The Vice of Dice
1

Augustine of Hippo, Saint. Sermones de verbis domini [and other works]. [Austria], 1448. [Austria], 1448. Small folio (235 x 314 mm). Latin ms. (gothic book cursive) on paper. 550 pp. (page numbers added in pencil, c. 1900, written on 547 pp.). Leaf size 210 x 295 mm, written area mainly 140 x 190 mm. 2 cols., mainly 30-31 lines (but final gathering: 41-43 lines), partly rubricated with red chapter headings and ends; numerous red Lombardic initials. Contemp. blindstamped Gothic calf binding over wooden boards. Wants the fittings and clasps.

USD 40,000.00

Fine late mediaeval manuscript, principally comprising sermons of St Augustine (pp. 1-410), but also containing four shorter treatises of his slightly older contemporary, Gregory of Nazianzus (pp. 411-523); dated "1448" at the end. Bound after this are 12 additional leaves, apparently penned slightly later by a different scribe, with theological writings of the early 15th century, namely two treatises by the French mystic Jean Gerson (pp. 527-540) and the treatise on the vice of dice by the Vienna canon Johann Geuss (pp. 541-550). - Contents: A) St Augustine. 1-121: Sermones de verbis domini secundum Mattheum (with a table of contents, followed by "Evangelium audivimus ... agite penitentiam"); 122-181: Sermones de verbis domini secundum Lucam (inc. "Petite et dabitur"); 182-344: Sermones de verbis domini secundum Johannem (inc. "Capitulum Evangelii quod lectum est"); 345-347: Sermo de verbis domini evangelio secundum Lucam de verbis apostoli, omnes nos manifestari oporte ante tribunal Christi (inc. "Omnium Christianorum spes"); 348-410: Liber de spiritu et anima (inc. "Quoniam dictum est mihi", expl. "quem cernere finis est doloris"). - B) Gregory of Nazianzus. 411-470: De urbana vita [ad Pronianum; tr. Rufinus] (inc. "Proficiscenti mihi ex urbe magnopere iniungebas Aproniane fili"); 470-487: De nativitate domini [oratio XXXVIII] (inc. "Christus nascitur"); 487-506: De luminibus et secundis epiphaniis [oratio XXXIX] (inc. "Iterum Jesus meus et iterum"); 506-523: De pentecoste [oratio XLI] (inc. "De sollemnitate huius diei pauca dicenda sunt"; expl. "et potestas in spiritu sancto in secula seculorum. Amen"); followed by date: "et finitus est liber anno etc. 1448"; 524-526 vacant. C) Johannes Gerson: 527-537: Tractatus de trepidantibus accedere ad celebrationem misse post pollutionem in sompniis habitum (inc. "Dubitandum est aput me"); 537-540: De duplicii stuatu in dei ecclesia, curatorum et privilegiatorum (inc. "Pax quam omnibus"; expl. "inveniri. Deo gratias. Deo gratias"). D) [Johannes Geuss]. 541-550 [Sermo de ludo alearum] (inc. "Confundatur sorcium distributio scribitur Numeri ultimo. Hec verba possunt intellegi de sortilegio lusorum et confusione ipsorum"; expl. "unam libram et sic posset fieri recompensatio" (lacking the final four columns of text). - Occasional addenda and marginalia by a roughly contemporary hand in the wide blank margin throughout. The 12-leaf quire bound at the end (watermark: type Piccard V [libra], section V, no. 294 ["Vienna 1461"]) must originally have been followed by a now-lost final leaf of text. Binding rubbed and bumped; small crack to upper cover; traces of a pasted grey paper wrapper. Occasional slight browning to manuscript; insignificant waterstain near beginning. Slight tear to first 3 ff. (not touching text), loss of corner to first leaf (loss of page number and a 17th century monastic ownership "Conven[tus] C[...]").

