that you desire I should do to it, and I shall be most happy to do my best to work up to your idea of the subject. I must beg to say that I agree entirely with you as to propriety of strengthening the effect according to your suggestion [...]".

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