For these Jews are not Jews, but devils incarnate who curse our Lord
31

Luther, Martin, theologian and reformer (1483-1546). Autograph letter signed ("Martinus LütheR D"). [Wittenberg, ca 1 Sept. 1543]. [Wittenberg, ca 1 Sept. 1543]. Folio (200 x 307 mm). 2 pp. German manuscript (brown ink) on paper (watermark: letter F in circle).

USD 350,000.00

An extensive, uncommonly well-preserved letter to Georg Buchholzer (1503–66), Provost of St Nikolai in Berlin, regarding the latter’s altercation with the Brandenburgian court preacher Johann Agricola from Eisleben (1492–1566, also known as “Magister Eisleben”) about the treatment of the local Jews. Prince Elector Joachim II, who in 1539 had introduced the Reformation to Brandenburg and whose tolerant politics toward Jews enraged the population, had long desired a reconciliation between Luther and his former disciple Agricola, and he must have suspected that Provost Buchholzer was poisoning Luther’s mind against his court preacher. Buchholzer therefore wrote to Luther requesting an interpretation of some Biblical verses by which Agricola justified his pro-Jewish stance, and in his answer Luther insists that Buchholzer has done well to preach against the Jews and shall continue to do so, ignoring the habitual liar Agricola: “Grace and Peace. My dear Provost! I must be brief with writing, for the sake of my weak head. You are aware that you have no previous association with me, nor I with you, other than that you recently wrote to me asking for an explanation regarding several statements. And even if you were to write me many things about M. Eisleben, how could I believe you alone? For whoever says that you or anyone in Berlin or in all of Brandenburg is inciting me against Eisleben, if he says so unwittingly, may God forgive him, but if he says it knowingly, then he is a roguish liar, as well as M. Eisleben himself has lied frequently, here in Wittenberg. M. Eisleben needs nobody to incite me against him; he himself is much better at that, much better than anyone whom he might suspect of such dealing. He knows that full well. [...] In my opinion, he will give up his life before he gives up his lying. – You have preached against the Jews and fought serious battles over that with the Margrave. [...] And you were quite right to do so. Stand fast and persevere! The words against you which you quoted to me, allegedly protecting the Jews, I will not hope to be true, nor shall I believe that M. Eisleben ever will preach or ever has preached such. I do not yet consider him so deeply fallen. May God prevent him! [...] For then M. Eisleben would not be the Elector’s preacher, but a true devil, letting his sayings be so shamefully misused to the damnation of all those who associate with Jews. For these Jews are not Jews, but devils incarnate who curse our Lord, who abuse His mother as a whore and Him as Hebel Vorik and a bastard, this is known for certain. And anyone who is capable of eating or drinking or associating with such a foul mouth is a Christian as well as the devil is a saint. [...] You may show this letter to whomever you wish. I do not know, nor do I care, who wrote the other three letters from Wittenberg to Berlin. You will undoubtedly confess this to be the first letter you ever received from me. For your name and person were previously unknown to me [...]” (translated). - Luther had apparently forgotten that several years previously, in late 1539, he had answered a letter of Buchholzer’s inquiring about Catholic rites still in use in Reformed Brandenburg. More notably, although Luther is writing to a fellow scholar, this letter is written in German so as that the recipient may show it “to whomever he wishes” – that is to say, to the Elector himself, thus providing Buchholzer with a writ of protection against any suspicion which Joachim may harbour against him. - The Hebrew words “Hebel Vorik” (vanity and emptiness) are taken from Isaiah 30:7. They were part of a Jewish prayer in which Jews thanked God for having made them different from those peoples who worshipped “Hebel Vorik”, though Luther construed the words as a code for Jesus Christ. - Luther’s anti-Judaism had not always been this rabid – as a young man he had spoken out judiciously against the traditional defamation of Jews and against all forms of forcible conversion – but he soon grew increasingly bitter, and by 1543 his attitude was one of undisguised loathing. His most notorious antisemitic pamphlet, “On the Jews and Their Lies”, was published only months before the present letter was written. With the same rhetorical skill with which he had previously ridiculed the papacy he now invoked a grotesque abhorrence of Judaism. As an embodiment of his sentiments in his later years, demonstrating how precisely the antisemitic church politics and discourse of the 1540s matched Luther’s instructions, the letter has been quoted or paraphrased by several important biographies of the Reformer (cf. M. Brecht, Luther, vol. 3 [1987], p. 344; most recently: L. Roper, Luther [2016], p. 532 n. 33). - Less than two years later, in a letter dated March 9, 1545, Luther would write to Elector Joachim II directly, warning him against the “tricks” of the Jews, in whom he is said to have too much confidence, adding that he is “glad that the Provost [Buchholzer] is so severe on those Jews, which is a proof of his loyalty to your Grace; and I encourage him to continue in the path he has chosen”. - Condition report: several corrections in the text by Luther’s own hand. Date of receipt noted by Buchholzer at the foot of the verso page: “Received by me in Berlin on Wednesday after St Egyd [5 September] anno etc. 43.” Slightly browned and brownstained throughout; traces of contemporary folds. Not noticeably wrinkled; no significant edge tears; a beautifully preserved specimen. - Provenance: before 1914 nothing more of the letter was known than the words branding Agricola an incorrigible liar (“will give up his life before he gives up his lying”), which Buchholzer had hurled at his adversary during a disputation as late as 1562, offering to show him the passage in Luther’s letter. In the early 19th century, the editors of Agricola’s writings confessed that such a letter could not be found (cf. B. Kordes, Agricola’s Schriften möglichst vollständig verzeichnet [Altona 1817], p. 393: “To my knowledge, this letter does not exist”). Only in 1914 was it discovered in the collection of Baron Heinrich von Hymmen (1880–1960), and in the same year the theologian G. Kawerau published it in the appendix to volume 15 of Luther’s letters. It was still in the Hymmen collection in 1947 when the critical Weimar edition published it, based on a photograph. The Hymmen family is known to have supported the Protestant cause: during the Nazi era, Heinrich placed his Unterbach castle at the disposal of the illegal Confessing Church; the theologian Johannes Hymmen was Vice President of the “Evangelischer Oberkirchenrat” from 1936. The letter first surfaced in the trade more than three decades ago (Stargardt 630 [1983], lot 1238: DM 172,270 including premium and taxes; remarkably, that same year a four-page Luther manuscript [Z&K 2/II, 1856] commanded no more than DM 10,000). The letter has since rested in the private collection from which we recently acquired it.
¶ Luther, Werke: Kritische Gesamtausgabe, Briefwechsel vol. 10 (Weimar 1947), no. 3909 (pp. 388-391). First published in: Enders-Kawerau XV, no. 3309a (pp. 359-362). In modernized spelling: Kawerau, "Ein Brief Luthers an den Propst von Berlin, Georg Buchholzer", in: Schriften des Vereins für die Geschichte Berlins 50 (1917), pp. 430-436.

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to build a new world of peace and democracy
32

Mao Zedong, Chinese statesman (1893-1976). Autograph inscription signed in: Mao Zedong, "Hsin min-chu-chu-i... lun" ("On New Democracy"). No place, 1942. No place, 1942. 8vo. (4), 54, (2) pp. Original printed wrappers. Stored in custom-made half morocco case with gilt spine.

Of the utmost rarity: Mao's important work "On New Democracy" with an autograph inscription by Mao to a French aristocrat fleeing the invading Japanese. On the front cover and its inside, Mao dedicated the book in Chinese characters with a calligraphic brush, writing: "Let us unite with all democratic countries to conquer the Japanese-Italian-German fascism and to build a new world of peace and democracy. Mao Tse-Tung for Mr. d'Anjou". The "New Democracy" to which Mao refers in the title of this work, written in 1940, was fundamental to his political thought: it denotes the democracy brought about by the proletarian revolution, in contrast to the bourgeois revolution's "old democracy". The founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949 is considered the consummation of New Democracy. - Comte Rene-Charles d'Anjou (b. 1914), a descendant from French royalty, had fled westward from Japanese-occupied Beijing in 1942. During his eight-month flight, he met the forces of General Lin-Piao and soon became acquainted with Mao at the communists' headquarters in Yanan, where Mao invited the French journalist and his companion to dinner. D'Anjou wrote an account of his encounter with Mao which was published in several newspapers, and we include the photocopy of one such article ("Un déjeuner de campagne avec Mao") which appeared in the weekend edition of Le Figaro, 18/19 Sept. 1976, p. 2, further corroborating the authenticity of the inscribed book. - The present piece was originally sold at Stargardt in 1977 (sale 612, lot 1435), and we further include an original copy of the Stargardt catalogue. It was subsequently sold at Christie's in 1983 (16 Dec., lot 502) before being offered by the respected American autograph dealer Paul Richards (1939-93) in 1993. Since its sale by Richards, this piece has remained in a private European collection. Mao's signature is exceptionally rare, and as an example of this length and quality of content, it must be considered unique.

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To the father of the Belgian flag, shortly before writing the Communist Manifesto
33

Marx, Karl, philosopher and economist (1818-1883). Autograph letter signed. Brussels, 2 Oct. [1847]. Brussels, 2 Oct. [1847]. 8vo. 1 p. bifolium with integral address leaf.

