One of the earliest textual witnesses for Ibn Sina's famous treatise:
a complete 13th century manuscript, dated and signed by the scribe

Avicenna (Ibn Sina). Al-Adwiyya al-Qalbiyya [Book on drugs for cardiovascular diseases]. Central Asia, 655 H [= 1257 AD]. Central Asia, 655 H [= 1257 AD]. Arabic manuscript on paper. 57 pp., 20 lines per extensum, written space ca. 85 x 145 mm. Naskh in brown ink with section titles in red; Several marginal notes. Rebound in early brown Mamluk leather with gilt medallions and fillets to both covers; modern brown calf spine.

EUR 150,000.00

An exceedingly early manuscript of Avicenna's most important contribution to the field of cardiology, dated and signed by the scribe Ali ibn Muhammad on the 29th of Jumada al-Ula in the year 655 H, placing it among the very earliest witnesses for the received text. The date of the manuscript has been confirmed in a paper analysis performed by Helen Loveday, London (her full report, dated February 2020, is available on request). - Avicenna wrote his highly innovative treatise on cardiac medication in the years following the completion of his iconic "Qanun". This book is a separate and independent work which is medico-philosophical in character. Owing to its wide acceptance and importance, this treatise was translated into Latin twice, first in the early 14th century by Arnaldo de Villanova under the title "De Medicines Cordialibus". Two Hebrew translations are known; around 1485 Baruch ibn Ya'ish ibn Isaac composed a commentary of the first one. - The heart diseases here discussed include shortness of breath, palpitation, and cardiac syncope. Avicenna also observes that certain psychological conditions such as depression, stress, and anxiety may be linked to cardiovascular problems and need to be considered in their treatment: "Because the heart is the chief and noble organ, it is necessary that the physician should treat it after careful consideration and with a firm will. It is necessary that he has faith in the success of his course of treatment. The temperament of the patient is considered of fundamental importance in the treatment of heart diseases, and if there is any disharmony or imbalance of any kind, it should be treated." In the second chapter Avicenna introduces several categories of cardiac medication, including stimulants, diuretics, and cooling agents. No fewer than 83 simple and 17 compound drugs in the form of electuaries, crushed medications, pills, tonics and syrups derived from animal, vegetable, and mineral sources, their dosage, strength and application are discussed. - Of the six traceable manuscript copies of this treatise, only two are dated earlier (those in the Bibliotheque Nationale Paris and in the Forschungsbibliothek Gotha), placing the present volume among the three or four earliest surving manuscript witnesses, those in the British Library (Or. 5280), in Berlin (6359 Pm. 62), and in Leiden (Or. 958/820). - Removed from a severely damaged manuscript miscellany of natural scientific writings, of which the present part, complete in itself, was salvaged and rebound in period style for purposes of conservation. Professional repairs; all leaves remargined with occasional Japanese paper restoration, preserving the old collection’s pencil pagination, but very clean throughout, finely preserved without any loss to text.
¶ Cf. GAL I, 458. GAL S I, 827. Chamsi-Pasha, Mohammed A R, and Hassan Chamsi-Pasha, “Avicenna's contribution to cardiology”, Avicenna Journal of Medicine 4,1 (2014), pp. 9-12. H. A. Hameed, "Avicenna’s Tract on Cardiac Drugs and Essays on Arab Cardiotherapy [Risalah Al-Adwiyah Al-Qalbiyah]" (Karachi, Hamdard National Foundation 1983). A. Zargaran, M. Zarshenas, A. Mehdizadeh, G. Kordafshari, A. Mohagheghzadeh, "Avicenna’s Concept of Cardiovascular Drug Targeting in Medicamenta Cordialia", in: Journal of Research on History of Medicine 2 (2013), 11-14.

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English Bible Manuscript

[Biblia latina]. Latin manuscript on vellum. Northern France or England?, ca 1300. Northern France or England?, ca 1300. 4to (150 x 195 mm). 440 ff. (quires: a-f16, g18, h-x16, y12, zA-D16, E10; recent pencil foliation). 55 lines, 2 columns (written space ca. 75 x 125 mm). Miniscule gothic bookhand in blank ink; emphases in red, page captions, chapter numbers, rubrication and Lombardic initials in red and blue, numerous red and blue initials with elaborate penwork in complementary colours. 16th century auburn morocco on four raised double bands, gilt spine ornaments, both covers with fleurons to corners, multiple rules along the edges, and gilt coat of arms (quarterly, a goat rampant and a sheaf of corn; inescutcheon a lion rampant; not in Olivier), dated "1587" on upper cover. 4 modern cloth ties. Stored in custom-made half morocco case.

EUR 175,000.00

A beautiful, complete mediaeval Bible written in a miniscule bookhand on extremely delicate vellum, probably copied in England or commissioned from there. As is common, the Bible is prefaced with the epistle of St Jerome to Paulinus (53: "Frater Ambrosius [...] moriturum", fols. 1r-3r), followed by Jerome's prologue to the Pentateuch ("Desiderii mei [...] in latinum eos transferre sermonem. Amen"); the text of Genesis begins on fol. 4r. The Second Book of Kings is followed by the Book of Isaiah (139v) and the Prophets; on fol. 227r follow the Book of Job and the Poetic Books; 287v ff. contain the Books of Chronicles and the historical books to 2 Maccabees; the New Testament begins on fol. 351r. - Some page headings and penwork flourishes slightly trimmed, still an uncommonly wide-margined specimen. Occasional flaws in the vellum were carefully avoided by the scribes. The margins contain numerous contemporary and later annotations in what appear to be four different hands (a number of which are also very slightly trimmed), some exceedingly delicate: one 8-line annotation measures no more than 10 mm! The early marginalia would appear to be in a 15th century English hand; at least one (at the lower edge of fol. 41v) is an extract from the Psalm commentary of the Yorkshire mystic Richard Rolle (d. 1349). Furthermore, the plummet lines along many of the earliest marginalia, but also the order of the Old Testament Books, uncommon for a French Bible, suggest an English provenance. As the continental hands of the later annotations show, the Bible must have reached France or Germany in the later 15th century. - Professional repairs to spine-ends and one corner of the fine Renaissance binding. First and last quires a little browned and dust-stained, very slight worming to beginning, occasional, largely insignificant waterstains to margins, a few edge cuts and cut-out sections in the blank margins. An old edge repair to fol. 155, fols. 310-323 as well as a few others more strongly browned and wrinkled, but generally in fine state of preservation. - Provenance: Karl & Faber, sale 81 (1962), no. 3.

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15th century manuscript letter from Syria,
with a postscript by "Marco Polo"

Soranzo, Lorenzo, Venetian merchant in the Near East (fl. 1400). Autograph letter signed. Homs (Western Syria), 2 Aug. 1407. Homs (Western Syria), 2 Aug. 1407. 4to (175 x 263 mm). Black-brown ink on paper. 1 p. with integral address panel to verso. Stored in custom-made half morocco case.

EUR 45,000.00

An early 15th century letter from a Venetian merchant based at Homs, a strategic trade centre of the ancient China Silk Road, to his brother Donato Soranzo (Donatus Supantius) in Tripoli, followed by a post-scriptum message from Marco Polo, probably a descendant of the famous traveller. - Both the letter and post-scriptum concern goods to be shipped to Tripoli (and thence to Venice): "cotoni de Hama" (cotton from the namesake Syrian city), silk (also with arabesque patterns), and a specific pigment for cloth-dying, "lume di rocca," produced in the Syrian town of Edessa. An important terminus of the Ancient China Silk Road, Homs is the only natural gateway from the Mediterranean coast to the interior. Homs was the third Syrian station on the Silk Road, after Dura Europos and Palmyra. Homs was particularly well known for silk and wool weaving, especially the alaja, which was mottled muslin run through with gold threads and used in feminine apparel. This silk was exported as far as the Ottoman capital Istanbul. - The addressee, Donato Soranzo, was one of the Serenissima's most important merchants of his time. Established in 1400, the "fraterna Soranzo", an association between four brothers of whim he was the eldest, was heavily involved in the cotton trade between Venice and Syria. Their ledgers, preserved in Venice, are famous for being the earliest recorded instances of the double-entry bookkeeping system. The author of the letter calls Donato his "dear brother" and signs himself "Lorenzo, your kinsman". He was Lorenzo Soranzo, the youngest. - A Marco Polo, probably a great-nephew of the namesake traveller, is recorded among the Venetian merchants based in Hama, doing business with the Soranzos. He was probably Marco, son of Maffeo, son of Marcolino, of the San Giovanni Grisostomo branch of the Polo family - the last male heir, who died circa 1417. - A handful of scattered small holes affecting a few letters, traces of horizontal and vertical folds. Slight soiling to verso, minimal toning, otherwise in very good condition. A remarkable ephemeral witness to the commercial pre-eminence of Venice circa 1400, and its connection to the ongoing silk and textiles trade of the Ancient China Silk Road.
¶ Cf. Jong-Kuk Nam, Le commerce du coton en Méditerranée à la fin du Moyen Age (Leiden, 2007). M. Ryabova, "The Account Books of the Soranzo Fraterna (Venice 1406-1434)", in: Accounting Historians Journal 45 (2018), 1-27. A. C. Moule & P. Pellicot, The Description of the World (London, 1938).

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Finely illuminated Book of Hours

[Horae B. M. V.]. Latin and French manuscript on vellum. Northern France (Rouen?), last third of the 15th century. 8vo (ca. 135 x 180 mm). 110 ff. (24, 102, 109, 110 blank). Textura, 16 lines, black and occasional red ink; some yellow rubrications. 12 ff. of calendar at the beginning written in red, blue, and gold. With 8 miniatures within floral and illuminated borders, 9 floral borders surrounding the text, 17 large initials and hundreds of smaller initials and line-fillers, all in colours and gilt. Early 18th century dark brown morocco with elaborately gilt spine, gilt cover rules and fleurons in the corners. 2 clasps. Vellum endpapers. All edges gilt. Marbled pastedowns. Stored in custom-made half morocco solander case.