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A source for Copernicus: the first use of decimal fractions in Europe
2

Bianchini, Giovanni. Tabulae de motibus planetarum. [Ferrara, ca 1475]. [Ferrara, ca 1475]. Folio (242 x 340 mm). Latin manuscript on paper. 160 leaves (complete including four blank leaves at the beginning and six at the end). Written in brown ink in a neat humanistic hand, double columns, 37 lines to each page, numerous two and three line initials supplied in red or blue. With one large illuminated initial and coat of arms of the Scalamonte family flanked by floral decoration on first leaf, painted in shades of blue, green and lilac and heightened in burnished gold. With altogether 231 full-page tables in red and brown, some marginal or inter-columnar annotations, and one extended annotation on final leaf. Fifteenth century blind stamped goat skin over wooden boards, remains of clasps.

USD 250,000.00

The so-called Toledan Tables are astronomical tables used to predict the movements of the Sun, Moon and planets relative to the fixed stars. They were completed around the year 1080 at Toledo by a group of Arab astronomers, led by the mathematician and astronomer Al-Zarqali (known to the Western World as Arzachel), and were first updated in the 1270s, afterwards to be referred to as the "Alfonsine Tables of Toledo". Named after their sponsor King Alfonso X, it "is not surprising that" these tables "originated in Castile because Christians in the 13th century had easiest access there to the Arabic scientific material that had reached its highest scientific level in Muslim Spain or al-Andalus in the 11th century" (Goldstein 2003, 1). The Toledan Tables were undoubtedly the most widely used astronomical tables in medieval Latin astronomy, but it was Giovanni Bianchini whose rigorous mathematical approach made them available in a form that could finally be used by early modern astronomy. - Bianchini was in fact "the first mathematician in the West to use purely decimal tables" and decimal fractions (Feingold, 20) by applying with precision the tenth-century discoveries of the Arab mathematician Abu'l-Hasan al-Uqilidisi, which had been further developed in the Islamic world through the writings of Al-Kashi and others (cf. Rashed, 88 and 128ff.). Despite the fact that they had been widely discussed and applied in the Arab world throughout a period of five centuries, decimal fractions had never been used in the West until Bianchini availed himself of them for his trigonometric tables in the "Tabulae de motis planetarum". It is this very work in which he set out to achieve a correction of the Alfonsine Tables by those of Ptolemy. "Thorndike observes that historically, many have erred by neglecting, because of their difficulty, the Alfonsine Tables for longitude and the Ptolemaic for finding the latitude of the planets. Accordingly, in his Tables Bianchini has combined the conclusions, roots and movements of the planets by longitude of the Alfonsine Tables with the Ptolemaic for latitude" (Tomash, 141). - The importance of the present work, today regarded as representative of the scientific revolutions in practical mathematics and astronomy on the eve of the Age of Discovery, is underlined by the fact that it was not merely dedicated but also physically presented by the author to the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II in person on the occasion of Frederick's visit to Ferrara. In return for his "Tabulae", a "book of practical astronomy, containing numbers representing predicted times and positions to be used by the emperor's […] astrologers in managing the future" (Westman, 10ff.), Bianchini was granted a title of nobility by the sovereign. - For Regiomontanus, who studied under Bianchini together with Peurbach, the author of the "Tabulae" counted as the greatest astronomer of all time, and to this day Bianchini's work is considered "the largest set of astronomical tables produced in the West before modern times" (Chabbas 2009, VIII). Even Copernicus, a century later, still depended on the "Tabulae" for planetary latitude (cf. Goldstein 2003, 573), which led to Al-Zarquali's Tables - transmitted in Bianchini's adaption - ultimately playing a part in one of the greatest revolutions in the history of science: the 16th century shift from geocentrism to the heliocentric model. - In the year 1495, some 20 