USD 165,000.00

Unpublished, early letter in French, Marx's only known missive to the Belgian journalist and politician Lucien-Léopold Jottrand (1804-77), who during the Belgian Revolution of 1830 had designed what would become the national flag of Belgium: "J’ai l’honneur de vous faire parvenir l’original de mon petit discours inséré au Northern Star. Je me fais un Plaisir d’y ajouter un exemplaire de mon livre contre M. Proudhon [...]". Five days previously, at a Brussels "Workers' Banquet" led by Engels and Jottrand, it had been decided to found a "Democratic Association", and Engels was elected to its Organising Committee. Engels had made Jottrand aware that he might have to leave Belgium and thus would be unable to serve on the Committee, but that he would suggest Marx to replace him. Indeed, on the 30th of September, Engels officially wrote to Jottrand that circumstances would require his absence: "I therefore request you to call on a German democrat resident in Brussels to participate in the work of the committee charged with organising a universal democratic society. I would take the liberty of proposing to you one of the German democrats in Brussels whom the meeting, had he been able to attend it, would have nominated for the office which, in his absence, it honoured me by conferring upon myself. I mean Mr Marx, who, I am firmly convinced, has the best claim to represent German democracy on the committee. Hence it would not be Mr Marx who would be replacing me there, but rather I who, at the meeting, replaced Mr Marx [...]" (cf. MEGA III.2, p. 110). On the same day, he advised Marx of the content of his letter to Jottrand, adding: "I had in fact already agreed with Jottrand that I would advise him in writing of my departure and propose you for the committee. Jottrand is also away and will be back in a fortnight. If, as I believe, nothing comes of the whole affair, it will be Heilberg’s proposal that falls through; if something does come of it, then it will be we who have brought the thing about. Either way we have succeeded in getting you and, after you, myself, recognised as representatives of the German democrats in Brussels, besides the whole plot having been brought to a dreadfully ignominious end" (cf. p. 105). Under the influence of Marx, the Brussels Democratic Association would soon become one of the principal hubs of the international democratic movement, and the present letter constitutes Marx's formal introduction to its president, Jottrand. Notably, Marx included with his letter the manuscript of a piece he had written for Engels's "Northern Star" as well as his recently published "Poverty of Philosophy", an attack on Proudon’s "Philosophy of Poverty" and a pivotal work in Marx’s thinking. Here, Marx memorably described his opponent as "petit bourgeois" - an epithet which resounded in all later Communist literature. Marx’s book paved the way for the Communist Manifesto, written between December 1847 and January 1848. - Marx dated the letter "2 octobre" from his Brussels address in the rue d’Orléans; the letter is erroneously docketed "1848" in another hand. Vertical and horizontal folds, but well-preserved.
¶ Not in MEGA III.2 (Letters May 1846-Dec. 1848); for Jottrand cf. p. 1176.

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34

Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus and Mozart, Leopold, composer (1756-1791) and his father (1719-1787). Autograph letter signed by Wolfgang Amadeus to his... sister Nannerl. Milan, 21. XI. 1772. Milan, 21. XI. 1772. 4to (22.3 x 18.6 cm). 2 pp.

USD 300,000.00

Leopold Mozart writes to his wife from Milan, on his third and final trip to Italy with Wolfgang, on the occasion of his twenty-fifth wedding anniversary. Leopold informs his wife of the health and welfare of his travellers, gives news of the stormy weather and a violent thunderstorm, of Wolfgang Amadeus, their new lodgings, Italian food and beds, sends best wishes on their anniversary, announces the arrival of the castrato Venanzio Rauzzini, who was to perform in Mozart’s "Lucio Silla" in December 1772, refers obliquely to the amount of work still to be done by Wolfgang, and sends his and his son’s love. In his part of the letter, Wolfgang sends his apologies for not writing to Herr von Hefner, gives his reasons for not writing and expounds on this in an increasingly jocular manner, sends his best wishes to his sister and his mother, and adds his name, date and greeting backwards.
¶ Mozart: Briefe und Aufzeichnungen 1755-1776 (ed. W. Bauer & O. E. Deutsch, Basel 1962), pp. 461-462. Anderson 162 & 162a, pp. 216f.

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Unpublished manuscript in the Marquis de Sade's hand
35

Sade, Donatien Alphonse François, Marquis de, French writer (1740-1814). Table générale des matières. Baile. Martial. Tite-Live.... [Vincennes donjon, between 1777 and 1782]. [Vincennes donjon, between 1777 and 1782]. Folio. 15 pp.

USD 15,000.00

Reading notes for the redaction of his own works. As usual, de Sade composes a list of names of historical characters that interest him, indicating the page or chapter number of the source so as to find them again more easily. The section on Pierre Bayle spans three pages; it is particularly interesting for proving that the marquis de Sade indeed had read Bayle. A French Huguenot exiled in Rotterdam, the author of the "Dictionnaire Historique et Critique" promoted the atheist and materialist doctrines of the Enlightenment. While Bayle scholar was widely appreciated in the 18th century, his Dictionary was banned in France, and he was accused of heresy, obscenity and pyrrhonism. - The next five pages are taken up by references to the Latin poet Martial; subsequent notes are more expansive and concern various districts of Rome, their history (the circus, the baths), Tivoli, antiquities, religion, wine etc. The final page forms a table of contents of the Life of Famous Men and Women of Italy. Here, we find the name of Laura, Petrarch's lover and de Sade's ancestor, but also that of Aretino, an ancestor in spirit if not in blood. Notwithstanding the title, the present pages contain no reference to Livy: "Douceur du séjour de Tivoli, l'ivoire y conserve sa blancheur, bibliothèques leur antiquité, à Rome: invention de l'imprimerie [...] Forum novum, ou marché neuf: on envoyait à Rome des roses d'Egipte pendant l'hiver, ensuite on en éleva toute l'année [...] Respect de Silius pour le jour de la naissance de Ciceron. Pour son sépulcre à Naples, le poète Sannazar en fait autant, ainsi que pour une maison de Ciceron; tombeau de Virgile [...] Église de St André à Rome était l'ancien cimetière des Gaulois. Espèce de culte que les anciens rendaient aux statues semblables au notre [...] Montagne d'Albe: bon vignoble, c'était celui des princes. Vin de Souriente [in the margin: ou de Surrente]. Vin de Letie et de Situation, vin de Foudi: dissertation de Pline pour tous les bons vins [...]".

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Number theory
36

(Lefèvre d'Étaples, Jacques). In hoc libro contenta epitome compendiosaq[ue] introductio in... libris arithmeticos divi Severini Boetii [...]. (Paris, Henricus Stephanus, 15 March 1510). (Paris, Henricus Stephanus, 15 March 1510). Small folio (205 x 285 mm). XLVIII pp. With wide woodcut title border and full-page woodcut (scribe) on verso of final leaf. (Bound with) II: (The same). In hoc opere contenta arithmetica decem libris demonstrata. Musica libris demonstrata quatuor. Epitome in libros arithmeticos divi Severini Boetii. Rithmimachie ludus qui et pugna numerorum appellantur. Paris, Henricus Stephanus, (7 Sept. 1514). (72) ff. With wide woodcut title border. Contemporary blindstamped brown calf.

USD 18,000.00

Fine sammelband of two works edited by the leading French humanist. Lefèvre (1455-1536), a native of Étaples near Amiens and also known as Faber Stapulensis, had studied in Italy before teaching philosophy and theology in Paris, also publishing on matematical subjects. - I: An early edition of this work, mainly concerned with arithmetic and based on Lefèvre's studies of the works of Boethius. Another edition, radically abridged and without the commentary, is included as the third part of the following collection. - II: Second edition of this combination of works. "The greater part of this volume is devoted to the ten books on arithmetic by Jordanus Nemorarius, [the greatest mathematician of his time save Leonardo Fibonacci of Pisa], with the commentary of Jacobus Faber Stapulensis. The work of Jordanus is similar to that of Boethius, and is concerned only with theory of numbers. In particular, the Greek theory of ratios, as elaborated in the Middle Ages, is extensively treated. The second part consists of the work of Jacobus Faber Stapulensis on music, in four books. The third part is the Epitome of the Arithmetic of Boethius [...] The fourth part, consisting of four and a half pages, is a description of the arithmetical game of Rithmimachia, possibly by Shirewode (John Sirwood, Bishop of Durham, who died in 1494), but usually ascribed to Faber Stapulensis" (Smith, 62f.). "Books of this character, evidently intended as the bases of lectures to university students, show in what a hopeless state the Boethian arithmetic found itself at the end of the Middle Ages" (ibid., 82). - Both works feature a very wide title woodcut. Binding rubbed; extremeties bumped. Slight staining throughout. Extremely rare: neither work is recorded in the trade or at auctions of the last decades.
¶ I: Adams F 19. Cf. RISM B VI, 1, p. 492 (1511 ed.). - II: Adams J 324. BM-STC French 246. RISM B VI, 1, p. 492. Smith, Rara Arithmetica, 65. Cf. Smith, History of Mathematics I, p. 307.

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An instrument invented by Peurbach
37

Peurbach, Georg. Quadratum geometricum praeclarissimi mathematici. Nuremberg, Johann Stuchs, 1516. Nuremberg, Johann Stuchs, 1516. Folio. 10 unnumbered ff. Title printed in red and black with full-page woodcut of the instrument in question (repeated on f. 2v) and numerous woodcut diagrams. Modern half morocco over red boards.

USD 15,000.00

First edition of one of the rarest works by the Austrian astronomer and instrument maker. The "Quadratum geometricum", a new geodetic measuring instrument, was invented by Peurbach himself, and its use is here described for the first time. - From the library of Werner Habel, with his ownership stamp, signature and acquisition date (1977) to front pastedown. Previously in the collections of Count Wladyslaw Hrabia Bielinski and Zygmunt Czarnecki, with their stamps to title. Rare, only a single copy recorded at auction within the last 60 years.
¶ VD 16, P 2054. Adams P 2270. BNHCat P 943.

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The most copious 16th century Italian treatise on the theory of colours
38

Telesio, Antonio. Libellus de coloribus. Ubi multa leguntur praeter aliorum... opinionem. (Venice, Bernardino Vitali, June 1528). (Venice, Bernardino Vitali, June 1528). Small 4to. 15 unnumbered ff. (lacking final blank). With several woodcut initials (including one depicting a pelican). Attractive 19th century red calf with giltstamped cover title and border.

USD 9,500.00

Rare first edition of this most copious 16th century Italian treatise on the theory of colours. Divided into 13 chapters, the work lists no less than 115 different names of colours. "Questo raro e singolare opusculo indica sul suo principio Toggetto con cui tu scritto, ed e forse l'opera più erudita che abbiasi, presa sotto l'aspetto seguente" (Cicognara). Cicognara described a 14-leaf edition without place or printer - very likely an incomplete copy of this present edition, which ends on f. 13 and is concluded by two leaves of poems. - Telesio (1482-1533), a native of Cosenza in Calabria, taught at Rome. Escapting the "Sacco di Roma", he fled to Venice, where he gained the chair of Latin at the Consiglio dei Dieci bekam. It was during these years that he composed his treatise on colours, the earliest of its kind ever to see print. Goethe quotes it in full in his own treatise on colours (Weimarana, pt. IV, pp. 174-193), following the 1545 Latin Basel edition; this is the longest quote in all of Goethe's works. - Telesio's nephew Bernardino, who had followed his uncle from Cosenza to Rome and Venice, would go on to publish his own treatise on colours in 1570. - Unappealing traces of moisture to the first five leaves. Spine somewhat sunned and rubbed.
¶ Edit 16, CNCE 37986. Cicognara 216. Adams and BM-STC Italian list later eds. only.