EUR 45,000.00

A meticulously penned and exceptionally finely illuminated livre d'heures from Northern France, possibly written in Normandy: the calendar commemorates St Romanus, the bishop of Rouen, in gilt letters (23 October). The miniatures include: folio 13r, the four evangelists; 25r, Annunciation of Mary; 42v, Nativity; 59r, King David; 72v, Crucifixion; 75v, Pentecost; 79r, a burial; 103r, Lamentation of Christ. The decorative borders enclosing the miniatures as well as the text are mostly surrounded by rules and show tendril ornaments, flowers and berries; only the Annunciation is enclosed by six small illuminations depicting six scenes from the life of the Virgin (Meeting at the Golden Gate, Marriage, Visitation, Coronation, the Virgin Enthroned, Assumption of Mary) and three angels playing music on a recorder, a portative organ, and a harp. - The appealing binding shows slight traces of worming. Lower spine-end and uppermost spine panel professionally repaired. The interior is wide-margined and clean. Occasional slight rubbing to some illuminations. Insignificant traces of adhesive tape to first and last endpaper (opposite the pastedowns). The two final blank leaves, as well as the vellum endpapers, are covered with genealogical notes on the Dijon-based Bernard family from the 17th and 18th century: by Bénigne Bernard, seigneur de Trouhans (1605-66), councillor in the Dijon parliament; his son Bernard Bernard de Trouhans (1643-1712); and his daughter Olympe, who notes the date of her parents' and her brother's death as late as 1748; also, a coloured and gilt coat of arms, dated 1698. - Provenance: Bernard de Trouhans family of Dijon (early 17th through mid-18th century); Hartung & Karl, sale 57 (1988), lot 13.

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''Intraboque torum, nuda puella, tuum'': manual for the Holy Mass, including a manuscript about a wayward nun, "assolutamente oscena"

[Manuale parochialium sacerdotum]. Manuale parrochialium sacerdotu[m] multu[m] perutile. (Add: Latin manuscript)... [Dissertatio monialis et juvenis]. [Reutlingen, Johann Otmar, ca. 1492]. [Reutlingen, Johann Otmar, ca. 1492]. 4to. (12) ff. Several initials in brown ink; party rublicated in red. The blank verso of the final leaf has a contemporary manuscript [Dissertatio monialis et juvenis] (Latin bastarda, 27 lines per extensum). Modern half vellum over marbled boards.

EUR 12,500.00

Fairly early edition of this manual for the Holy Mass, first published ca. 1483. Copies attested in 19 holding institutions worldwide, only one in the USA (Bryn Mawr College, Goodhart Medieval Library). - Title-page browned and a little stained; old library shelfmark in brown ink. Removed from an old made-up volume with early handwritten pagination (197-220). The blank verso of the final leaf contains the contemporary manuscript copy of a Middle Latin poem also known as "Versa de monachis et clerico", a specimen of the literary topos of the wayward nun: a total of nine distichs form the dialogue ("monialis dicit" / "juvenis respondet") between a nun and a pious young man. The text has been preserved variously, with occasional departures: it is to be found in a 13th century vellum manuscript in the British Library (MS Cotton. Cleop. B. ix, fol. 13) as well as in a 14th century manuscript in the Bürgerbibliothek in Berne (Cod. 434, fol. 49v-50r; cf. Hagen, Catalogus codicum Bernensium [1875], p. 381, no. 434.22); an edition from a Bohemian manuscript was prepared by J. Feifalik in the Proceedings of the Imperial Academy of Sciences, historical class, vol. 36 (1861), p. 168. It was probably first printed, with an English translation, in London in 1636 within the anonymous collection "Fasciculus Florum" (no. 794: "Pulcherrima dissertatio monialis et juvenis"). In this poem which appears so ill suited to a liturgical manual, the nun recommends herself through her affection, beauty, and youth, offering to throw off her black habit for the young man and enter his bed with her naked, snow-white body ("Deponam velum deponam caetera quaeque / Intraboque thorum nuda puella tuum"). He rebuffs her: she is already the bride of Christ, he says, and to break marriage vows made unto the Lord Himself is a doubly grievous crime ("Nupsisti Christo [...] / Uxorem violare viri grave crimen habetur / Sed gravius sponsam te violare Dei"). Ultimately, the nun's passion is vanquished by the young man's words, and she submits to his wisdom: "Gaudeo quod verbis sum superata tuis". In spite of the demure ending, the unknown author seems clearly more fascinated with depicting a sensual woman than a virtuous man, and as late as 1892 the Italian scholar Umberto Ronca pronounced the poem (which H. Hagen had edited from the Bernese manuscript in his "Carmina medii aevi maximam partem inedita" [1877], p. 206f.) to be "assolutamente oscena" (Cultura medioevale e poesia latina d'Italia, p. 159). Its survival as part of a manual for priests must appear as an ironic quirk of history.
¶ H 10725*. Goff M-220. GW M20701. BMC II 587. Proctor 2717. BSB-Ink M-141. Bod-inc M-075. Sheppard 1985. IA 10729.

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Splendid vellum manuscript replete with illuminations of female saints, probably commissioned by a Paris nunnery

Missal. Latin manuscript on vellum. Northern France, ca. 1500. Northern France, ca. 1500. Large 8vo (ca. 140 x 203 mm). 105 ff. (without blank leaf 82), numbered in roman numerals, with 2 page-sized and 23 small miniatures as well as 3 large and 438 smaller initials, all in colours and gilt. Mostly 29 lines per page in an elegant black bastarda with red (and occasional gilt) headings and emphases; numerous rubrications and small initials in gilt on blue or red background. Leaves 101r-105r contain somewhat later addition in red and black ink; 2 unnumbered vellum leaves with a table of contents in red ink bound at the end (probably contemporaneous with the binding). Gatherings (ab8, c10, d-n8) and catchwords marked throughout by the scribe. Green satin binding, ca. 1550, with white silk pastedowns and vellum endpapers. All edges gilt. Stored in custom-made half morocco solander case.

EUR 185,000.00

An uncommonly painstakingly prepared liturgical manuscript with remarkable illumination, probably commissioned for a nun's order. Apart from the hundreds of initials, painted on gilt background and mostly decorated with flowers, berries, and leaves, the manuscript contains the following illustrations: folio 7v, St Jerome (28 x 30 mm); 19r, the Eucharist, with two nuns and a young clergyman in prayer at the bottom (148 x 102 mm); 20v, God enthroned, surrounded by the symbols of the four evangelists, a lower compartment showing 12 nuns and the same young clergyman in prayer (148 x 104 mm); 27r, Nativity (50 x 47 mm); 28v, Resurrection (37 x 34 mm); 29v, Assumption of Christ (42 x 46 mm); 40v, Madonna on a Crescent Moon (48 x 53 mm); 43v, the Virgin in the Temple (60 x 56 mm); 44v, Christ in the Temple (60:56 mm); 46r, Annunciation of Mary (41 x 43 mm); 48r, Visitation (65 x 53 mm); 49r Assumption of Mary (45 x 38 mm); 50v, God surrounded by the Saints (54 x 58 mm); 53v, John of Patmos (48 x 43 mm); 55r, St Benedict of Nursia (25 x 36 mm); 56r, St John the Baptist (48 x 45 mm); 57v, Mary Magdalene (44 x 39 mm); 59v, St Anne and the Virgin (45 x 44 mm); 62r, St Paul (28 x 29 mm); 64r, St Peter (23 x 24 mm); 74r, St Francis of Assisi (34 x 31 mm); 77v, St Adrian (28 x 30 mm); 78r, St Catherine and the Virgin (45 x 50 mm); 79r, Christ Crucified, with two saints (40 x 36 mm); 89r, a saint with a crozier and heart (23 x 23 mm). The miniatures are of exceptional quality throughout, showing delicate draughtsmanship and a stark but well-balanced colour palette. The emphasised name of St Dionysius (76rv) suggests that this splendid manuscript was commissioned by a Paris monastery, very possibly a Benedictine convent (as may be inferred from the illumination of this saint, fol. 55, as well as from the habit of the nuns depicted in the two page-sized and several of the smaller miniatures). The young male oblate seen in the two large illustrations is very likely a self-portrait by the artist. - Spine somewhat rubbed with light traces of worming. Folios 79v, 80 and 81 are numbered and ruled but remained blank (as was the lacking folio 82); tiny cuts in the vellum of ff. 83-85 bear witness to the knife that excised the previous leaf. A very short repair to the edge of fol. 27, very occasional insignificant ink or paint smudges. A few quire signatures trimmed at the lower edge, but otherwise quite exceptionally well preserved with wide margins, clean and without any abrasions to the paint; the illuminations appear outstandingly crisp. - Provenance: 1) likely Parisian Benedictine convent; 2) early note on the manuscript on verso of front flyleaf; 3) recto of front flyleaf inscribed by a royal official Coucault (?), dated Saumur, 2 Oct. 1706; 4) front pastedown has an old note of the acquisition price, as well as 5) the woodcut bookplate (printed in red) of the Belgian printer and art dealer Jean-Baptiste Verdussen (1698-1773), who collection was dispersed by sale in 1776; 6) sales notice clipped from 1951 Librairie Lardanchet catalogue tipped in to flyleaf; 7) last sold at Hartung & Hartung's sale 62 (1990), lot 16.

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With two woodcuts by Albrecht Dürer

Celtis, Konrad. Quatuor libri amorum secundum quatuor latera Germaniae [...]. Nuremberg, Sodalitas Celtica, 5 April 1502. Nuremberg, Sodalitas Celtica, 5 April 1502. 4to (193 x 252 mm). (8), X-LXXIII, (46 [instead of 49]) ff. With 9 full-page (instead of 11 full-page and 1 double-page-sized) woodcuts (2 by Albrecht Dürer) and small printer's device, all in contemporary hand colour. Later brown leather over wooden boards, using parts of the original blind-and gold-tooled binding. Upper cover has giltstamped title "Conrad Cel. Amores / Norimb. Scrip.".