years after our manuscript was written, Bianchini's Tables were printed for the first time, followed by editions in 1526 and 1563. Apart from these printed versions, quite a few manuscript copies of his work are known in western libraries - often comprising only the 231 full-page Tables but omitting the 68-page introductory matter explaining how they were calculated and meant to be used, which is present in our manuscript. Among the known manuscripts in public collections is one copied by Regiomontanus, and another written entirely in Copernicus's hand (underlining the significance of the Tables for the scientific revolution indicated above), but surprisingly not one has survived outside Europe. Indeed, the only U.S. copy recorded by Faye (cf. below) was the present manuscript, then in the collection of Robert Honeyman. There was not then, nor is there now, any copy of this manuscript in an American institution. Together with one other specimen in the Erwin Tomash Library, our manuscript is the only preserved manuscript witness for this "crucial text in the history of science" (Goldstein 2003, publisher's blurb) in private hands. Apart from these two examples, no manuscript version of Bianchini's "Tabulae" has ever shown up in the trade or at auctions (according to a census based on all accessible sources). - Condition: watermarks identifiable as Briquet 3387 (ecclesiastical hat, attested in Florence 1465) and 2667 (Basilisk, attested to Ferrara and Mantua 1447/1450). Early manuscript astronomical table for the year 1490 mounted onto lower pastedown. Minor waterstaining in initial leaves and a little worming at back, but generally clean and in a fine state of preservation. Italian binding sympathetically rebacked, edges of covers worn to wooden boards. A precious manuscript, complete and well preserved in its original, first binding. Provenance: 1) Written ca 1475 by Francesco da Quattro Castella (his entry on fol. 150v) for 2) Marco Antonio Scalamonte from the patrician family of Ancona, who became a senator in Rome in 1502 (his illuminated coat of arms on fol. 1r). 3) Later in an as yet unidentified 19th century collection of apparently considerable size (circular paper label on spine "S. III. NN. Blanchinus. MS.XV. fol. 43150"). 4) Robert Honeyman, Jr. (1928-1987), probably the most prominent U.S. collector of scientific books and manuscripts in the 20th century, who "had a particular interest in astronomy" (S. Horobin, 238), his shelf mark "Astronomy MS 1" on front pastedown. 5) Honeyman Collection of Scientific Books and Manuscripts, Part III, Sotheby's, London, Wed May 2, 1979, lot 1110, sold to 6) Alan Thomas (1911-1992), his catalogue 43.2 (1981), sold to 7) Hans Peter Kraus (1907-1988), sold to 8) UK private collection.
¶ Bernard R. Goldstein & José Chabas, 'Ptolemy, Bianchini and Copernicus: Tables for Planetary Latitudes,' Archive for the History of Exact Sciences, vol. 58, no. 5 (July 2004), pp. 553-573. Bernard R. Goldstein & José Chabas, Alfonsine Tables of Toledo (= Dordrecht-Boston-Londres, Kluwer Academic Publishers ("Archimedes, New Studies in the History and Philosophy of Science and Technology" 8), 2003. José Chabás & Bernard R. Goldstein, The Astronomical Tables of Giovanni Bianchini (Leiden & Boston: Brill, 2009). Thorndike, 'Giovanni Bianchini in Paris Mss,' Scripta Mathematica 16 (1950) 69ff. & his 'Giovanni Bianchini in Italian Mss.,' Scripta Mathematica 19 (1953) 5-17. Rashed, Development of Arabic Mathematics: Between Arithmetic and Algebra. Boston, 2013. Mordechai Feingold & Victor Navarro-Brotons, Universities and Science in the Early Modern Period. Boston 2006. R. Westman, Copernicus and the Astrologers. Smithsonian 2016. M. Williams, The Erwin Tomash Library on the History of Computing, 2008, 141. Simon Horobin & Linne Mooney, English Texts in Transition: A Festschrift Dedicated to Toshiyuki Takamiya on his 70th Birthday. Woodbridge 2014. Silvia Faschi, Prima e dopo la raccolta: diffusione e circolazione delle Satyrae, di Francesco Filelfo. Spunti dall' epistolario edito ed ineditio. In: Medioevo e Rinascimento. XIV, n.s. XI (2000), 147-166 (mentioning a connection between the Italian Humanist and Marco Antonio Scalamonte). C. U. Faye & W. H. Bond, Supplement to the Census of Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts in the United States and Canada (1962), p. 21, no. 12 (this manuscript).