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Medical sammelband, including the first edition of his "Apothekerordnung"
39

Brunfels, Otto. Reformation der Apotecken, welche inhaltet vil guter stück,... die eynem yeglichen fast nützlich sein [...]. Von edlen steynen, wie die zuken[n]en [...] Wie man Syrupen, Latwergen, und Confect machen soll, verteütscht auß dem Latein durch D. Hansen Eles. Strasbourg, Wendelin Rihel d. Ä., 1536. Strasbourg, Wendelin Rihel d. Ä., 1536. 4to. (4), LIV pp. With title woodcut and several woodcut initials. (Bound after) II: Ryff, Walther Hermann. Ein wolgegründet, nutzlich und heilsam handtbüchlin, gmeyner Practick der gantzen leib artzney [...]. (Strasbourg, Balthasar Beck), 1541. 4 parts. (224) ff. (last blank), (140), XC, (12) ff. (last blank). With 21 woodcuts in the text. Contemporary full pigskin over wooden boards with bevelled edges, blindstamped with evangelists' roll. 2 clasps.

USD 58,000.00

I: Very rare first edition of this book on the equipping and the managing of pharmacies. A single copy in auction records (2011, Reiss, sale 142: 40,000 Euros, also bound in a medical sammelband). The pretty woodcut on the title page shows the interior of a pharmacy, with one apothecary taking over a client's recipe, another fetching a can from a shelf, and a third at work with mortar and pestle. - The humanist, physician and theologian Brunfels (1490-1534), "first in time and importance among the German botanists of the 16th century" (Garrison/Morton 279), turned to Lutheranism in 1521, after which he had to flee; Ulrich von Hutten found him a parish near Frankfurt. Later, Brunfels turned to Basel, where he earned an M.D. degree, and Strasbourg, where he published several works on pharmacy and paediatrics. - Slight brownstaining and waterstaining; a few occasional edge flaws. The lower margin of fol. 30 contains an extensive, roughly contemporary note on camphor: "Der recht natürlich campher wirdt also probiert: Nimm ein new backen brot als bald es auß dem ofen kommen ist, schneids mitten entzwei, leg den campher darein: so er wässerecht wirdt, ist er rechtschaffen, so er aber dierr und trucken bleibt ist er gemacht, sol wol bewart werden verschwinden liederlich, man soll in behalten in aine marmelsteinen oder Alabastunen geschirr, darzu gethan leinsamen [...]". - II: First edition of this copious medical manual. The woodcuts show babies in the womb, two Phlebotomy Men, the blood vessels of the head (used twice), and two different diagrams of the eye (one a cross-section such as it would be used three decades later in Alhazen's "Opticae Thesaurus"). Leonhard Fuchs would challenge the publication as an adaptation of his own "De medendis singularum humani corporis partium libri IV". - Old handwritten ownership on title page deleted; some browning and waterstaining. Slight worming to front endpapers; endpapers at rear have additional recipes in a contemporary hand. The pretty binding shows slight worming, otherwise well preserved.
¶ I: VD 16, B 8567. Durling 730. IA 125.663. Muller 394, 6. Adlung/Urdang 83f. - II: VD 16, R 4007-4008. Benzing 115. Muller II, 312, 94. Ritter (Rép.) 2035. Waller 8350. Not in Bird, Durling, Lesky, Osler, Ritter (Cat.), STC, Wellcome etc.

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The birth of modern anatomy: a coloured copy of the first edition, used by the surgeon of the Duke of Saxony
40

Vesalius, Andreas. De humani corporis fabrica libri septem. Basel, (Johannes Oporinus, June 1543). Basel, (Johannes Oporinus, June 1543). Folio (319 x 456 mm). 355 leaves and two folding sheets. Roman and italic types, occasional use of Greek and Hebrew types, printed shoulder notes. Woodcut pictorial title, author portrait, and printer’s device; 7 large, 186 mid-sized, and 22 small woodcut initials; more than 200 woodcut illustrations, including 3 full-page skeletons, 14 full-page muscle men, 5 large diagrams of veins and nerves, 10 mid-sized views of the abdomen, 2 mid-sized views of the thorax, 13 mid-sized views of the skull and brain, and numerous smaller views of bones, organs and anatomical parts. All woodcuts and initials up to page 165 in full contemporary hand colour. Contemporary blindstamped leather over wooden boards with bevelled edges, on five raised double bands, with two clasps.

USD 950,000.00

A truly outstanding copy of one of the greatest and most appealing books in the history of science. Preserved in its original binding with the blindstamped initials of its first owner, the German physician Caspar Neefe (1514-79), and with his handwritten annotations throughout, the present copy is partly coloured by a contemporary artist (including the iconic woodcut used as title page and all anatomical illustrations up to page 165). Caspar Neefe, who later served as personal physician to Duke Albert I of Saxony, acquired the precious volume only a year after its publication and obviously consulted it extensively throughout his career as a medical practitioner. - With the publication of "De humani corporis fabrica" (when he was only twenty-eight) Vesalius revolutionized both the science of anatomy and how it was taught. In his preface he describes his disappointing experiences as a student in Paris and Louvain, stating his intention to reform the teaching of anatomy by giving in this book a complete description of the structure of the human body, thereby drawing attention "to the falsity of Galen’s pronouncements". Vesalius also broke with tradition by performing dissections himself instead of leaving this task to assistants: the striking and dramatic title illustration shows him conducting such a dissection, his hand plunged into a female cadaver (striking in itself, as only the cadavers of executed criminals could be dissected legally and female criminals were rarely executed), surrounded by a seething mass of students. - The "Fabrica" is also revolutionary for "its unprecedented blending of scientific exposition, art and typography" (Norman). The woodcuts by artists of the school of Titian are both iconographically and artistically important. The series of fourteen muscle men show landscapes that, when assembled in reverse order, form a panorama of the Euganean Hills near Padua, a scenery well known to Vesalius while he was at work on the Fabrica. - Of the few copies of the first edition to have come to the market in recent decades, only two were in a contemporary binding. Apart from Vesalius's dedication copy to Emperor Charles V (Christie's New York, 18 March 1998, lot 213: $1,652,500), only a single other partly coloured copy was previously known, a list to which ours must now be added as the third known copy in contemporary colour. - Acquired in 2017; previously in a Tyrolean private medical collection, where the book rested for three generations (erased circular library stamp in the blank lower margin of the title page): an outstanding copy hitherto unknown to scholarship (cf. the recent census published by Dániel Margócsy, University of Cambridge, below; further relevant correpondence with Dr Margócsy is available upon request). Occasional waterstaining to margins, the splendid binding a little rubbed and bumped, but altogether a wonderfully crisp, wide-margined copy of the first edition. Unquestionably the most desirable copy of a milestone in the history of science still in private hands, and likely the most important medical book obtainable for decades to come.
¶ PMM 71. VD 16, V 910. Durling 4577. Cushing VI.A.1. Eimas 281. Norman 2137. Wellcome 6560. Graesse VI.2, 289. Cf. D. Margócsy, M. Somos, S. N. Joffe: "Vesalius' Fabrica: A Report on the Worldwide Census of the 1543 and 1555 Editions", in: Social History of Medicine Vol. 30, No. 1, pp. 201–223. For Neefe cf. A. Lesser, Die albertinischen Leibärzte (Petersberg 2015), p. 71-74.

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Vesalius's teacher on blood vessels: heavily annotated by a 16th century medical student
41

Dubois (Sylvius), Jacques. In Hippocratis et Galeni physiologiae partem anatomicam isagoge [...]. Paris, Aegidius Gorbin, 1561. Paris, Aegidius Gorbin, 1561. 8vo. 76 ff. - (Bound with) II: The same. Commentarius in Claudii Galeni de ossibus ad tyrones libellum [...]. Ibid., 1561. 37, (3) ff. Contemporary limp vellum (wanting ties).

USD 9,500.00

Two medical textbooks by the Parisian anatomist Dubois, widely used by French medical students in the mid-16th century. The present volume is heavily annotated by a contemporary owner who signs his name as "Mirard" (?) on the first title-page. The annotations are particularly extensive in the sections on blood vessels, muscles, and nerves. Dubois (1478-1555, Latinized as "Sylvius") was the first to describe venous valves, which he injected with coloured liquids (although their function was discovered only later by William Harvey), and is credited with first having given names to the various muscles, previously simply numbered. His blind reverence for the ancient physicians, especially Galen, involved him in a public controversy with his most famous student, Vesalius, who had dared to expose the errors of the Greeks. A former classicist, Dubois is also the author of the first French grammar to be published in France. - Some waterstaining near end, the final leaf showing severe paper flaws with some loss to the index. The first 50 ff. show noticeable worming to the gutter, stronger near the beginning, but mostly without loss to text. An additional handwritten ownership from Montpellier, another center of French medical learning (signed "G. B. Minet", dated 1709), at the bottom of the title page.
¶ Durling 1259 & 1236. Wellcome I, 6183 & 6184. Adams S 2181 & S 2170. OCLC 14317273 & 1025189760. Cf. BM-STC French 141. Hirsch II, 220f.

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Early monograph on opium
42

Wedel, Georg Wolfgang. Opiologia ad mentem academiae naturae curiosorum. Jena, Samuel Krebs' Wwe. für Johann Bielcke, 1682. Jena, Samuel Krebs' Wwe. für Johann Bielcke, 1682. 4to. (16), 170, (20) pp., final blank. With engraved vignette to title, printed in red an black. (With:) Ettmüller, Michael. De virtute opii diaphoretica dissertatio. Leipzig & Jena, Krebs for Bielcke, [1682]. 48 pp. Contemp. marbled half vellum.