EUR 35,000.00

Rare first edition of one of the finest and most interesting German woodcut books of its age. "Als Frucht der Erlebnisse während der zehnjährigen Wanderungen 1487/97 durch Deutschland erschien 1502 das Kaiser Maximilian I. gewidmete lyrische Hauptwerk des Celtis, 'Quatuor libri Amorum secundum quattuor latera Germaniae': vier kleine in sich geschlossene lyrische Liebesromane, zyklisch verbunden in architektonisch-gesetzmäßigem Aufbau, bebildert mit Holzschnitten Dürers und aus der Schule Michael Wolgemuts [...] Celtis gilt als der deutsche Erzhumanist. Er war die stärkste poetische Begabung der humanistischen Bewegung um 1500" (NDB III, 182f.). - The "Amores" are the second of only two verified products of the "Sodalitas Celtica", the society founded by Celtis with the support of Willibald Pirckheimer (the printer remains unidentified). Two of the woodcuts are by Dürer: an allegory of Philosophy and the dedication (showoing Celtis presenting the book to the emperor). "Die Seltenheit erhaltener Exemplare wie das Fehlen eines Faksimiles erklären, warum die 'Amores' als herausragendes Werk der Buchkunst im Sinne der Dürerschen 'Wiedererwachung' erst in neuerer Zeit wirklich gewürdigt worden" sind (Schoch/M./Sch.). Occasionally even the title woodcut has been ascribed to Dürer; the remaining, somewhat less delicate but no less impressive woodcuts are variously attributed to the workshops of Wolgemut, both Peter Vischers, Hans Süss von Kulmbach, or simply a "Celtis master". Wants fol. IX (b1) with the Elegia prima (replaced by a blank leaf), the unnumbered bifolium between m2 and m3 with a view of Nuremberg after Schedel and the city's three coats of arms on the reverse, and the final leaf r6 with a full-page woodcut of Daphne and Apollo (replaced by a blank leaf). The contained woodcuts are all in especially fine contemporary colour, as are the colophon and printer's device. Printed on strong, very wide-margined laid paper. A few leaves near the end show light waterstains in the margins, otherwise a nearly spotless copy. Title has old stamp "EB"; lower corner remargined with slight loss to woodcut; fols. p8r and r5v also stamped in the blank margin. Insignificant worming to gutter of final gatherings. - The present variant of the first quire departs in several details from the copy of Hartmann Schedel kept at the BSB in Munich: a3r, headline "Ad Maxmil. Regem" (BSB: "Ad Maxmyl. Regem:"); a4v, headline: "Panegyri: Pars Prima" (BSB: "Panegyr. Prima Pars"); a5v, first line: "interuisse carmia & quae castas inoce[n]tu[m] adolesce[n]tiu[m]" (BSB: "centuadolesce[n]tiu[m] aures ledat & iebriet. Fatebimur"), etc. The present variant corresponds to the copy in the SSB Augsburg, formerly owned by Daniel Carnerius. - Provenance: Hartung & Karl, sale 53 (1986), lot 617.
¶ VD 16, C 1911. IA 135.114. Brunet I, 1730 & Suppl. I, 231. Dodgson I, 264 & 279ff. Ebert 3903. Graesse II, 101. Meder 244f. Murray 106. Muther 459 & 835. Panzer VII, 441, 17. Proctor 11029. Reske/Benzing 660. Schoch/M./Sch. 269. Strauss 66-68. Not in Adams.

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''I am a booklet, 'Enemy of Jews' by name''

Pfefferkorn, Johannes. Ich bin ein buchlin. der Juden veindt ist... mein name[n]. Yr schalckheit sag ich un[d] wil mich des nit schame[n]. (Cologne, [Johann Landen], 3 Jan. 1509). (Cologne, [Johann Landen], 3 Jan. 1509). 4to. (12) ff. With title woodcut (crucifixion) within thee ornamental borders. Modern half vellum over marbled boards.

EUR 8,500.00

One of four issues all bearing the same date, likely the first edition (VD 16 cites three others printed by Erhard Oeglin in Augsburg). Since 1507 Pfefferkorn had published several anti-Jewish polemical pamphlets, prefiguring his all-out attack on Jewish books and writings. What began on the initiative of an unknown and uneducated convert soon grew into a major affair that involved not only Reuchlin but many other leading humanists of the early 16th century. - Contemporary handwritten acquisition note of the Premonstratensian Abbey of Steingaden in Bavaria and a contemporary annotation to b2v. Rare: only three copies listed in VD 16 (the Munich copy being incomplete).
¶ VD 16, P 2315. Grebe 4.2. Panzer DA I, 303f., 639. Weller 506. Not in Adams or BM-STC German; not in Proctor/Isaac.

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The life of St. Francis in contemporary colour

Bonaventura (Saint). Die Legend des heyligen Vatters Francisci. Nach der... Beschreybung des Engelischen Lerers Bonaventure. Nuremberg, Hieronymus Höltzel for Caspar Rosentaler in Schwaz, 7 April 1512. Nuremberg, Hieronymus Höltzel for Caspar Rosentaler in Schwaz, 7 April 1512. 4to (158 x 198 mm). (106) ff. Title-page with large woodcut vignette of St. Francis receiving the stigmata, 57 woodcuts in total (including duplicates) by Wolf Traut, 5 of which full-page, all with fine contemporary hand-coloring. Contemporary full pigskin over wooden boards with bevelled edges, panelled and decorated in blind. Spine with raised bands in four compartments. Remains of clasps. Edges stained blue.

EUR 18,500.00

The rare first German edition of Bonaventura's life of St Francis ("Legenda major beati Francisci"), printed by Höltzel on behalf and at the expense of the Tyrolean benefactor of the Franciscan church in Schwaz, Caspar Rosenthaler. - This volume, a remarkable copy in contemporary colour, is also the first to incorporate Wolf Traut's striking woodcuts, ranking among the artist's masterpieces (while some are dated, none are signed). The Nuremberg artist, a student of Albrecht Dürer's, completed 51 woodcuts for this work, which would prove to be his greatest contribution to illustrated books. Traut was in Dürer's workshop from 1505, or possibly earlier, when he produced woodcuts for Pinder's "Der beschlossen Gart des Rosenkrantz Marie". - Binding somewhat rubbed and bumped. F3 and V1 with marginal repairs, L1, O1, and T4 torn and restored with loss of text. Some minor spotting or staining, one or two instances of marginal worming. - Provenance: Paul Kramer (contemporary ink signature and motto, "Omnia cum deo", to front free endpaper). Virtue and Cahill Library of Portsmouth Cathedral (oversized bookplate to front pastedown, with number 8363), dispersed in 1941 after German bombing and subsequently preserved in the Presbytery at Winchester; deaccessioned by the Bishop and Cathedral Chapter "for better care and to the advantage of scholars" in 1967 (stamped over bookplate). - A masterpiece of German book illustration, rarely encountered complete even in an uncoloured state.
¶ VD 16, B 6559. BM-STC German 140. Dodgson I, 502f., 1. Not in Adams. Cf. Einhorn, "Die Holzschnitte des Wolf Traut zur 'Legend des heyligen vatters Francisci' nach Bonaventura, Nürnberg 1512", in: Franziskanische Studien 60 (1978), pp. 1-24.

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16th century military manuscript

[German military manuscript]. Military treatises. No place, 1554-1562. No place, 1554-1562. Folio (206 x 297 mm). Three parts written by two different hands on the same paper stock (watermark: hound with a collar). A total of 270 pp. including 5 full-page pen-and-ink illustrations, with geometrical footers to each page. Later half vellum over marbled boards (ca. 1900).

EUR 18,000.00

A pretty composite manuscript of the mid-16th century, in the main following closely or styled after the gunsmith manual repeatedly printed by Christian Egenolff between 1529 and 1597. The preface (14 pp., dated "1554" at the end) consists of "Eine lehr so Keiser Maximilian in seiner Jugent durch erfarne treffliche seine Kriegsräht zugestelt ist", an instructional work for Emperor Maximilian also found in Egenolff's book from its 1534 edition onward. This is followed by the first main section: "Büchssenmeysterei von Geschoß, Büchsen, Pülver Salpether und Fewerwergk &c eigentlich zuzurichten, Büchssenmeystern und Schützen zuwissen nötigk" (70 pp.), likewise directly taken over from Egenolff's compilation. The second part is a legal treatise (as in Egenolff's book, though with different content) discussing martial law, entitled "Gerichts Hendell unnd Cautele in malefich Hendelnn Schüldtrechten unnd gastrechten" (72 pp.). The third part is an extensive treatise on a soldier's duties and the oaths to be sworn by the various ranks ("Artickel darauff die Hauptleut [...] unnd gemeine knecht der Ro. Kay. Maj. unserm aller gnedigisten Herrnn gelobenn und schwerenn sollen S. K. M. zu dienen", 114 pp.), going substantially beyond its counterpart in Egenolff's handbook. This is written in a different hand and contains copious explanations as well as five full-page illustrations showing military equipment and devices in red and black ink (fiery arrows, "Wie man eine glüende Kugell inn Holtzwerck schiessen soll" etc.). At the end, the manuscript contains an index, military multiplication tables, and legal addenda by various hands, dated 1562, with elaborate geometrical borders. - Provenance: bookplate of the English explorer, horseman, and big game hunter Col. J. Hamilton Leigh (1867-1944) of Stockport. Later in the collection of the collection of Thomas Fremantle, 3rd Baron Cottesloe (1862-1956), commander of the Territorial Army and president of the Society for Army History Research.
¶ Cf. Jähns 653 (Egenolff's manual, 1597 ed.).

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A milestone of science, from the library of the Nuremberg humanist Joachim Camerarius

Agricola, Georg. De re metallica. Basel, J. Froben and N. Episcopius, 1556. Basel, J. Froben and N. Episcopius, 1556. Folio. (10), 538 (but: 502), (74) pp. With 2 (1 folded) woodcut plates and about 280 woodcut illustrations and diagrams in text, partly full-page. Contemporary vellum with ms. title to spine. Edges in blue.

EUR 65,000.00

First edition of "the first systematic treatise on mining and metallurgy, and one of the first technological works of modern times" (PMM), an immaculate copy with outstanding provenance. Dealing with "everything connected with the mining industry and metallurgical processes, including administration, prospecting, the duties of officials and companies, and the manufacture of glass, sulphur and alum" (PMM), Agricola's main work paved the way for further systematic study of the earth and of its rocks, minerals, fossils, refinery and oil. Illustrated with 2 plates (one folding) and more than 280 woodcuts in the text attributed to Hans Rudolf Manuel Deutsch (1525-72), some very large, showing the different stages of the extraction and transformation of metals. - From the library of the famous German physician and botanist Joachim Camerarius the Younger (1534-98) with his autograph ownership to the title page ("Joachimo Joach[imi] F[ilio] Camerario"; the Morgan Library holds another book from his library with an identical inscription, cf. Accession no. PML 129904) and a very few underlinings and marginalia most likely also in his hand. Unidentified 18th c. engraved bookplate with the motto "simulare nescit" on verso of title. Acquired from the library of Werner Habel, with his stamp, signature and acquisition date (1977) to front pastedown. First and final pages very lightly brownstained in the edges, otherwise clean and crisp throughout. Complete with the two inserted plates following page 100. A very appealing, wide-margined copy in its first binding.
¶ PMM 79. Adams A 349. Sparrow (Milestones of Science), 4 and pl. 26.

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The most comprehensive private collection of musical notes

[Music]. The Hans Schneider Collection of Sheet Music. Various places, 1568-2006. Various places, 1568-2006. A total of 30,107 catalogued units comprising printed and manuscript sheet music. All sizes, but mostly 4to and folio.

EUR 1,750,000.00

The most comprehensive trove of musical notes in private hands, the Hans Schneider Collection contains in excess of thirty thousand books and brochures of early and original printed music as well as musical manuscripts, spanning more than four centuries from the mid-16th to the mid-20th century and including later material to the early 21st century. It may be called without reservation one of the greatest collections not only for its sheer size, but also in terms of quality and scope, one which can hold its own against some of the most prominent and renowned institutional holdings worldwide. - This vast body of music was compiled by Professor Dr. h.c. mult. Hans Schneider of Tutzing (1921-2017), widely hailed as the most prolific, most successful and most prominent publisher, antiquarian bookseller and private collector in the field for the better part of the 20th century (cf. MGG vol. XI, p. 1898f.). Having studied piano at Munich and Innsbruck, Schneider started out as a dealer in early and rare music in 1949. Over the next seven decades he would publish more than 450 sales catalogues, internationally acknowledged for their exacting bibliographical standards. Indeed, a substantial part of the collection here on offer is pre-catalogued, each individual print being described meticulously on cards stating not only all published references but also the precise edition, state, and date for each title, famously difficult to determine in the often undated scores. These cards not only represent the fruit of more than half a century of labour and research, but also give evidence of the scholarly competence of Prof. Schneider and his academic collaborators (at the height of his career, he employed a staff of as many as ten musicologists). - A strong third of the collection (some 12,000 items) comprises piano and chamber music, including Mozart, Beethoven, Liszt, and Chopin, as well as substantial scores by Hindemith, Reger, and Onslow. Another core segment is formed by vocal music: this encompasses nearly 10,000 items (including the complete works of Schubert, Brahms, Bruckner, and Schoenberg), of which almost 4,000 pieces are dedicated to operatic music alone. The last great bloc of the collection is made up by the field of dance music: acquired in this form from the City of Vienna forty years ago, this segment undoubtedly constitutes the most important collection of its kind worldwide, comprising the works of Johann Strauß the Father and the Son, of Lanner, and Ziehrer, to cite but the most famous. - For his achievements Professor Schneider was awarded honorary doctorates by two German universities, and he received the Distinguished Service Cross of the Federal Republic of Germany, as well as the Bavarian Order of Merit, one of highest decorations to be bestowed by the state of Bavaria. After his passing, his library was acquired directly from his heirs. Its offering on the market as a collection provides a unique opportunity to acquire more or less the complete and uninterrupted published record of period music practice produced during the last centuries. A spreadsheet catalogue may be consulted upon application.

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16th century illustrated Italian manuscript about the art of war in a fine contemporary binding

[Italian military manuscript]. Libro utillissimo et molto necessario di varii secreti... importantissimi per l'essercitio di guerra, come appare nela seguente indice. Italy, before 1581. Italy, before 1581. Small folio (210 x 277 mm). Title, (14) ff. of contents, 187 numbered ff. (a total of 202 ff.) with 60 coloured illustrations (mainly full-page, 7 on large folding sheets). Italian manuscript on paper (watermark: a bird on 3 hillocks, Briquet 12,250 [ca. 1566-1583]). 16th century red morocco (possibly German) with gilt-stamped border fillets, cornerpieces and centrepiece (dated "1581" on upper cover), lacking ties. All edges gilt. Stored in modern slipcase.

EUR 85,000.00

An unusual and attractive Italian Renaissance manuscript on the art of war, lavishly illustrated in colour and in a sumptuous contemporary binding. The text comprises eight chapters dealing with the duties of the captain, making gunpowder, siege-breaking devices, the deployment through artillery of artificial fire, smoke and poisonous fumes, the use of cannons, ballistics and artillerymen, and the logistics and practice of moving artillery and cavalry. - The title of the first chapter accords with that in an earlier manuscript in the Biblioteca Riccardiana in Florence (Ms 2525), "Il primo capo tratta universalmente dell'uffitio del capitano dell' Arteglieria, con che ordine, modo et diligenza egli habbia à procedure, ad ogni cosa appartinenti alla munitione dell' Artegl[eri]a et all' ufficio suo", dated ca. 1529-30 (cf. Mariano D'Ayala, Bibliografia militare-italiana [1854], p. 159). The third chapter contains illustrations of siege devices similar to those in Franz Helm's "Armamentarium Principale oder Kriegsmunition und Artillerey-Buch" (1625), which was originally written in around 1530. - Some paper (and text) loss through oxidation of the ink, restored and silked. Rebacked, retaining part of the old spine, by Joseph William Zaehnsdorf in 1919, according to old pencil note on flyleaf. - Provenance: from the collection of Thomas Fremantle, 3rd Baron Cottesloe (1862-1956), commander of the Territorial Army and president of the Society for Army History Research. On a note pasted to the flyleaf, Cottesloe writes: "This was in the library of Wistow Hall, Leicester, during the lifetime of Sir Henry St John Halford Bt (1828-1897) but nothing is known as to how or when it came there" (dated Wistow, September 1945).

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The 1586 Regensburg shooting festival

Lerff, Caspar. Das Herrlich Freundlich und Nachbarlich Freyschiessen so die... Edlen, Ehrnvesten, Fürsichtigen, Ersamen und Weisen Herren Cammerer und Rath der Kayserlichen Freyen Reichsstadt Regenspurg gehalten haben, im Jar Tausent, Fünffhundert, achtzig und sechsten Sontag den letzten Julij, des alten Calenders [...]. (Regensburg, Johann Burger, 1587). (Regensburg, Johann Burger, 1587). 4to (160 x 200 mm). 54 ff. With coloured woodcut (coat of arms) to title and 10 full-page coloured woodcuts (costumes). Parchment (using old materials).

EUR 18,000.00

Very rare description of the Regensburger "Freischießen" in 1586, a festival featuring a target shooting competition where the winner could "shoot" himself free from taxes, gain prizes or other legal rights, written in humourous verses by the Augsburg Caspar Lerff, one of the fair's "Brutschenmaister" (masters of ceremonies). Five of the beautiful full-page woodcuts, accurately coloured by contemporary hand, show the standard-bearers Barbara Fugger, Maria Schiltlin, Fides Pichelmayer, Katharina Meisinger and Ursula Förstel. Three woodcuts show the virgins Katharina Waltmann, Cassandra Pürcklin and Susanna Wieland. 2 woodcuts show each two unnamed young boys bearing standards on which different prize money is noted (100, 80, 60, and 40 guilders). The title page shows the Regenburg coat of arms with laurel wreath. - Lipperheide mentions one edition in 8vo from the same year with divergent collation of which a proof cannot be established. - With sporadic small, partly repaired marginal flaws. With slight staining to title page, otherwise hardly any browning or staining. Binding ribbons partly preserved.
¶ VD 16, L 1288. BM-STC German 495. Goedeke II, 327, 11. Graesse IV, 171. Schottenloher, Regensburger Buchgewerbe 345. Weller, Annalen II, 327, 11a. See Lipperh. Te 6. Not at Adams, Brunet, Colas, Ebert, Hiler, Lentner or Pfister.

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Fifty imaginary island cities, drawn for the Doge of Venice

Vericci, Marco. Inmaginationi Millitari. Manuscript on paper, in Italian. Venice, 20 Sept. 1595. Venice, 20 Sept. 1595. Oblong folio album (245 x 380 mm). 57 ff. 50 full-page pen and ink drawings of imaginary cities and their armies; 50 emblematic cartouches each containing an octave describing the opposite city, some with Latin mottos; dedication in ornamental border; allegorical cartouche with octave praising Venice on the verso. Contemporary red morocco with gilt triple fillets enclosing large oval centerpiece composed of double fllets in arabesque patterns with armorial shield, edges gilt. Stored in custom-made half morocco case.

EUR 250,000.00

Unique album with splendid manuscript designs for imaginary fortified cities, created for and dedicated to Marino Grimani in the year of his appointment as Doge of the City and Republic of Venice, which he would reign over until his death. Grimani served as Superintendent of Fortresses before becoming Doge and worked for many years on the design and construction of the Palmanova fortress, the greatest of the Renaissance star forts and constantly embattled by the Ottomans as well as by other forces for centuries to come. Vericci's album constitutes a paragon of Renaissance idealism: a utopian vision which champions the might derived from pushing human genius to the limits of the imagination, combining mathematics, philosophy, and military prowess with art, poetry, and design. Little is known about the author-artist Marco Vericci, some of whose other ingenious military designs survive in the Biblioteca Bertoliana in Vicenza, but he may have worked with Grimani on the designs for Palmanova. Italian art historian Lionello Puppi has cautiously suggested that "Vericcius" may be a pseudonym of Fillipo Pigafetta, a Venetian soldier and mathematician who wrote extensively on military fortifications. In this album, Vericci illustrates and whimsically describes fifty imaginary cities whose designs are based on the utopian mathematical ideals of the Renaissance star fort. The cities, with names like "Mirabella", "Grimanopoli", and "Durissima", are situated in elaborate landscapes (almost all are island fortresses, like their model) and are rendered in exquisite detail. The octave opposite each illustration describes the strengths and virtues of each fantastical fortress in the vein of Italo Calvino's novel "Invisible Cities" - which also featured a litany of imaginary towns all reflective of La Serenissima herself. The last illustration but one depicts the 1571 Battle of Lepanto, a major naval victory by the Holy League over the Ottomans. The Palmanova fortress was dedicated exactly 22 years, to the day, after the battle - thus its inclusion here links the glory of Lepanto explicitly to the achievements of Doge Grimani, in addition to re-situating this imaginative work in its real-life context of simmering conflict not just between Europe and the Turks, but also between Venice and Austria - her enemy to the North. - Some light soiling and spotting; some early marginal repairs where ink has corroded the paper; traces of paste on first two leaves with loss to a few letters. Otherwise in excellent state of preservation and still in its richly gilt morocco binding commissioned for the Doge of Venice (his arms in the centre of the back cover rubbed).
¶ Manfredo Tafuri, Venice and the Renaissance (Boston: MIT Press, 1995). Lionello Puppi, Scrittori vicentini d'architettura del secolo XVI (Venice: Accademia Olimpica, 1973).