USD 3,500.00

Second edition of this early monograph on the pharmacological and therapeutic aspects of opium. "The main text is a reissue of the 1674 edition" (Krivatsy). Wedel not only evaluates the medical literature but also all available travel reports. The chapter entitled "An aphrodisiacum sit opium & mulierem excitet?" provides an overview of the various opinions, including Saar's account from his East Indian journeys noting the use of opium in Batavian brothels, as well as Garcia's contradictory information that opium leads to infertility and impotence (p. 128f.). The title vignette depicts a Turkish opium picker: scratching the poppy seed capsule with his knife, he collects the sap. The appendix contains the first printing of a dissertation on the qualities of opium, written by Michael Ettmüller (d. 1683), who dedicated his work to his colleage Wedel. - G. W. Wedel (1645-1721) was one of the principal physicians of his age. He authored 49 books and was the teacher of several progressively minded medical men. He is credited with the timeless aphorism that "medicine is nothing but the incessant renewal of ignorance." His "Opiologia" won him admission to the Academy of Naturalists, the still-extant "Leopoldina" in Halle. "Wedel stood midway between medieval and modern world views, defending astrology and alchemy and championing iatrochemistry" (DSB XIV, 212). "Wedel appears to have been one of the first to employ the word physiology in its present restricted sense" (Thorndike VIII, s. v.). - Evenly browned throughout; binding slightly rubbed. A fine copy.
¶ VD 17, 12:166680Q. Krivatsy 12664. Pritzel 10054. Ferchl 570. Hirsch/H. V, 875.

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An Austrian Lady's Medical Manual
43

[Medical manuscript]. (Anna) Maria Magdalena Winkler, née Seeauer, burgher of Ischl, Austria (1668-1745). Ein sehr nützlicheß unnd approbiertes Artzenney-Puech, inn welchem... sehr guette Stuckh zu unndterschiedlichen Khranckheiten und Zuestanndten zu fündten seinn. Anno 1688. Maria Magdallenna Winckhlerin gebohrne v. Seeau gehörig. [Ischl], 1688. [Ischl], 1688. German manuscript on paper (watermark: crowned double-headed eagle, counter-sign CH), probably by two or three different hands. 196 unnumbered ff. with 197 written pages. Contemporary half vellum with remains of ties, 4to (158 × 200 mm). Loosely inserted between the leaves are 9 slips of paper in various sizes, some folded and written on several sides, containing additional recipes (including the remainder of a letter, addressed to the book's owner in Ischl), as well as a strip of cotton cloth from the 17th or early 18th century.

USD 18,000.00

An extensive, privately compiled medical manuscript, owned and in all likelihood largely written by a patrician lady from Ischl in the Austrian Salzkammergut region. The recipes contained appear to some extent based on popular tradition, but more frequently on Paracelsian sources and generally on the Paracelsian-inflected pharmacology and chemical medicine of the Renaissance. A relevant example is provided by the very first recipe, "daß gerechte Froschlaichpflaster" - a frogspawn bandage on a white lead basis, as it was frequently applied by surgeons as early as the 16th century to advance wound healing: "Froschlaich 2 lb., Baumöll 1½ Virting, Wein Essig 3 loth. Lass es mit ein andter sieden bis die Feichtigkeith verraucht und nur daß Öll verbleibe, dan du mues es hernach durch ein [Sieb] durchseihen, daß die schwartzen Eier in und ander Unflath darvon weg khumbt, hernach due darein Bleyweis 8 loth, Bleyzucker 2 loth, lass es wider ein wenig sieden und du must alleweil riechen, damit du es nicht verbrenest, so dan duehe darein Weißwax 1½ Vierting, lass es wider ein wenig sieden, und hernach von Feurer gethan thue darin Weisses Vitriol 1 loth, Rohen Alaun ½ loth, Ca[mp]her 2 Quintl, riche so lang bis es kalt wirdt, hernach mach Zapfen darauß, due es reecht mit Öll wo gaffer darein ist und zächs recht endereinander, so dan ist es bereith." This is followed by "daß gerechte Fontonell Pflaster" (a bandage for the fontanelles) and "Jungfrau Milch" (virgin's milk), then - after several blank leaves - a series of recipes concerning the head, including "das edle Khopff Bulffer" ("the noble cephalic powder"), "fier die Pluet Schuß im Khopf" ("for when blood rushes to one's head"), "fyer das Haubt Wehe der Khinter" ("for children's headaches"), "Wann ein Personn verwüret ist in Haubt" ("when a person is confused in his head"), "fuer den Wuremb im Khopf" ("for the worm in the head"), "füer den großen Khopf Wehe" ("for the severe headache"), etc. Among the further recipes are "ein khöstliches Wuntt Trankh" ("a delicious wound potion"), "Khrafft Wasser vor den Schlag" ("strong water for a stroke"), "Etles Trisanet Pulver, vor den Schlag, vor Schwacheit des Herzen, Bletigkeit des Mang, der Löber" ("noble trisanet powder for strokes, weakness of the heart, and ailments of the stomach and the liver"), "Inwendig grosse Hizen" ("great inner heat"), etc. Other recipes concern the internal organs and respiratory tract ("Räynigung des Mangs", "Geschwollen Mangen", "Wer hart umb Prust", "Vor Huesten", "Vör Lung- und Lebersucht, Huesten, auch Stäckhen auf der Prust"), gynecology and obstetrics ("Wann ein Frau nit gebehren khan", "Wann das Khünntt nit kan ledig werten", "Von Mangel der monatlichen Zeit"), as well as dentistry ("Vor Zahn Wehe", "Zahn ohne Schmerzen herauszunemben", "Vor Munntfeille"); also, recipes for emetics ("Vor Erbrechen daß der Mangen nichts behalte") and for various ointments ("zu den Prysten", "vor Reissen und Grimmen"), tapeworms ("vor Wuremb im Leib"), enemas ("Von Clystier- und Purgiern"), and "how to push the intestines back into the body when the bowels have fallen out" ("so einen der Leib Tarmb ausgeht, den Layb Darmb hinein zu bringen"). Some recipes reveal the scientific limits of their age (one captioned "vor Anwax ter Khüntter", intended to make children grow faster, is essentially a rose ointment to be soaked in a cloth which is bound on the child's head); others fall into the province of the quasi-magical ("Krumpe und lammbe Gliter zu haillen, es wirt die selbe verzaubert, und also gemacht worten, mit der Hilffe Gotes abzuhelfen", "Wahrer Gebrauch und Nuzung des Pulvers des Lebens"). Although several hands appear to have contributed to this manuscript, a large part is unquestionably by the writer of the title page, whom we may identify with its owner. Maria Magdalena Seeauer, born on 7 June 1668, was descended from the well-known dynasty of Ischl salt loaders who can be traced to the 14th century. She was a daughter of the local salt loader, alderman and judge Simon Seeauer (1615-1704) and sister of Johann Ignaz Seeauer (1661-1709), who succeeded his father in all his offices. Ten days after her 19th birthday Maria Magdalena married, in Ischl, the 36-year-old Johann Richard Winkler from Grieskirchen; she began compiling the present recipe book the following year. She died in her native city on 9 March 1745, having survived her husband by 27 years. - Binding somewhat rubbed; paper insignificantly browned. Nine leaves in the book's interior show slight worming, occasionally barely touching letters, but altogether clean and unstained, uncommonly well preserved for a manuscript apparently kept in constant use. The piece of cotton cloth inserted between two leaves likely represents the authentic type of a cloth bandage used for applying ointments in the early 18th century.

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First Edition of his Final Work
44

Paine, Thomas. The Cause of Yellow Fever; and the Means... of Preventing it in Places not yet Infected With it: Addressed to the Boards of Health in America. London, Clio Rickman, 1807. London, Clio Rickman, 1807. 13 pp. Disbound.

USD 5,000.00

First edition of Thomas Paine's final work: his essay on the cause of yellow fever, written during the summer of 1805 while Paine was at New Rochelle. "As he explained, 'the fever breaking out in the city prevented my sending it for publication'. Although he had intended to let his house in New Rochelle 'to some New Yorker for the summer', the outbreak of fever in New York led to his spending most of the latter half of 1805 and the first half of 1806 at home" (Speck, A Political Biography of Thomas Paine, p. 190f.). Paine held that the illness (now known to be transmitted by the yellow fever mosquito) was generated by "the impure air or [pernicious] vapour [issuing] from the [...] new made earth, raised on the muddy and filthy part of the river". - One of the Founding Fathers of the United States, Paine in 1776 authored the electrifying pamphlet "Common Sense", inspiring Americans to declare independence from Britain. The present treatise, first published in newspapers in 1806, bears witness to the strong scientific interests that Paine maintained beyond his many political activities. He died in 1809, his health having been failing for some time. - Very rare: WorldCat records only eight copies worldwide (seven in the U.S. and one in the National Library of Australia); no copy in British Library or COPAC. This copy removed from the Norwich & Norfolk United Medical Book Society (their stamp on title page), inscribed in a contemporary hand above the title: "Presented by the Hospital Medical Board".
¶ Sabin 58232. Not in Wellcome, Waller or Osler.

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Unknown manuscript copy of the first authentic Western source for the Near and Middle East
45

Breydenbach, Bernhard von. Die fart oder reysz über mere zu dem... heyligen grab vnsers herren Jhesu cristi gen Jherusalem. Mühlhausen (Thuringia), 1527. Mühlhausen (Thuringia), 1527. 4to (158 x 198 mm). German manuscript on paper (blank ink bastarda, rubricated with red underlinings and chapter headings, half-pages marked by letters in the margins). CXVII, (7) ff. (in all, 248 closely written pages, including index). 37 lines per extensum (written space ca. 12 x 17 cm). Bound in contemporary full vellum using a 14th century liturgical manuscript with red Lombardic initials (Graduale, Second Sunday in Lent - Reminiscere).