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A magnificent masterpiece of calligraphy and micrography for Princess Juliana of Hesse-Darmstadt

Kirchring, Johannes, the Younger, German calligrapher (fl. 1630-1645). German Psalter in the translation of Martin Luther. Oldenburg, 1634. Oldenburg, 1634. Small 8vo (100 x 148 mm). Calligraphic manuscript on vellum and paper. 112 ff. with various blackletter scripts in black, silver and gold, all with a full borders of knotwork, interlaced and geometric designs. Prefatory calligraphic and micrographic leaves, incorporating hymns, prayers and Biblical texts, with 5 pages of intricate micrographic text. 2 blank but bordered leaves at the front and 5 at the end, monogrammed "IKR" at end of index. Contemporary green velvet over wooden boards with silver clasps.

EUR 125,000.00

A splendid calligraphic manuscript on vellum and paper created for the 28-year-old Juliana of Hesse-Darmstadt (1606-59), countess of East Frisia, later in the collection of Victoria, Princess Royal, the eldest daughter of Queen Victoria and Albert of Saxe-Coburg. The micrographic text includes the liturgical calendar for 1634, the Psalms in mirror writing, verses in a maze-like composition, and an orb-shaped device. - Johannes Kirchring, one of the greatest 17th-century calligraphers, had settled in Oldenburg as early as 1592; he is last recorded in 1630 living with his son and successor, the painter and calligrapher Johannes Kirchring the Younger. The Kirchrings were superb exponents of the calligraphic skills developed in Germany during the 16th century, stimulated rather than extinguished by the demands of type design for printed books. Their micrography probably drew on the rich Jewish tradition of Bible decoration that was especially strong in Germany. Although Lutherans were not forbidden religious images, they shared with Judaism a great concern about the dangers of idolatry as well as great scholarly respect for the written word. Elaborate calligraphy and intricate micrography in elegant combinations of gold, silver and black were a splendid yet appropriate way of honouring the Word of God. - Another Lutheran Psalter, handwritten by Johannes Kirchring the Elder, was sold at Sotheby’s in 1994 and subsequently commanded £151,250 at Christie's in 2010 (The Arcana Collection Sale II, lot 18) - the only example ever to have been offered at auction. Apart from this, only four specimens of Kirchring's craft are known to exist, all in public collections (Stockholm Royal Library; Oldenburg State Museum; Halle University Library; Lübeck Municipal Library). A hymnal likely penned by Kirchring the younger in 1637 is known to have been owned by the brothers Grimm. - Provenance: Dedicated by the artist to Princess Juliana of Hesse-Darmstadt, wife of Count Ulrich II of East Frisia. The 19th century front flyleaf bears the ink signature of Princess Victoria Adelaide Mary Louisa (1840-1901). Victoria, the eldest daughter of Queen Victoria and created Princess Royal in 1841, was German Empress and Queen of Prussia by marriage to German Emperor Frederick III and mother of German Emperor Wilhelm II. - In perfect condition.

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''An Innocent Arab Proposing the Destiny of the Universe''

Allaeus, Franciscus. Astrologiae Nova Methodus. Francisci Allaei, Arabis Christiani. [Rennes, Julian Herbert], 1654[-1655]. [Rennes, Julian Herbert], 1654[-1655]. Folio (235 x 360 mm). (4), 4, 12 pp. 57, (1) pp. 26 pp., terminal blank. With 1 engraved disc in the text of the first count (a repeat of disc 2 of the first volvelle), 3 volvelles in the first section, composed of 11 parts; and 2 volvelles in the second section, composed of 6 parts. Contemporary full vellum.

EUR 15,000.00

Rare second, expurged edition of this remarkable treatise offering predictions for the destiny of European nations, issued without place or printer in the year of the almost unobtainable first edition, most copies of which were burned by the hangman at Nantes and Rennes shortly after publication. The first edition was deemed offensive due to the predictions of five volvelles in the second section which offered horoscopes for Islam, Christianity, France, Spain, and England. A "Figura Sectae Mahometanae" dared to give a horoscope of the Prophet Mohammed and a list of significant events in the history of Islam; this was followed by predictions which included the suggestion that a quarter of the world would be Islamic by 1703. The horoscope of Christianity also included dire predictions: indeed, those for the fate of England (ending with the wiping out of the English nation in 1884) caused a serious diplomatic rift, resulting in the English ambassador demanding the book be suppressed. The present edition of the "Astrologiae Nova Methodus" (and subsequent ones) omits the incriminated 7 pages and 5 volvelles; instead, it prefixes a new, two-page introduction entitled "Principiorum Astrologiae Brevis Expositio" ("The Principles of Astrology, Set Out in Brief"), which explains one of the movable discs in detail. - The book's authorship remains a mystery. It is attributed on the title-page to a certain Francisco Allaeio, "Christian Arab", but this is probably a pseudonym for Yves de Paris, a Capuchin monk known for his anti-establishment views. The third section of the work offers a religious justification for the relevance of astrological prediction, in which the author defends himself as an "innocent Arab proposing the destiny of the universe" (p. 5). - Endpapers not pasted to covers; some browning, fingerstaining and edge defects, but still a good, wide-margined copy. A 13-page typewritten German translation of the preliminary matter ("The Fate of the Author" and "The Principles of Astrology"), apparently the work of a German scholar of the 1930s with an attractive hand-drawn title page in red, yellow and black ink, is inserted at the end. - Provenance: 1) Heinrich Xaver Baron Wiser, minister of Palatinate-Neuburg at the court of Madrid in the 1690s and at Naples from 1709 to 1713 (his handwritten ownership on the title-page); 2) Johann Oeler, legal advisor to the Barons Sturmfeder (his handwritten shelfmark and ownership, dated Mannheim, 24 Nov. 1806, on front endpaper); 3) Moritz (Carl August) Axt (1801-62), German classicist and educator (his handwritten ownership on flyleaf).
¶ Cf. Houzeau/Lancaster 5217. Caillet III, 11557. Thorndike VIII, 310ff. Peignot, Dictionnaire des livres condamnés au feu II, 204f. Dorbon-Ainé, Bibliotheca Esoterica, 61f.

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Foundational document of the University of Vienna's
College of Oriental Languages

Podesta, Johann Baptist. Prodromus novi linguarum orientalium collegii: Jussu, Augustißimi, Potentißimi... ac Invictißimi Romanorum Imperatoris Loepoldi Primi Germaniae, Hungariae, Bohemiaeque regis &c. Archiducis Austriae. Erigendi, in Antiquissima ac Celeberrima Universitate Viennensi, post ferias Autumnales: Per Ioannem Baptistam Podesta, summedictae Caesareae Majest. à Secretis, in linguis Orientalibus. Ad Excelsorum Inferioris Austriae, caeterarumque Provinciarum Statuum, Augustißimae Domni Austricae parentium, nec non ad Fidelissimorum, Nobilitumque Civium Viennesium reliquarumque Urbium Austriaci Dominii respective Illustrißimos, Nobilissimos, Perillustres, Praenobiles, Generosos, optimosque Filios. Accessit discursus de requisitis in interprete ad servituim Principis alicujus adspirante. Vienna, Leopold Voigt, (1674). Vienna, Leopold Voigt, (1674). 4to. (56) pp. With woodcut tailpiece. Marbled papered spine.

EUR 3,500.00

Foundational document of the University of Vienna's College of Oriental Languages, inaugurated in 1674. As is most Catholic countries, the study of Arabic had long been neglected in favour of the more urgent Turkish. The talented linguist Podesta (1625-88) from Fasano on Lake Garda had been made Vienna's first professor of oriental languages. "He had studied Arabic with Maracci in Rome in 1673, had a good command of Turkish and knew, as did Meninski, that for a proper understanding of Turkey's administrative language a solid understading of Arabic and Persian was indispensable" (cf. Fück, 93). Vienna's famous Oriental Academy would not be founded until 1754. - A few Arabic interspersions and a few lines of Arabic and Persian type specimens in the text, apparently printed from wooden blocks, while the respective passages in the copy in the Austrian National Library are inserted in handwriting (cf. Mayer). A good, insignificantly browned copy. Extremely rare; only three copies in libraries internationally (ÖNB; British Library; UB Augsburg).
¶ Weiss 1839, 26f. Mayer I, 298, 1921. OCLC 630185768.

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Museum-quality manuscript herbal

Schötz, Wolfgang, Swabian pharmacist (d. 1695). Flora delicians, sive icones plantarum ex hortis, pratis... et nemoribus nostratibus collectarum, artificisque penicillo exhibitarum studio Wolfgangi Schoetzij pharmacopaei Memmingensis. Memmingen, 1676. Memmingen, 1676. Folio (208 x 310 mm). Latin ms. and illustrations on paper. 184 ff. with gilt-raised title-page and a total of 292 watercolour and gouache plant illustrations (1 double-page), captioned and numbered 1-290 by a contemporary hand (nos. 45 and 149 assigned twice). 19th century green half cloth over marbled boards. Stored in custom-made half morocco case.

EUR 125,000.00

Unique, museum-quality manuscript herbal, previously unknown to research, compiled for the Memmingen pharmacist Wolfgang Schötz by an unidentified but obviously professionally trained artist. The nearly 300 watercolours and gouaches, all impressively accomplished, show the principal Central European medicinal, poisonous, spice and ornamental plants as they were to be found in the gardens, meadows and forests of the free imperial city of Memmingen: hollyhock, tarragon, snow pea, prunella, dandelion, spiked rampion (phyteuma spicatum), swallow-wort (asclepias vincetoxicum), echium, caper spurge (euphorbia lathyris), white bryony (wild hop, Bryonia alba), staghorn sumac (Rhus typhina), poppy (papaver rhoeas), banewort (atropa belladonna), foxglove (digitalis), hemlock (Conium maculatum), as well as splendid tulips, irises and martagon lilies, Jacob's ladder (polemonium), rose, chrysanthemum, gentian, daffodil, barberry, etc. The shapes of the leaves and blossoms, often also of the roots and bulbs are rendered with extreme precision; occasionally, the illustration is enlivened with beetles, caterpillars and other insects, drawn with similarly meticulous realism. The Latin and German captions are apparently by two different writers; some of the Latin annotations may be in Schötz's own hand. The quality of the draughtsmanship and colouring approaches that of the roughly contemporaneous studies by Nicolas Robert, whose documentation of the plants in the French royal gardens, commissioned by the court of Versailles, were famous even then and remain so to this day. - The pharmacist Wolfgang Schötz (Schütz) also served as judge in the municipal court of his native Memmingen. Correspondence in his hand with the German physician and alchemist Johann Joachim Becker (1635-82) has survived in the latter scholar's posthumous papers in Rostock. Schötz was considered "the largest and strongest man" in town; when he died in 1695, ten men were needed to bear his mortal remains to the graveyard (cf. J. F. Unold, Geschichte der Stadt Memmingen [1826], p. 292). - Title-page somewhat duststained and rubbed. Leaves numbered 1-183 in pencil in the later 19th century, probably during rebinding; a few leaves transposed. A few edge flaws (some with early repairs); edges somewhat fingerstained and dampstained throughout with a larger dampstain near the end, but illustrations preserved in brilliant original colour. A masterpiece of botanical illustration.

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The astronomy, astrology and allied sciences
of the Arabs, Persians and Turks

Beck, Matthias Friedrich. [At-Taqwim sana 609] sive Ephemerides Persarum per totum... annum, juxta epochas celebriores orientis, Alexandream, Christi, Diocletiani, Hegirae, Jesdegirdicam et Gelalaeam [...]. Augsburg, Jakob Koppmayer for Lorenz Kroniger and the heirs of Gottlieb Göbel, 1695-1696. Augsburg, Jakob Koppmayer for Lorenz Kroniger and the heirs of Gottlieb Göbel, 1695-1696. Folio (213 x 330 mm). (9) pp. of text with an engraved headpiece, (27) pp. of engraved astrological charts, 80 pp. of text with 4 engravings in the text. Title-page printed in red and black. Contemporary unsophistocated boards.

EUR 25,000.00

Only edition of this rare treatise on the astronomy, astrology and allied sciences of the Arabs, Persians and Turks. Once "said to be the first book printed with Persian characters" (Anderson, The library of the late George H. Hart of New York City, Part II [1922], no. 471), it remains an impressive achievement, even if the oriental languages are here in fact rendered in Hebrew letters, while the Persian specimens are engraved. (The first book in Persian characters was produced at Leiden more than a half-century earlier.) - The Swabian theologian Beck (1649-1701) studied history and oriental literature at Jena, soon surpassing his teachers. "The principal object of his studies always remained the oriental languages; and his great knowledge of Hebrew, Samaritan, Chaldaic, Syriac, Ethiopian, Persian, Arabic, and Turkish gained him such renown that he even drew a pension from the Prussian crown for them" (ADB II, 218). - First and last leaf somewhat browned, otherwise very clean. Stamp "Eigentum der Stadt Augsburg" to title-page.
¶ VD 17, 39:125183T. Caillet 901. Lalande p. 330. Gardner II, 102.

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A landmark in the literature of Portuguese expansion in the East: rare, almost all copies having perished in the Lisbon earthquake of 1755

Galvão, Antonio. Tratado dos descobrimentos antigos, e modernos. Feitos até... a Era de 1550, com os nomes particulares das pessoas que os fizerao. Lisbon, Officina Ferreiriana, 1731. Lisbon, Officina Ferreiriana, 1731. Folio (202 x 294 mm). (16), 100 pp. Title printed win red and black. With woodcut title vignette and full-page woodcut of the author at the end of the preliminaries. 19th century half cloth.

EUR 9,500.00

Second edition of Galvao's great history of exploration and voyages, including the Portuguese conquests on the Arabian coast, in the Gulf, and in the Kingdom of Ormus. The first edition, published in 1563, is considered virtually unobtainable, as only some five or six copies are known to exist. "This second edition, says Innocencio, 'has been equally rare for many years, since almost all copies were lost, in the house of a bookdealer, during the Lisbon earthquake'" (Borba de Moraes). Galvao's text was translated in 1601 by Hakluyt, who complained about the rarity of the first edition even then, and had to rely on a copy sent from Lisbon. - Born in 1503, Galvao was sent to India in 1527, and after distinguishing himself there, he was appointed governor of the Moluccas. He maintained a keen interest in military and religious affairs throughout his career, and spent the latter part of his life assembling accounts of the voyages that comprise this collection. He provides a relatively succinct chronological list of ancient and modern discoveries to the year 1550, including those by Columbus, Cabral, Cortés, and Pizarro. "Ce livre est divisé en deux parties: la première traite des premières navigations, y compris celles faites par les Espagnols et les Portugais dans l'océan Atlantique et aux côtes d'Afrique. La seconde partie contient toutes les découvertes faites par les Espagnols et les Portugais en Amérique et aux Indes jusqu'en l'année 1550" (Leclerc). "The author has been styled 'the founder of historical geography'. The book gives a good summary of the geographical explorations of the Portuguese and other important voyagers, including the English" (Hill). - Spine worn. Slight spotting and thumbing throughout, slight worming to lower blank margin of first 6 leaves, minor hole to blank margin of fol. M3.
¶ Sabin 26468. Borba de Moraes 289. Bosch 180. Rodrigues 1059. Palau 182.290. Leclerc 225. Innocencio I, 147, 720. Hill 670. Bibliotheca Americana 642. European Americana 731/89.

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''An Innocent Arab Proposing the Destiny of the Universe'':
An Unpublished French Manuscript with 10 Volvelles

Allaeus, Franciscus. Nouvelle Methode Astrologique de François Allay Arabe Chretien.... 1654. [France, ca. 1750]. [France, ca. 1750]. 4to (175 x 220 mm). 138, (4), (31) pp. With 10 volvelles complete with 10 moving parts. French manuscript in brown ink on laid paper watermarked with a crown, wheel, and the letters "G.R." (Dutch, ca. 1750). Volvelles drawn and mounted on thicker, unwatermarked laid paper. Bound in 20th century quarter vellum.

EUR 28,000.00

Sole recorded witness of a vernacular translation of this forbidden, volvelle-laden manual of prognostication, burned upon publication at the orders of the Bishop of Nantes. Appearing in 1654 as the "Astrologiae Nova Methodus", the work was immediately condemned (cf. Caillet and Dorbon) and is excessively rare in census today; no vernacular translation is known to have been published. - The treatise was deemed offensive due to the predictions of 5 volvelles in the second section, which offer horoscopes for Islam, Christianity, France, Spain, and England. The "Figure de la Secte Mahometane" found here on pp. 127-131 dares to give a horoscope of the Prophet Mohammed and a list of significant events in the history of Islam - including the suggestion that a quarter of the world will be Islamic by 1703 (mistranscribed here as 1603); the horoscope of Christianity also includes dire predictions up to 1800. The predictions for the fate of England which had caused a serious diplomatic dispute - resulting in the English ambassador demanding the book be suppressed - are curiously avoided here, and the commentary instead ends during the reign of Queen Elizabeth. In the more common censured editions of the "Astrologiae Nova Methodus", neither these 5 volvelles nor any part of their textual elaborations are included. - The present manuscript certainly advertises itself as a ready for printing, beginning with a preface from the "printer to the reader", in which the author states that he encountered the 1654 Rennes edition by chance and was encouraged to produce his own "ouvrage" of it despite being aware of its censure, "quoique tous les curieux le demandassent avec empressement, nous avons differé de le donner au public, jusqu'a ce qu'il eur essayé la censure des connoisseurs". He explains the scandals attributed to the original as due to minor faults in the original "principles"; "what's more, the particular figures of France, Spain, and England were in any case erroneous thanks to the engraver, whom as we have learned was always drunk". This 18th-century editor explains that he has now corrected certain egregious faults and has simplified a few volvelles. - According to the "Vie de l'Auteur" (pp. 3-6), he is a patriotic native of Arabia Felix; as he explains, among the blessings accorded to this happy nation are fertile soils, medicinal plants, and a large number of illustrious men well-versed in astrology. The original title-page of the Rennes edition attributes the work to a certain Francisco Allaeio, "Christian Arab", but this is probably a pseudonym for Yves de Paris, a Capuchin monk known for his anti-establishment views. The final unpaginated section of the work, following the index, offers a 31-page religious justification for the relevance of astrological prediction, in which the author defends himself as "an innocent Arab proposing the destiny of the universe". - Provenance: likely the great 18th century bibliophile the Duc de La Vallière (1708-80; his sale, 1783, lot 1822). The Abbé Duclos' "Dictionnaire bibliographique, historique et critique des livres rares" (1791) notes a manuscript under exactly the same title as the present work (vol. I, p. 25) and adds the description "in-4. Manuscrit sur papier du XVIIIe Siècle, vendu 12 liv. chez M. de Duc de la Vallière, en 1784". Examining the sale catalogue of the Duc de la Vallière (1783), we find a further description of his manuscript as "très proprement écrit, contenant 359 feuillets". Among the contents of that manuscript was a "Pratique abrégée des jugemens astrologiques sur les Nativités & autres traités astrologiques" not found here, and perhaps formerly occupying the rest of the volume; it is evident that the present manuscript was rebound sometime in the 20th century. Unidentified engraved bookplate on paste-down as well as that of the collector Gonzague de Marliave.
¶ Peignot II, 204f. Thorndike VIII, pp. 310-312. Dorbon-Ainé 61f. Houzeau/L. 5217 ("excessively rare… this work was burned due to the predictions it contains. The first edition is the only complete one, the two further editions were expurgated"). Caillet III, 11557 ("the first edition, extremely rare, was burnt in Nantes or Rennes by the censorship officials").

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Unique copy from the collection of the wealthiest man in the Habsburg monarchy

Spalowsky, Joachim Johann Nepomuk Anton. Beytrag zur Naturgeschichte der Vögel. Vols. 1, 4,... 5, and 6 (of 6). Vienna, self-published, 1790-1795. Vienna, self-published, 1790-1795. 4to. 4 vols. (10), 20 pp. (10), 40 pp. (14), 33 pp. (12), 19 pp. With 2 watercoloured and 4 coloured engraved coats of arms, 1 coloured engraved dedication plate, 183 (instead of 186) plates of birds, 15 of which in watercolour and 168 on splendidly illuminated engraved plates, partly heightened in gold, silver and copper, with lavish watercolour borders. Contemporary glazed red morocco binding with double gilt engraved spine labels, splendid floral spine and cover gilding. Vols. 4-6 with coloured armorial supralibros to upper covers. Calico endpapers, all edges gilt.