USD 31,000.00

Previously unknown textual witness of Bernhard von Breydenbach's famous travel report, which had appeared in print in February 1486 (in Latin) and then again, in June of the same year, in German. This meticulously written redaction of the German text is the work of the Dominican friar Mathias Sartor (Schneider), "ordinis predicatorum conventus Hallensis predicator in Mulhaußen" (fol. LXXIr). The Dominicans had had to leave their Halle convent in 1520, which may explain why Sartor by 1527 was installed in Mühlhausen, a few days' travel distant. - Breydenbach's book is hailed as the first authentic western source for the Near and Middle East, as it was prepared from actual observation of the lands and people described. Breydenbach travelled to the Holy Land in 1483/84 with a large company including the Utrecht artist Erhard Reuwich, who would be the book's first printer. Following the traditional route, the entourage travelled from Venice to Corfu, Modon, Crete, Rhodes and Jaffa before arriving in Jerusalem, and then through the Sinai desert to Mt. Sinai, Cairo, and Alexandria on the return journey. The present manuscript copy omits the illustrations, as did most of the later editions and translations, though it is not clear upon which printed version, if any, the ms. is based, and although it contains the same appendices as the first edition (a discussion of oriental religion, in particular of the Muslim religion, a lament over the Holy Land, and an invocation to reconquer it), the present text appears quite original in its paraphrases and redactions of Breydenbach's famous travelogue. - Written in Sartor's close, neat and well-legible hand throughout. Some insignificant browning, occasional light ink- and waterstaining. Lower cover has a large brownstain, with a few binding cracks and flaws (especially to hinges) repaired, but extremely well preserved in general. Provenance: formerly in the collection of Baron Hans Carl Ow von Wartendorf (1814-82) with his handwritten table of contents on an inserted bifolium, confirmed after his death on a separate sheet by the Swabian librarian and historian Wilhelm von Heyd (1823-1906). Acquired from a private German collection.

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Eyewitness account of a 16th century diplomatic mission to the Ottoman court, illustrated with 28 watercolours
46

Braeckle, Jacques de. Memoires du voiage de Constantinople de Jacques de... Bracle seigneur de Bassecourt. Manuscrit du XVIe siècle. No place, c. 1570. No place, c. 1570. 4to (210 x 135 mm). French manuscript on paper. 90 ff. Flemish Bastarda in black ink, 26 lines. Bound with 16 strictly contemporary specimens of Turkish marbled paper, a series of 28 watercolours, heightened in gilt and two extensive, early 19th century manuscript additions (complete transcript of the the travelogue and a biography of the author). Slightly later vellum with ms. title.

USD 175,000.00

Unique, fascinating and unpublished manuscript containing the account of a diplomatic journey to the Ottoman Empire in 1570. Braeckle (1540-71), a Flemish physician, "assisted Charles Rym Baron de Bellem, Ambassador of Maximilian II in Constantinople, probably as a secretary. He wrote an account of his journey, which contains interesting details about the places he visited, the manners and customs of the inhabitants, incidents, etc." (Aug. Vander Meersch, in: Belgian National Biography II, 903). Leaving Prague on 13 March 1570, the mission passed through Vienna and then Hungary and Czechoslovakia before entering Ottoman territory, visiting the mosques and caravanserais of Sokollu Mehmed Pasha (c. 1505-79), Grand Vizier of Sultan Selim II (1524-74) who ruled the Turks at the time of Rym's and Braeckle's journey. Their stay in Constantinople lasted from 31 May to 12 August 1570, permitting the author to describe several monuments and works of art. During the journey back they travelled through Bulgaria, Serbia (they were held in Belgrade for nearly a month), and Hungary. The mission ended with their return to Germany on 23 October 1570. Jacques de Braeckle died shortly afterwards, in 1571. - The ms. is accompanied by a beautiful set of 28 original watercolours heightened in gilt. Showing Turkish people in traditional costumes, such illustrations were usually fashioned for sale to travellers in Constantinople or passed on to western merchants. However, as the present set includes the caravanserai of the diplomatic legation, it is extremely likely that these were created with the sole purpose of illustrating the diplomatic mission of Charles Rym, described within the present manuscript. The figures are captioned next to the subjects (16th century Italian script in black ink), indicating that the legends were recorded after the plates were collated and sewn together, or that they were included in books before insertion into the present volume. Among the illustrations are the caravanserai of the ambassadors to Constantinople, Sultan Selim II, the Mufti, costumes of Ottoman dignitaries and the military, a Persian, a Moor of Barbary, a lady in burqa, a Bulgarian, a giraffe, etc. The author of the Italian captions may have been the ambassador Edoardo Provisionali: he was responsible for several diplomatic missions and is known to have appreciated the Ottoman culture; furthermore, de Braeckle left Constantinople in his company (cf. Yerasimos). The manuscript is also bound with 16 remarkable specimens of 16th c. Turkish paper (title in French in pen on the first sheet: "papier de Turquie"). At the beginning of the volume is a transcription, calligraphed in an elegant French cursive of the early 19th century (18 unnumbered ff., black ink, 21 lines per page). The volume ends with a short biography of the author (2 pp., black ink, with the arms of de Braeckle). Yerasimos provides a detailed chronology of the journey, listing the major cities visited as well as monuments and curiosities noted by the travellers. - Only three manuscript copies of the present travelogue are recorded, mostly restricted to family use: two copies are in the National Archives of Belgium in Brussels (Fonds 692 Lalang, 8f., cf. Yerasimos); a third copy is bound in a miscellany and kept at the communal Archives of Ghent. - Binding rubbed, spine detached, in excellent condition internally.
¶ Stéphane Yerasimos, Les Voyageurs dans l'Empire Ottoman (XIVe-XVIe siècles), Ankara, 1991, pp. 286f. Not in Blackmer or Atabey.

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An unpublished manuscript travelogue to the Middle East, with 29 original drawings
47

Gianni, Vittorio. Notizie, ed aventure veridiche di un viaggio intrapreso... da una persona di condizione privata [...] di Urbino [...], sino a Costantinopoli; e del ritorno suo [...]. Middle East, 1769-1770. Middle East, 1769-1770. Folio (235 x 170 mm). Italian manuscript in two parts with 29 original pen and ink drawings (15 and 14), written in black ink in a neat, legible hand, 28 lines to a page. (1), 95, (1) pp. (including illustrations numbered in pencil, upper right, but recto only). Collation, including illustrations: [1 f., 1 p.], [21 ff., 35 pp.], [6 pp.], [17 ff., 26 pp.], [5 pp.] (several sheets cut so that a tab only remains of the second page, and all illustrations tipped in). Contemp. half vellum over marbled paper boards. Generally written on both recto and verso, except for the two title-pages and the illustrations (recto only); all but first and last page enclosed with a single line border, in pencil for text pages and in ink for illustrations.

USD 75,000.00

Unpublished manuscript giving a vivid and event-filled first person account of a journey from Urbino to Constantinople, well legible and beautifully presented with 29 equally unique pen-and-ink illustrations. - A unique account of a journey from Urbino to Constantinople and back, in 1769-70, hand-written and accompanied by 29 original drawings, which offer views of islands rarely if ever depicted in contemporary travel accounts or series. No counterpart has been found for the illustrations, which appear to have been prepared from eye-witness records. That the artist may have been the author himself is suggested by the fact that he makes no mention of a separate artist, and by the manner in which he introduces the first illustration: 'Il Paise è piccolo come vedrassi della figura, che di curiosita, ed intelligenza di lettori porro a piedi di questo capitolo' (p. 5v). The story of his adventure is equally idiosyncratic, incorporating both a record of foreign places, people and customs common to other such literature, and also an account of a personal tragedy and a dangerous sea-voyage. The manuscript falls within a tradition of cultural exchange and travel writing between Europeans and the Orient; but unlike Luigi Mayer, for example, employed to make drawings of the historical buildings of Constantinople by the English ambassador Sir Robert Ainslie shortly afterwards, or J. B. Hilair, whose paintings made on a trip throughout the Empire with the French ambassador Count Choiseul-Gouffier in 1776, and engraved and published in Gouffier's "Voyage pittoresque de la Grèce" (1778-82), Gianni appears to be an entirely independent figure. Though the manuscript is set out like a printed book and was presumably destined for wider distribution in that form as a money-making enterprise, Gianni does not seem to have been commissioned, nor to have hoped for patronage. His stated aim is simply to give a true account to his readers, in case they might wish to undertake a similar journey. His route takes him through great cities such as Venice, Athens, Smyrna and Gallipoli, ancient sites such as Troy and Heraklia, through the Peloponnesus and islands such as Mykonos, Corfu, Maitos and Skios, all of which he describes and depicts in detail. Meanwhile, although he says that he is not writing in order to leave "una viva ricordanza di me, come di soggetto qualificato", that is precisely what he does: the second part of the book recounts his search for his son from whom he had heard nothing but that he had married a Greek girl. Reunited with him through a doctor who has been helping the boy through an illness, he tries to persuade the young couple to return with him to Urbino, but this plan is thwarted by the machinations of the doctor. His journey home, alone, is enlivened by an encounter with corsairs, a near shipwreck, a boy falling overboard and a violent storm. The value of this book lies not only in the unique, unpublished text and illustrations, and legible and attractive presentation, but also in the combination of commonly-found themes such as dress and customs, with an entirely personal and richly-told narrative of one man's search for his son. - One illustration (Smirne) has been trimmed along the right edge after having been bound in. Etched armorial bookplate of an unidentified noble bishop on front pastedown.

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Magellan's journey, hand-coloured: the first complete account of the first circumnavigation of the globe
48

Pigafetta, Antonio. Primo viaggio intorno al globo terracqueo ossia ragguaglio... della navigazione alle Indie Orientali per la via d'Occidente fatta [...] sulla squadra del capit. Magaglianes negli anni 1519-1522. Ora pubblicato [...] da Carlo Amoretti. Milan, Giuseppe Galeazzi, 1800. Milan, Giuseppe Galeazzi, 1800. Small folio (217 x 305 mm). LII, 237, (1) pp. With engraved title vignette, armorial engraving to dedication, 7 engraved chapter headpieces, 2 engraved folding maps, and 4 full-page woodcut plates in contemporary hand colour, as well as a few ornamental woodcuts in the text. Original printed card wrappers with title printed to spine and woodcut borders and vignettes to covers.