EUR 250,000.00

Unique copy of one of the rarest works of zoological book illustration, from the library of the banker, art collector, and patron Moritz von Fries (1777-1826), for whom the set was in all likelihood specially produced. Around 1800, Fries was considered without doubt the richest man in the Habsburg monarchy. The splendid engraved plates were elaborately illuminated, each with rich botanical and architectural decoration extending even beyond the engraved matter. In addition, the copy at hand was enhanced by 15 original watercolours (all in vols. 5 and 6), whereas the regular copies include merely prints. The only verifiable complete copies, in the Austrian National Library (ÖNB) and the Bavarian State Library (BSB), show less splendid decoration, with only three watercolours each in the respective volumes and no watercolour borders whatsoever. The Fideicommissum collection in the ÖNB holds 5 illuminated volumes of Spalowsky's work, with volume 5 containing the highest traceable number of watercolours among all copies available for comparison. As the final volume is lacking in the Fideicommissum collection, the eight watercolours and splendid framings of vol. 6 of Fries's copy are probably unique. - Since 1932, the only copies traceable at auction were those at Ketterer, 2017 (vols. 1-4) and Christie's, 2012 (vols. 1-3). The volumes sold in 2017, along with the ones at the ÖNB and BSB, belong to the normal edition without the watercolour embellishment and the artist's colouring, while the copy sold at Christie's would seem to have been at least comparable to Fries's in respect to its décor. However, neither the Christie's copy nor any of the others discussed above include any original watercolours, which are to be found in that of Fries's alone. - The splendid avian illustrations surrounded by landscape motifs and architectural decoration are labelled in red ink, identifying the animals' German and scientific names. The labelling is sometimes overpainted, suggesting that the decision to extend the watercolour décor was made at a later stage. The engravings were produced by five artists, among which were Benedikt Piringer and Sámuel Czetter. In vol. 5 of the Fideicommissum copy, Piringer signed one of the watercolours, proving that he provided templates for the engravers and contributed to the colouring. - Spalowsky's "Naturgeschichte der Vögel" was planned as part of a large natural history publication. In a subscription announcement from 1791 the surgeon and army physician advertised the plates showing species "previously not illustrated by any author" and promises the vivid, realistic colour "of the originals". A large proportion of the species depicted, including four falcons, originate from Asia, mostly from India and China, and are not to be found in Brisson's or Buffon's works. The present copy constitutes a special edition of the most expensive version of decoration, priced at 36 guilders - 15 times the cost of the plainest version. The eventual failure of this ambitious project was undoubtedly due not alone to the author's untimely death in 1797, although Spalowsky did succeed in wooing several prominent dedicatees for his elaborate publication. The "Naturgeschichte der Vögel" is dedicated to Alois I Joseph von Liechtenstein and Caroline von Manderscheid-Blankenheim (vol. 1), Beethoven's patron Franz Joseph Maximilian von Lobkowitz and Caroline Theresa von Schwarzenberg (vol. 4), Wenzel count Paar and Maria Antonia Princess Liechtenstein (vol. 5), as well as Anton Theodor von Colloredo-Waldsee-Mels, archbishop of Olmütz (vol. 6). - Provenance: 1) Maurice count Fries, with his library stamps, "EX BIBL(iotheca) MAVR(icii) COM(es) FRIES" to title-page (verso), now obscured by monogrammed red seals ("MF"); 2) Dorotheum sale, 12 Feb. 1932, lot 44, 75 ATS (description mounted to lower flyleaf of vol. 6); 3) Austrian private collection; 4) Dorotheum sale, 18 Dec. 2019, lot 222, not mentioning the Fries provenance or the 15 watercolours. - Marginal flaw to armorial supralibros of vol. 5. Lacks 3 plates (plate 2 in vol. 1, plates 6 and 39 in vol. 5). Index and plate 42 in vol. 4 have small flaws. Plate 31 in vol. 1, plate 43 in vol. 4, and plate 44, as well as one armorial engraving in vol. 5 slightly smudged.
¶ Nissen, IVB 888. Schlenker 345.1. Wurzbach XXXVI.56. Sitwell/Buchanan p. 143. Not in Nissen, ZBI. Not in Anker.

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The rarest and most sumputous publication marking the Enlightenment of the Ottoman Empire

Mahmoud Ra'if. Tableau des nouveaux reglemens de l'Empire Ottoman. Constantinople, Imprimerie du Genie, sous la direction de Abdurrahman Efendi, 1798. Constantinople, Imprimerie du Genie, sous la direction de Abdurrahman Efendi, 1798. Folio (210 x 308 mm). 60 pp. With 27 engraved and etched plates (some double-page). Contemporary speckled sheep. Marbled pastedowns.

EUR 65,000.00

First and only edition, printed at the second printing press established in Istanbul. "A rare and very interesting work outlining the military reforms and the regulations for the New Troops established by Selim III in 1796/97" (Blackmer). The author, Mahmoud Ra'if, was a member of the reform movement instigated in Turkey by Sultan Selim III, who tried to change the traditional political structures of the Ottoman Empire and replace them with a political state that owed much to his youthful contact with Europe, and more particularly, the influence of the French Revolution. After his succession in 1789, Selim took steps to establish a new state under the Nizam-Jedid ("new order") regulations - from which the present work derives - underpinning his state with the formation of a new army and military infrastructure. Among moves towards "Europeanisation" were the installation of printing presses at the military engineering school (where the present work, the first from the press in roman types, was printed), and the establishment of Ottoman embassies in the capitals of Europe, including London, where Mahmoud Ra'if served as secretary to the Ottoman Ambassador in the mid 1790s. As outsiders feared, the very reforms which are the subject of his work led to Selim's murder in 1808, while the author himself was "cut to pieces" by the enraged Janissaries whose elite position had been threatened. "The establishment of these troops - the Nizam-Jedid - and the jealousy which this aroused was one of the main factors leading to the revolt of the Janissaries in 1808 which cost Selim, and later the author of this work, their lives" (Blackmer). - Binding very slightly worn, interior clean and flawless throughout. Provenance: armorial bookplate of the Swedish diplomat Johan Henrik Tawast (1763-1841), who was seconded to Constantinople in 1812-13 to help negotiate the Russian-Turkish peace treaty of Bucharest; his autograph note "Scutari, 9 janvier 1813. 16 piastres, 20 pares" inscribed to front pastedown. Latterly in the collection of Thomas Fremantle, 3rd Baron Cottesloe (1862-1956), commander of the Territorial Army and president of the Society for Army History Research.
¶ Atabey 752. Blackmer 1060.

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The first periodical of the Arab world:
the extremely rare, complete set

[Décade égyptienne]. La Décade égyptienne. Journal littéraire et d'économie politique.... Cairo, de l'imprimerie nationale, an VII-VIII [1798-1801]. Cairo, de l'imprimerie nationale, an VII-VIII [1798-1801]. Small 4to. 3 vols. (2), 300 pp. (2), 300 pp. 316 pp. Near-contemporary half calf over green papered boards with gilt spines.

EUR 85,000.00

Extremely rare, entirely complete run of this journal, praised by Guérmard as a "truly scientific review" and hailed by Glass and Roper as the first periodical published in the "Arab world". The 916 pages of these various issues appeared between 1798 and 21 March 1801: first every 10 days, then monthly for the second volume, and quarterly for the third. - The journal has great interest for marking the beginning of printing in Egypt: "The expedition of Napoleon Bonaparte to Egypt from 1798 until 1801 was a prelude to modernity. It was to change permanently the traditional Arab world [...] The French brought Arabic typography to Egypt [...] For, leaving aside the Hebrew printing presses in Egypt of the 16th to the 18th centuries, until this date announcements and news adressed to Arabs there, as well as in other parts of the Arab-Islamic world, had been spread only in hand-writing or orally, by criers, preachers or storytellers [...] The periodical [...] 'La Décade Egyptienne' [was one of] the first press productions of Egypt" (D. Glass and G. Roper, cf. below). - The journal took its name from the "Décade philosophique", the publication of the Institut National's Section des Sciences morales et politiques, and contains "soit le texte intégral, soit le texte intégral, soit des extraits d'un grand nombre de mémoires ou rapports présentés au premier Institut d'Égypte par des membres de l'expédition, faisant pour la plupart partie de la Commission des sciences et arts. On y trouve également des observations faites par des médicins placés sous les ordres de Desgenettes. Celui-ci dirigea d'ailleurs la publication après le départ de Tallien" (de Meulenaere). At the time of the French capitulation, the first 24 pages of a fourth volume were in the press, but they were never distributed, and the only copy of these sheets remains in the Library of the Royal Museums of Art and History in Brussels (cf. ibid.). - First and last volume show traces of worming, occasionally touching the text, with additional brownstains in the lower corner of vol. 3 near the end. Bound in the mid-19th century for Gaillardot Bey, with his handwritten ownership "Ch. Gaillardot" on the half-title of the first volume. D. Charles Gaillardot (1814-83) served as one of the two vice-presidents of the Egyptian Institute in 1881. A professor of natural history at the National School of Medicine in Cairo founded by Antoine Clot Bey, for 20 years head physician at the military hospital and finally director of the Cairo medical school, he had created in the Egyptian capital a "Musée Bonaparte" of his personal collections, comprising books, engravings, weapons, and decorative items - keepsakes of the French Expedition to Egypt, today dispersed (cf. Gerhard Rohlfs, Voyages et explorations; Marc Chartier, Bayt el-Sennari). Later in the collection of the writer André Maurois (1885-1967) with his engraved bookplate to pastedown.
¶ D. Glass/G. Roper, Arabic Book and Newspaper Printing in the Arab World, in: Middle Eastern Languages and the Print Revolution (Gutenberg Museum Mainz 2002), pp. 177-216, at pp. 182 & 207 ("scientific magazine [... first periodical] of the 'Arab world'"). Maunier, Bibliogr. économique, juridique, et sociale de l'Égypte moderne, p. XXIV, no. 2. De Meulenaere, Bibliogr. raisonnée des témoignages de l'Expédition de l'Égypte, p. 57. Not in Blackmer or Atabey.

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Dancing steps and music

[French Dance Manual]. Cottillons / Angloises. Likely Northern Germany or Denmark, late 18th century. 2 vols.: I) Oblong 12mo (115 x 91 mm). 12 pp. of handwritten music for cottillions, 4 pp. of hand-drawn blank staves, 46 blank ff.; head over heels: 55 pp. of handwritten music for anglaises. - II) 16mo (60 x 91 mm). 1 p. of handwritten index ("Table des Cotillons"), 1 blank f., 22 pp. of dance step diagrams, 38 blank ff.; head over heels: 1 p. of handwritten index ("Table des Angloises"), 1 blank f., 56 pp. of dance step diagrams. Both bound in contemporary full calf, spines gilt, all edges sprinkled red, with titles "Cotillons" and "Angloises" gilt to covers of both volumes. Stored together in contemporary calf slipcase, open at both ends.

Very appealing and well-preserved volumes of musical notes and dance-steps, drawn in red and black ink. Most of the dances are titled in French ("Passe-temps", "La Vole"). "L'Impromtu", "La Beguine"), occasionally in English ("King George"), while the annotations to the steps of the "angloises" are in Danish. - Anglaises and cottillons are contra-dances based on English and French dance styles that in the 17th and 18th century developed into extremely popular ballroom dances. Famous composers such as Mozart and Bethoven assimilated and refined elements of contra-dance compositions. - Bindings and slipcase slightly rubbed and scuffed, but altogether a charming ensemble: two head-over-heels volumes stored in a highly unusual, double-ended slipcase.


A 'Zealous Muslim' and a Hajji:
Alexander the Great in the Islamic Tradition

Hakim abu Muhammad Ilyas bin Yusuf bin Zaki (known as Nizami Ganjavi). Eskander-Nama. Kashmir, 18th or early 19th century. Kashmir, 18th or early 19th century. 4to (23 x 15 cm). Persian manuscript on paper, executed in black ink within red- and blue- ruled borders in two columns, approx. 17 lines per page. (415) pp on 208 ff., with gilt title ornament on p. (1). Bound in 18th or 19th century calf, rebacked in the late 19th century(?), with renewed spine lacking some material as well. Housed in a custom 19th century slipcase.

EUR 7,500.00

Full manuscript, complete in 72 titled stanzas and 6,866 verse couplets, of this celebrated Islamic biography of Alexander the Great (356-323 BC). The colophon of the present manuscript states that it was composed in the Persian Year 570, i. e. 1202 AD, and we suspect that the present copy was executed in Northern India, probably Kashmir (where Alexander is said to have finally halted his campaign, dying soon after), in the late 18th or early 19th century. "The Alexander of the Persian romances is much more colorful than his Western counterpart [...] Nizami celebrates him first as a king and conqueror, then as a sage and a prophet. In 'Iskandarnamah', in addition to being a zealous Moslem, Alexander becomes an ardent lover with numerous wives and concubines" (Southgate, "Portraits of Alexander in Persian Alexander-Romances of the Islamic Era"). - Islamic myths about Alexander the Great are thought to have derived in part from Qur'anic references to the "Dhu'l-Qarnayn" ("He of the Two Horns") as well as from the Greek sources in translation. "The principal episodes of the legend of Alexander, as known to the Muslim tradition, are elaborated in the [Eskander-nama]: the birth of Alexander, his succession to the Macedonian throne, his war against the Negroes who had invaded Egypt, the war with the Persians, ending with the defeat and death of Dara and Alexander's marriage to Dara's daughter, his pilgrimage to Mecca. Nezami then dwells at some length on Alexander's stay in the Caucasus and his visit to Queen Nushaba of Barda'a and her court of Amazons; this lady takes over the role of Candace in earlier versions of the Alexander saga. Alexander then goes to India and China. During his absence the Rus (i.e., the Russian Vikings) invade the Caucasus and capture Barda'a (as they in fact did some two centuries before Nezami's time) and take Nushaba prisoner. Alexander's wars with the Rus, which are depicted at considerable length, end with his victory and his magnanimous treatment of the defeated army. The [Eskander-nama] concludes with the account of Alexander's unsuccessful search for the water of immortal life" (Encylopaedia Iranica, Vol. VIII, pp. 612-614). Along the way Alexander's conquests of much of Central Asia and the pre-Islamic world are described: Dara (Syria), Ajam (near Kuwait), Kayan (Afghanistan), the Arabian Peninsula, Khorasan (Northern Iran), and so on. - Contents in good order and sound, with a handful of ancient paper repairs to margins throughout. Early (Urdu?) ownership inscriptions on endpapers as well as 19th century English inscription of flyleaf. Bookplate of James Henry Stone (1829-1908) on pastedown. - Manuscripts of the "Eskander-nama" are of great rarity on the market: we are aware of no other examples currently offered for sale, and the last we can find in auction records sold at Sotheby's in 1970 (consisting of just 97 ff).
¶ Cf. Sprengler, A Catalogue of the Arabic, Persian and Hindústány Manuscripts Vol. 1, #422; Southgate, "Portraits of Alexander in Persian Alexander-Romances of the Islamic Era" Journal of the American Oriental Society Vol. 97 (1977), pp. 278-284.

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The personal writing case of Archduke Charles

[Charles, Archduke of Austria, Duke of Teschen (1771-1847)]. Portable writing case. Austria or southern Germany, early 19th century. 415 x 295 mm. Limp full calf portfolio, dyed in two shades, with giltstamped floral and ornamental borders and similar border around inset oval centerpiece. Pink moirée silk endpapers.

EUR 3,500.00

The personal writing case of Archduke Charles, famous for his victory over Napoleon in the Battle of Aspern and as the modernizer of Austrian military organization and administration during his long tenure, from 1801 to 1809, as President of the Council of War. A master binding from the collection of the Austrian art historian and longtime director of Vienna's Albertina collections, Walter Koschatzky (1921-2003), on whose information the attribution is based. - Edges scuffed and split in places; lower spine somewhat rubbed. A charming survival.

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Alexander von Humboldt's detailed study of the salt mines of Zipaquirá

Humboldt, Alexander von, naturalist, geographer, ethnographer and scientific traveller (1769-1859). Memoire raisonné sur la Saline de Zipaquira. Autograph... manuscript signed twice ("F. A. de Humboldt" and "Humboldt"). [Zipaquirá, Cundinamarca, Colombia], Sept. 1801. [Zipaquirá, Cundinamarca, Colombia], Sept. 1801. Tall 4to (156 x 246 mm). French ms. on paper. 47 pp. (including autograph title-page). Near-contemporary giltstamped full calf with giltstamped title in English to upper cover and author's last name to spine. Leading edges gilt.

EUR 65,000.00

An exceptional report and a fine example of the observational and analytical skills that marked Humboldt's work on his celebrated expedition to Spanish America, authorized by the Spanish monarchy in 1799. Accompanied by Aimé Bonpland he arrived in Colombia, after having spent three months in Cuba, in July 1801. In September he visited the vast salt mines of Zipaquirá in the Cundinamarca Department, thirty miles north of Bogotá, resulting in the report at hand. These salt deposits were formed 250 million years ago and had been exploited by the pre-Columbian Muisca people since the 5th century B.C. Humboldt's description, written in French in his diminutive hand, covers 46 tightly-packed pages. After three pages of introductory remarks, he divides his work into sections titled "Vues géologique. Exploitation de la mine", "Sources salées et leur Concentration", and "Cuite de Sel et Transport du Produit". - In his account Humboldt notes that the mine was bigger than those found in Spain, Switzerland, Poland, and the Tyrol, with a calculated resource estimation of one million cubic meters. He also describes the traditional halite mining at the site and recommends a switch to drift mining, following the principle used at Berchtesgaden, Hallein and Aussee, where the conditions are similar: "Voici la methode de laquelle on s'y prendrait, d'après l'analogie de Berchtesgaden, Hallein, Aussee dont le local est absolument semblable à celui de Zipaquira". He proposes driving corridors through the mountain towards the South and Southwest, thus reaching deeper levels where the purest salt is located. Once this fertile level is reached, large areas of 90,000-150,000 square feet need to be excavated, as far as the rock's solidity permits, creating 15-20 chambers on different levels, their number depending on the amount of salt produced and the richness of the mine. In these chambers, or "Wöhre", the miner will encounter fresh water running down the walls nibbling at the salt they contain, enriching itself up to a salinity of 25%. The water then merely needs to be channeled away and heated: "On percera la montagne de Sel par des galleries (Socabones) que l'on poussera en avant au Sud et Sudouest vers les points ou le Sel gemme est le plus riche. On fait, par ce qui a été dit antérieurement que le sel le plus pure est a une profondeur a laquelle la fouille actuelle n'att[e]int pas [...] Arrivé dans une partie de la mine bien abondontée on fera de grandes excavations de plus de 90,000 à 150,000 piés quarrés de superficie selon que la solidité de la Roche, (de Sel gemme) le permet. Ces excavations qu'en langue de mineur en nomme Wöhre ou Sinkwerke, sont de grandes Sal[l]es souterraines de 2-3 toises de haut [...] On a, selon la quantité de Sel que l'on produit et la richesse de la mine 15-20 de ces Chambres dans une Montagne de Sel, a differentes hauteurs [...] C'est dans ces Wöhre que par des puits ou des galleries superieurs selon que l'on rencontre les eaux douces [...] Elles y dissolvent, en rongeant, le Sel gemme contenu dans les parois [...] Lorsque l'Arcometre annonce au mineur que les eaux douces se sont enrichis à 24-25 p. C. [...] on fait découler ces pour ces artificielles qui ne necessite, plus que d'être cuites [...]". - Title-page and final page lightly duststained, minor ink stains in places. Spine and hinges professionally repaired.

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A To-Do List for Beethoven's Servant

Beethoven, Ludwig van, composer (1770-1827). Autograph document. [Vienna, ca. 1817]. [Vienna, ca. 1817]. Oblong 4to (248 x 230 mm). 1 page (9 lines). Ink on paper. Watermark: "Iglau Alten Berg".

EUR 95,000.00

A shopping list, written for a servant, comprising six items to be obtained in Vienna: "Beym Met Uhrmacher den Metronomm. / MäuseFall / ZündMaschine / BalbierMeßer 3 / WaschSeife an der Bognergaße / Bücher Maschin in der Wohn[un]g des Hr. Bruders" ("Metronome at the watchmaker's; mousetrap; lighter; 3 razors; washing soap from Bognergasse; book machine in my brother's flat"). Below are some pen tests in another hand. - The "metronome watchmaker" must be the mechanic Johann Nepomuk Mälzl, the inventor of this device, who also had long built ear trumpets for the increasingly deaf composer. The soap was very probably purchased at the well-known spice store and druggist "Zum schwarzen Kameel" in Vienna's Bognergasse (no. 340). The last item on the list gives an indication of the date of the autograph: after his brother Kaspar's death in Vienna in 1815, Beethoven took his nephew Karl, then nine years of age, under his tutelage. In 1816 he entrusted Karl to the private school of Cajetan Giannattasio del Rio in Vienna. The item referred to as the "book machine in my brother's flat" could be a so-called reading machine - a wooden letter case with letter boards and a reading board, used for reading instruction. This would be consistent with Beethoven's efforts to educate his young nephew, around the year 1817. The commissioning of a metronome would correspond well to this dating: Beethoven closely followed Mälzel's work on his metronome project, which then had just been completed, and he was the first composer to publish a work with metronomic times. - Traces of old folds; somewhat irregularly torn along the edges. Provenance: auctioned in Cologne in 2011 as "the world's most expensive shopping list"; since kept in a private French collection, from which it was acquired.

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