USD 9,500.00

First complete edition of the entire travel account; "the previous editions were merely unsatisfactory extracts" (cf. Ebert). Pigafetta was the only chronicler of Magellan's circumnavigation who had participated in the journey; he was present at Magellan's death and was one of the eighteen surviving members of the expedition upon which 237 men had embarked. Pigafetta is the chief authority for the voyage; his early maps of the Magellan Straits form an important early contribution to cartography and he was also one of the first to attempt a dictionary of native words in the South Seas. - "Pigafetta was a man of education and distinction" (Howgego). After delivering an oral report of the journey at Vallodolid immediately after the return, he turned to Lisbon, Mantua, and eventually Rome, where he likely completed his written account in 1524 but was unable to find a publisher. All the numerous versions published in the 16th and 17th century by Ramusio, Purchas, and others, are based on an epitomized and garbled translation produced in Paris in 1525. The author's original manuscript, a curious mixture of Italian, Venetian, and Spanish, was rediscovered in the Ambrosiana in Milan in 1800 and here edited by the learned Carlo Amoretti. - An untrimmed copy with full témoins. Publisher's limp cardboard binding a little duststained and chipped along the hinges, but altogether very clean and finely preserved. One of the most important exploration reports of the 16th century; the definitive edition.
¶ Sabin 62804. Brunet IV, 650. Ebert 16813. Henze IV, 114. Howgego I, 665 (M 17). Amat di S. Filippo 261ff.

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49

[Circumnavigation Expedition of the Corvette Saida]. 156 photographs documenting the 1884-1886 mission of the... Imperial corvette Saida. Aden, Bahia, Cape Town, Ceylon, Fiji, Java, Morocco, Melbourne, New Zealand, Singapore, Tanga, Victoria and other places, 1884-1886. Aden, Bahia, Cape Town, Ceylon, Fiji, Java, Morocco, Melbourne, New Zealand, Singapore, Tanga, Victoria and other places, 1884-1886. Albumen prints (vintage), mostly measuring ca 90 x 57 to 236 x 294 mm, pasted on a total of 98 backing cardboards (490 x 325 mm) with captions in black ink. Includes three composite panoramic views of Aden, Bahia, and Sydney. Stored in two contemporary marbled portfolios.

USD 17,500.00

Fine photo documentation of the 16-month circumnavigation expedition of His Majesty's Ship Saida, the last sailing vessel launched by the Austro-Hungarian Imperial and Royal Navy, in well-preserved original vintage prints from the glass negatives. The "instructional voyage" commanded by captain Heinrich Fayenz served the practical training of the naval cadets, but was also intended to facilitate political and trade interests as well as the collection of ethnographic and scientific specimens, to improve cartography, and to record hydrographic and meteorological conditions (cf. Palla, p. 17). "The Hydrographic Office supplied a camera and tripod, tasking the mission with photographing 'landscapes, buildings, and types of races'" (cf. ibid., p. 18). To this end, the ensign Felix Falzari (later a librettist for Franz Lehár) was instructed in the art of photography by Wilhelm Burger, who had previously recorded the Austro-Hungarian North Pole Expedition. The photographs show landscapes and views of cities, buildings and routes of transportation, the local population, as well as life aboard the ship. Areas visited include Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Brazil, Sri Lanka, Singapore, and Java. Unsigned, though some prints show a caption in the negative. A splendid ensemble, formerly in the collection of the Viennese publisher Christian Brandstätter. - Original 1880s backing cardboard insignificantly bumped or chipped along edges; prints appealingly sepia-toned, the vast majority showing crisp contrast. Mostly unpublished, though a number of the photographs have been illustrated in the account of the voyage written by Rudi Palla (cf. below), to whom Brandstätter had granted access to his archives.
¶ Cf. Rudi Palla, Die Weltreise Seiner Majestät Korvette Saida in den Jahren 1884-1886 (Vienna 2011) [a copy of which is included].

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Cellini's only work published during his lifetime
50

Cellini, Benvenuto. Due trattati, uno intorno alle otto principali arti... dell'oreficeria. L'altro in materia dell'arte della scultura. Florence, Valente Panizza & Marco Peri, 1568. Florence, Valente Panizza & Marco Peri, 1568. 4to. (5) ff., 1 blank, 61, (7) ff. With armorial title woodcut (Medici arms), printer's device at the end, and 35 large woodcut initials, showing views of cities. Contemp. vellum. All edges sprinkled in red.

USD 18,500.00

First edition of the only work of Cellini's published during the author's lifetime, and indeed in the entire 16th century. This treatise on the art of goldsmiths and sculptors offers a wealth of technical instructions drawn from immediate practical experience (on enamelling, gilding, embossing, moulding, bronze casting, etc.), providing insight not only into Cellini’s own methods, but also in those of Michelangelo and other Renaissance artists. - The misnumbered final leaf no. "47" has been corrected to "61" by a contemporary owner. Some occasional browning; slight waterstain near end. Binding somewhat rubbed and bumped at extremeties, with minor worming to upper cover. Letterpress bookplate of the musician and bibliophile Louis Thompson Rowe (1855-1927) and steel-engraved bookplate of John Addington Symonds (1840-93), a poet, literary critic and Renaissance scholar best known as an early advocate of male homosexuality. In 1887 he published an English translation of Cellini's autobiography. - Uncommon; ABPC lists the last copy at an international auction in 2003.
¶ Edit 16, CNCE 10737. BM-STC 164. Adams C 1240. IA 135.063. Cicognara 273. Gamba 335. Parenti 151. Steinmann/W. (Michelangelo) 439.

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Children's book
51

[Curiöser Spiegel]. Curiöser Spiegel, worinnen der ganze Lebenslauf des Menschen... von der Kindheit bis zum Alter zu sehen, in Figuren, mit beygefügten ganz neuen kurzen Erklärungen. Neue Auflage. Nuremberg, Johann Andreas Endter, 1812. Nuremberg, Johann Andreas Endter, 1812. Folio. (2), XLI pp. With hand-coloured woodcut ornamental title, 41 numbered, almost full-page hand-coloured woodcuts in text by Elias Porcelius and others, mostly after Susanna Maria Sandrart (printed on recto and verso). Contemp. marbled boards.

USD 25,000.00

Very rare, interesting children's book on the stages and events of life. Among the professions depicted are the bookbinder (p. XVI), the quack (p. XXIX), acrobats (p. XXX), the baker, carpenter, soldier, etc., events include birth, education, death, etc., as well as fencing (p. XXXIV), sleighing, hunting, etc. First published in 1689, the work was reprinted many times until 1853. Below each plate is a short description in German. - Binding rubbed and restored; later endpapers. Some browning and soiling throughout, with occasional edge defects; tear in t. p. restored. Still a good copy.
¶ Cf. Lipperheide Pa 11 (c. 1804). Rammensee 1447 (eds. c. 1690? & 1824). Gumuchian 1974bis (1824 ed.). Thieme/Becker XXVII, 268. Brüggemann/Bruncken I, 804 (earlier ed.).

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The first systematic study to address exclusively the education of women: a fabled rarity, the original first edition
52

Vives, Juan Luis. De institutione foeminae [...] libri tres, mira eruditione,... elegantia, brevitate, facilitate, plane aurei, pietateq[ue] & sanctimonia, vere Christiani, Christianae in primis Virgini, deinde maritae, postremo viduae, novo instituendi argumento longe utilissimi. Quid autem singuli libri toto opere contineant, sequenti pagella, videre est. (Antwerp, Michiel Hillen van Hoochstraten for Franz Birckmann, 1524). (Antwerp, Michiel Hillen van Hoochstraten for Franz Birckmann, 1524). 4to (140 x 195 mm). (96) ff., numbered in an early hand (omitting f. 77). Elaborate woodcut border on title-page, featuring elephant and cherubim, and with several large woodcut initials in text. Bound in early limp vellum with manuscript title on spine; edges stained red. 17th century portrait of Vives added to inner cover. Lengthy, exegetical early annotations to the first book 'De Instituenda Virgine' along with readership markings. A very good copy from the Harrach Library (Austria/Madrid), with 19th century stamp on title.

USD 125,000.00

Very rare first edition of "the first systematic study to address explicitly and exclusively the universal education of women", commissioned by Henry VIII's wife, Catherine of Aragon, who was at the time rearing her own daughter, Mary Tudor. Translated and adapted by numerous followers, Vives' treatise would go on to be read in almost every European vernacular, often by women themselves. The first edition, however, is rare in census and in commerce - and contains passages, particularly on chastity and intellectual capacity, which were entirely re-written in later incarnations. A fundamental document for the role of women in Early Modern society - and particularly in Early Modern England - this copy is especially remarkable for its state of preservation. An early reader of Vives has here added his own comments to the chapters on the seclusion of maidens and examples of feminine virtue. - "De Institutione Foeminae Christianae" consists of 3 books, one for each stage of woman's life: maidenhood, marriage, and widowhood. In his preface to Queen Catherine, Vives quotes Aristotle to the effect that states which do not provide for the education of women deprive themselves of a great source of their prosperity; yet as Charles Fantazzi points out, Vives is in fact here caught in a delicate double bind, "insistent on a subordinate, submissive role for women, the text must take care to expound its message not only without alienating the queen but rather, indeed, with the goal of winning her favour." Despite its dedication and although Vives specifically adapts his prose style for a female readership, the treatise is hardly pro-woman: "the 'Education' is determined to be both a reference book for men on how to control their women, as well as an edifying treatise for women to absorb as a source of proper behaviour" (Kolsky). Nevertheless, Vives' praise of women's intellectual capacity and his advocation of some form of universal learning for females are viewed as landmarks for modern historians of women and gender. - According to Fantazzi, "'De Institutione' enjoyed an enormous popularity and was generally regarded as the most authoritative statement on this subject throughout the sixteenth century, especially in England, where it found favor with Catholics and Protestants alike. There can be no denying that merely by attaching such importance to the education of women, Vives laid the groundwork for the Elizabethan age of the cultured woman." It was rapidly translated into English, enjoying some nine editions in that language during the 16th century alone (cf. Higginbotham, p. 69). According to Pollie Bromilow, the dozens of vernacular translations were partly aimed at women themselves, who had no knowledge of Latin; and thus a large segment of its readership during the 16th century was in fact female. Appearing in an undated edition as early as 1528 or 1529, the English translation is rather an adaptation of Vives' text begun by Thomas More but completed by his household tutor, William Hyrde, who must have used the present edition in its preparation. - In 1538 Vives brought out a revised Latin edition reflecting many changes to the original text. This is the edition most commonly cited by scholars, probably thanks to its greater availability. The sections on maidens and the preservation of maidenhood (in all its meanings), however, were substantially re-written - notably, treating many of the same subjects which interested the annotator of the present copy! Chapter 6, on virginity, for example, "was subjected to a complete revision, so that it bears little resemblance to the first published version. It is obvious that Vives struggled over the proper approach to this topic. In the original version, he suddenly abandons his more discursive style for a rather personal and, one might add, paternalistic tête-á-tête with a young woman" (Fantazzi, p. 18). Vives' views on women's intellectual capacities also develop between the two editions. - At the outbreak of the Reformation Vives was a close friend of Erasmus, who had commissioned him to write a commentary on Augustine's "City of God" in 1521. Perhaps seeking refuge from the political and religious turmoil of Europe, Vives turned his attention to England from this point onward. He dedicated his edition of "De Civitate Dei" to Henry VIII in 1522, and already in May of 1523 was able to present a manuscript of his "De Institutione Foeminae Christianae" to Queen Catherine in person. At Henry's court he grew close to the circle of Thomas More and produced a further educational treatise, "De Ratione Studii Puerilis". Thanks to his growing opposition to Henry VIII's divorce proceedings, however, Vives was placed under house arrest by Cardinal Wolsley from February to April 1528, and upon his release sensibly fled the country - only to return briefly later that year in the role of Catherine's legal adviser. - Provenance: later stamp of the Harrach Library on title-page. The collection originated as the personal library of Graf Ferdinand Bonaventura von Harrach, Austrian envoy to Spain (1637-1707), and explains the characteristically Spanish binding on the present example. Ferdinand's son Aloys followed in his father's footsteps; but after his death in 1742 the collection was transferred back to the remaining Harrach family in Vienna. Finally, the collection wound up in the family castle 'Schloss Bruck an der Leitha', in Lower Austria. We have handled numerous other Harrach copies, which seem to have formed a cohesive 'personal reference library' of 16th and 17th century works for this seventeenth century statesman. - A very good copy. OCLC shows just four copies in American institutions: Harvard, the Massachusetts Center for Renaissance Studies, Yale, and the Huntington.
¶ Nijhoff/Kronenberg 2167. Adams V 951. Brunet V, 1333. Estelrich 136. Cf. also Fantazzi's introduction to a modern translation, The Education of a Christian Woman: A Sixteenth-Century Manual (U Chicago, 2007). Kolsky, Making Examples of Women: Juan Luis Vives' The Education of a Christian Woman. Higginbotham, The Girlhood of Shakespeare's Sisters: Gender, Transgression, Adolescence (U Edinburgh, 2013). Bromilow, "An Emerging Female Readership of Print in Sixteenth-Century France?", French Studies (2013) Vol. 67, pp. 155-169.

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The last "Ricondotta" of Venice
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[Venice - Ricondotta]. Capitoli della ricondotta degli Ebrei di questa città,... e dello stato [...]. [Venice], per li figliuoli del qu. Z. Antonio Pinelli, 1777. [Venice], per li figliuoli del qu. Z. Antonio Pinelli, 1777. Large 4to. XXXIX, (1) pp. With woodcut printer's device to title page. Contemp. Italian boards.

USD 7,500.00

First edition of Venice's anti-Jewish statutes of 1777, the last "Ricondotta" published by the republic. With the political deterioration of Venice, ever new repressive measures were enacted against the Jewish community, based increasingly on anti-semitic sentiment rather than economic motives. On 27 September 1777 the Senate passed a far-reaching decree banishing all Venetian Jews from the city that could not prove a right of residence or lived in the ghetto. Also, Jews were forbidden to maintain a manufacturing business or sell meat, grain, or any food at all. - Slight duststaining to binding; interior shows faint waterstain; title page numbered in red crayon. Extremely rare; last sold at auction at Sotheby's, New York, in 1985.
¶ ICCU VEAE05013. OCLC 14559111.

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With an autograph letter signed by Fourier
54

Fourier, Charles. Traité de l'association domestique-agricole. (Includes:) Sommaire du traité... de l'association domestique-agricole ou attraction industrielle. Paris, London, Bossange père, P. Mongie ainé, M. Bossange et Comp., 1822-1823. Paris, London, Bossange père, P. Mongie ainé, M. Bossange et Comp., 1822-1823. 8vo. 3 vols. LXIV, 592 pp. VIII, 648 pp. (2), 8, 8B-8E, 9-16, (1329)-1398, B1398-1398E, 1399-1448, (1) pp. Contemporary green half calf, spine gilt in compartments, gilt lettering, corners, gilt fillets on sides (some very light browning, first four leaves of the second work with a dampstain in the lower outer blank corner).

USD 35,000.00

First editions of Fourier's principal work, together with the very rare supplement. The first volume is signed by Fourier on verso of the half title. This is Fourier's most important work, containing "the essence of Fourier's doctrine" (D. O. Evans, Social Romanticism in France 1830-1848, p. 129.) The main thesis of the work is the discovery of "harmonie": the entire work endeavors to prove how this harmony can be established and how life and society should be designed so as to ensure success. In an attempt to garner further attention for his ideas, he published the "Sommaire du traité" in 1823, a supplement often lacking. Indeed, the work went virtually unnoticed. Although Fourier is often seen as a dreamer and fantasist, he anticipated Marx in many of his ideas: the theory of poverty and exploitation and their relation to the means of production can already be found with him, and the Marxist concept of the "all-round man" is an idea on which Fourier elaborately worked and which is the most important result of his "harmonie". Fourier was "emphatically a serious social thinker who contributed much of permanent value, not only to socialist and co-operative ideas, but also to the solution of the entire problem of work and of the incentives and human relations connected with it" (cf. Kolakowsky, History of Marxism; Quack, de Socialisten, and G. D. H. Cole, A History of Socialist Thought). Numerous Fourierist communities were established, chiefly in the United States, where the way had been prepared by Robert Owen. Fourierism was introduced to the U.S. by Albert Brisbane, whose "Social Destiny of Man" appeared in 1840. Brisbane had studied in France under Fourier in 1834. In 1842 the New York Tribune, then edited by Horace Greeley, placed at his disposal a column in which for over a year he popularized Fourier's doctrines. - Contains, bound before the title page, the leaf "Instructions pour le Vendeur et l'Acheteur", and on the last page the "Appendice aux Conclusions" as well as two inserted quires, the first, B8-E8, containing "Banques Rurales", the second, B1398-1398E, "Carton à placer entre 1398 et 1399. Antienne du chap. III. La 4e phase de civilisation, I, 159". Extremely rare in this complete state, conforming with the details given by Del Bo. Bound in the "Sommaire" is an autograph letter signed by Charles Fourier, dated 9 Oct. 1836, written on paper of "La Réforme Industrielle ou Le Phalanstère" (2 pp. on bifolium with integral address panel, to Madame Caroline Thibaut, rue St. Victor, no. 76 in Paris). Fourier writes about his having met a lady friend of the recipient's: "[...] est une jolie femme, je m'en suis fort bien aperçu, et si j'avais eu 30 ans de moins je lui aurais dit ce que j'en pensais; mais j'ai trop à redouter que de pareils aveux ne soient indifferens à qui en serait l'objet [...]".
¶ I: Del Bo 5. Kress C.864. Goldsmiths 23694. Einaudi 1960 (both works). - II: Del Bo 6. Kress C.1060. Goldsmiths 23997.

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The famous churches of Europe
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[Architecture]. Eglises principales de l'Europe. Dediées a S.S. Leon... XII. souverain pontife. Milan, chez les éditeurs (Destefanis, Bernardoni) et chez Ferd. Artaria / Rome, chez Louis De Romanis, [1824-1831]. Milan, chez les éditeurs (Destefanis, Bernardoni) et chez Ferd. Artaria / Rome, chez Louis De Romanis, [1824-1831]. Folio (500 x 670 mm). Engraved title, engraved dedication, letterpress table of subscribers; 1) 16 pp. of letterpress text, 10 plates (2 coloured aquatints); 2) 24 pp. of letterpress text, 11 plates (2 coloured aquatints); 3) 12 pp. of letterpress text, 10 plates; 4) letterpress table of subscribers, 13 pp. of letterpress text, 10 plates (2 coloured aquatints); 5) 11 pp. of letterpress text, 10 plates (2 aquatints); 6) 12 pp. of letterpress text, 10 plates (2 aquatints); 7) 13 pp. of letterpress text, 10 plates (2 aquatints); 8) 14 pp. of letterpress text, 10 plates (2 coloured aquatints); 9) 14 pp. of letterpress text, 10 plates (2 coloured aquatints); 10) 6 pp. of letterpress text, 6 (instead of 10) plates (2 aquatints); 11) 10 pp. of letterpress text, 10 plates. A total of 107 (of 111) plates including 18 (of 22) aquatints, of which 10 are in original hand colour. Bound with 5 of the original wrappers in a calf portfolio with giltstamped spine and cover borders; marbled pastedowns.

USD 18,000.00

Very rare near-complete set of this beautiful collection of plates showing famous churches in Europe. The plates show 1) St. Peter's Basilica in Rome, 2) the Milan Cathedral, 3) the Pantheon in Rome, 4) St. Stephen's Cathedral in Vienna, 5) the Florence Cathedral, 6) the Pisa Cathedral, 7) St John in the Lateran, 8) the Siena Cathedral, 9) St. Mark's Basilica in Venice, 10) the cathedrals of Antwerp and Ghent, and 11) the Basilica of Superga. The aquatints show interior and exterior views, the uncoloured line-engraved plates are plans, cross-sections, interiors, monuments, among others. - A wide-margined set showing occasional browning and foxing, mainly confined to margins, and a few insignificant edge flaws. Wrappers slightly stained with repairs, all bound in an impressive full leather portfolio.
¶ Brunet I, 1843. Graesse II, 133. OCLC 21782995. Cf. Thieme/Becker XXIX, 214. Not in Fowler or in Kat. der Ornamentstichslg. Berlin.

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Inscribed to the Queen of Portugal
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Owen, Robert. The book of the new moral world, containing... the rational system of society, founded on demonstrable facts, developing the constitution and laws of human nature and of society. London, Effingham Wilson, 1836. London, Effingham Wilson, 1836. 8vo. XXXII, 104 pp. Contemporary green cloth with goltstamped title to upper cover and spine.

USD 18,000.00

First edition of the manifesto of Utopian Socialism. Parts II to VII would not appear until 1842-44. - Inscribed by the author to Queen Mary II of Portugal on the front flyleaf: "To Her Majesty / the Queen of Portugal / Presented by the Author". The engraved arms of the Portuguese royal family on front pastedown. Uncut as issued, a very pretty copy.
¶ Williams 47. Kress C 4213. Goldsmiths' 29743. Stammhammer I, 164 ("1820" in error).

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C'est la lutte finale: Mitterand's copy of the "International", inscribed the by author
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Pottier, Eugène. Chants révolutionnaires. Paris, Dentu et Cie., 1887. Paris, Dentu et Cie., 1887. Small 8vo (115 x 185 mm). XX, 240 pp. Original printed wrappers bound within contemporary red French half morocco over marbled sides. Marbled endpapers. Top edge gilt.

USD 35,000.00

First edition of the author's most famous work: "L'Internationale", written following the defeat of the Paris Commune in 1871: "Debout! les damnés de la terre! / Debout! les forçats de la faim! [...] / C'est la lutte finale: / Groupons-nous, et demain, / L’Internationale / Sera le genre humain!" The poem became the anthem of the International Workingmen's Association during its last years and has been used by most socialist and leftist political internationals since. In 1913, Lenin would acknowledge the 25th anniversary of Pottier's death in an article in "Pravda". - The present copy, last in the library of French president François Mitterrand, previously the leader of France's Parti socialiste, is inscribed by the author before the half-title: "Au citoyen Savinien Lecoq, ami intime du grand et regretté poète Pierre Dupont. Son collègue fraternel, Eugène Pottier, mai 1887". The Lyon-born songwriter Dupont (1821-70), whom Pottier here invokes as Lecoq's "intimate friend", was a well-known writer and performer of workers' songs, his "Chant des Ouvriers" proving his perhaps most popular creation. He counted Baudelaire among the circle of his friends and was banished in 1851 after the coup of Napoleon III. - A good, fairly wide-margined copy, very lightly browned. The binding's morocco grain shows the white sheen characteristic of the leather mousse used by the Bibliothèque nationale de France.
¶ Robert Brécy, "À propos de L'Internationale d'Eugène Pottier et de Pierre Degeyter", in Revue d'Histoire moderne et contemporaine, année 1974. Zévaès, Eugène Pottier et L'Internationale (Paris, 1936).

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Beethoven, Chopin, Liszt, Mendelssohn-Bartholdy, Rossini, Schubert, Schumann, Spontini and many others
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Fuchs, Aloys, Austrian musicologist and collector (1799-1853). Musikalisches Album zur Erinnerung an günstige Freunde, angelegt... von Aloys Fuchs. A magnificent album containing 115 autograph musical manuscripts by famous composers and musicians of the 19th century, almost all entries written for Fuchs personally. Various places, (1817-)1830-1850. Various places, (1817-)1830-1850. Large 4to (199 × 228 × 25 mm). XIV, 242 numbered pages (some leaves bound out of order, including 14 blank pages). Original dark auburn morocco with giltstamped cover rules, blindstamped cover borders, and attractively gilt spine and leading edges. Green endpapers. All edges gilt.

An extraordinary album assembling 115 musical manuscripts signed by many of the foremost composers of the first half of the 19th century, focusing on but not limited to the Viennese musical scene, including Beethoven, Chopin, Liszt, Lortzing, Mendelssohn-Bartholdy, Rossini, Schubert, Robert and Clara Schumann. - Aloys Fuchs was a civil servant in the Vienna Hofkriegsrat (Aulic War Council), where his immediate superior was the distinguished musicologist Raphael Georg Kiesewetter. Fuchs compiled important early catalogues of the works of Gluck, Haydn, Mozart, and others, occasionally sang as a bass in the court chapel choir, and was appointed a member of the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde in 1829. He began to assemble his enormous musical collection and library around the year 1820. For the plentiful valuable autographs and manuscripts it contained, it was hailed as "one of the largest and most valuable private collections in Europe" (cf. MGG IV, p. 1074). It was dispersed by sale after his death, but "the greater part went to the Deutsche Staatsbibliothek in Berlin; lesser amounts were acquired by the Bendictine Foundation at Göttweig (Lower Austria); others were sold through second-hand booksellers" (New Grove VII, p. 1). Only a small fraction remains in private hands. - "A singular feature of the Fuchs Collection were four guest-books (albums)" (Schaal, Autographen der Wiener Musiksammlung, p. 13), of which the present book was by far the largest and most encompassing specimen. Fuchs began the album in 1830 with 85 leaves (170 pages) of eight-stave paper as a musical friendship album for his famous guests: the first entry was penned by Ignaz Lachner on 4 Sept. 1830, the last by G. D. Duprato on 28 Dec, 1851. In all, 80 entries are dated. Several entries (some in-8vo) were added and intercalated, bringing the final page count to 242. Three items were transferred from another of Fuchs's albums, formerly owned by the musicologist Franz Sales Kandler and acquired by Fuchs after Kandler's death in 1831: those of Archduke Rudolph, Beethoven, and H. Woržischek. The Schubert song "Der Blumen Schmerz" is transferred from an unidentified album, as may also be the "Canone" by Muzio Clementi. With these few exceptions, all entries were inscribed for Fuchs personally. - The fine calligraphy of the title-page and index are the work of the same calligrapher whom Kandler had employed for his own album. A "collector's note" prefixed to the title was added by the same scribe in 1832, advising the reader that the contributions of Archduke Rudolph and Beethoven were acquired after the title was composed and Fuchs did not presume to a personal friendship with either of these eminent men, but had wished to glorify his album by including these relics. The six-page index lists 108 contributors (from no. 98 onwards they are in Fuchs's own hand), and seven more are added in pencil, bringing the sum to 115. - Detailed description available upon request.
¶ Georg Kinsky, Manuskripte, Briefe, Dokumente von Scarlatti bis Stravinsky. Katalog der Musikautographen-Sammlung Louis Koch (Stuttgart, 1953), no. 349 (pp. 330-337). Richard Schaal, Quellen und Forschungen zur Wiener Musiksammlung von Aloys Fuchs (Graz, 1966), p. 67, Album no. III. The same, "Die Autographen der Wiener Musiksammlung von Aloys Fuchs", in: Haydn Yearbook VI (1969), pp. 5-191, here at pp. 7 f., 13 f. (album III) and passim s.v. Katalog der autographischen Sammlung von Sigismund Thalberg (Naples, Iride, 1872), p. 20 ff. Wurzbach vol. 44 (1882), p. 130 ("das dritte Volumen"). Ingrid Fuchs, "Aloys Fuchs (1799-1853): A Private Collector's As a Public Institution", in: Collecting Music: Stories of a Passion (Turnhout, 2010).

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The introduction of "musica poetica", annotated throughout by a German humanist
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Listenius, Nicolaus. Musica [...], ab authore denuo recognita, multisq[ue] novis... regulis & exemplis adaucta. Nuremberg, Johann Petreius, 1541. Nuremberg, Johann Petreius, 1541. 8vo. (86) pp. With woodcut coat of arms (coloured in red and blue) on the title page; several initials and numerous musical notes in the text. Contemporary vellum.

USD 8,500.00

Early edition of one of the principal treatises of musical instruction produced in the 16th century, containing a wealth of pioneering theories and practical examples; first published in this form in 1537. It also boasts the first consistently executed example of a canon (still called "fuga"), with references to compositions by Josquin and Walther. - Based on the works of Rhaw and Agricola, Listenius's treatise avails itself of Melanchthon's new educational methods and "became very popular as a school primer in Germany and Austria, and had appeared in more than 40 editions before 1583. The treatise was primarily for teaching singing, and is arranged in a novel manner. Each subject is treated in a series of short, simple rules copiously illustrated with music examples. In the section on mensural music Listenius used the canon [...] for his examples. For the first time, in addition to the traditional terms 'musica theoretica' and 'musica practica', he introduced the term 'musica poetica', by which he meant instruction in composition. The term remained in general use in Germany for over a century" (K. W. Niemöller, New Grove XI, 28). - Contemporary handwritten ownership of "Joannes Thenn S." in a humanist hand on the title page (no relationship could be traced to the Franconian Johann Thenn who had become master of the Salzburg mint in 1500); numerous Latin underlinings and marginalia by the same writer in red and brown ink throughout (covering some 30 pages). Latterly in the library of the French musical scholar Henry Prunières (1861-1942), who in 1920 founded "La Revue Musicale", with his etched bookplate to pastedown.
¶ VD 16, L 2026. Eitner VI, 190. RISM (Écrits impr.) 507. Cf. Hirsch I, 322 (1549 ed.); Wolffheim I, 777 (1550 ed.); also Adams and BM-STC German cite only later editions.

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The first opera in the history of music
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Rinuccini, Ottavio. La Dafne. Florence, Giorgio Marescotti, 1600. Florence, Giorgio Marescotti, 1600. 4to. (24) pp. With armorial woodcut to title page and printer's device to verso of final leaf. Modern half vellum with handwritten spine title and marbled covers using old material.

USD 25,000.00

Exceptionally rare first publication of the libretto of the first opera in musical history, also the first opera libretto ever printed. The music by Jules Caccini and Jacopoto Peri, composed for the first performance on the occasion of a carnival soirée at the Palazzo Corsi in Florence in 1598, is lost. Ottavio Rinuccini (1562-1621), who also wrote the textbook for "Euridice", was not an occasional librettist, but a court poet among who also composed sonnets and verse drama (cf. Honolka, Geschichte des Librettos, p. 22). The present libretto was probably published for a later performance at the Corsis' in August 1600 (for the history of genesis and performance history cf. the extensive account in Sonneck I, p. 339-345). Rinuccini's "Dafne" was again performed, with new music by Marco da Gagliano (1582-1643), in 1608: this score is preserved to this day, and the opera has been performed repeatedly on European stages throughout the 20th century. - Marescotti's fine woodcut device on the final page shows a naval emblem with the motto "Et vult et potest". Very occasional slight browning. On leaf C2v the setting error "DEL" has been corrected by "AL" pasted over the erroneous word. A fine copy.
¶ Edit 16, CNCE 29328. BM-STC Italian 556. Sartori 7015. Sonneck 339. Wotquenne 47. Wolffheim II, 1083. Fuld 61.

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