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A practical collection of instructions for dyeing, gilding, soldering, and pigment preparation
3

[Kunstbüchlein]. Kunstbüechlein Gerechten grüntlichen gebrauchs aller kunstbaren Werckleut.... [Germany], 1557. [Germany], 1557. 4to (155 x 205 mm). German ms. on paper: German cursive in red and brown ink by two scribes. (4) ff., 1 bl. f., 87 (instead of 92) numbered ff. (wanting ff. 2, 7, 37-40), (38) ff. (probably wanting 10 ff.). Altogether 130 (instead of 148?) ff. Contemporary blind-stamped calf.

USD 18,000.00

A small artisanal workshop's handwritten practical collection of instructions for dyeing, gilding, soldering, and pigment preparation: partly a contemporary manuscript copy of the book known as the "Kunstbüchlein", first published in 1531 as "Rechter Gebrauch der Alchimie", but here significantly expanded by two contemporary scribes. Formerly attributed to Georg Agricola, the printed manual was quickly reissued under the title used here and became a standard work, the "predecessor to many successors" (cf. Brüning). "The contents are purely practical and consist of chemical receipts for everyday wants and have nothing to do with alchemy strictly so called. In fact the title affords an early use of the word alchemical in the later wider sense of chemical. The substances employed are common and the operations are such as would be familiar to various classes of artists and workmen" (Ferguson). "These little technical manuals were first intended for miners and metallurgists, mint officicals, goldsmiths, and craftsmen. The 'Probierbüchlein' and 'Kunstbüchlein' in particular, with their recipes for assaying, chemical tests, the preparation of alloys and of dyes, were important for the artisanal trade, as they were for book art" (cf. Darmstädter 12). While the published "Kunstbüchlein" were generally printers' compilations "compiled from [...] workshop notes, from word-of-mouth sources, and from various 'experimental' treatises" (Eamon, p. 113f.), the present manuscript demonstrates that the exchange of such technical knowledge in fact flowed both ways: the craft secrets first drawn from artisans' experience and disseminated by printers are here re-absorbed into a new artisanal how-to manuscript; the wheel has come full circle. - Indeed, the present manuscript goes considerably beyond the known printed versions, discussing further artisanal techniques such as the preparation and application of pigments, dyeing and colouring precious metals, soldering, working with sulphur, oleum etc. On the verso of the title-page, we find a list of "characters and names of the various metals" with their symbols as well as "several alchemical terms Latinized", quite as in the published book. But even here several pages of entirely new material are intercalated: written in a rather cursory hand, they mainly treat fixing processes for powdered metals. This section is followed by dyeing techniques for cloth, feathers, and parchment, methods for producing gold paint and ink, for gilding glass, for preparing and properly tempering a scumble, for producing brown, purple, blue, green and other pigments; much material on gilding and silver-plating copper jewellry; for mixing salt of borax for use as a soldering flux; also, discussions of more immediately chemical processes such as purging sulphur or sublimating mercury. The classic scope of the printed "Kunstbüchlein" is covered by the first 58 numbered leaves of this manuscript; they are followed by more than 140 pages of additional recipes and techniques. While these, too, are clearly in the style of the contemporary "Probierbücher", they are not attributable to any distinct published source and are apparently drawn mainly from professional experience. These parts discuss the removal of "Spiessglas" (antimony), assaying ore for metals contained, and various stove-building techniques ("Saigerofn", "Terrofn", "Pachofn"). - Variously fingerstained; some dampstains and corner and edge defects with some text loss to first and last leaves. Binding rubbed and bumped with traces of worming; spine-ends defective. Curiously, a large central section of the blind-stamped lower cover has been cut out, possibly removing a supralibros. - A fine survival of a manuscript artisanal handbook clearly once in actual use by Renaissance practitioners.
¶ Cf. VD 16, R 492; IA 101.543; Brüning I, 169 (1531 Cologne ed.); R 493 (1535 Augsburg ed.; R 495; Hohenemser 1301 (1537 ed.); Darmstädter 82 (1549 ed.). Ferguson II, 246. William Eamon, Science and the Secrets of Nature: Books of Secrets in Medieval and Early Modern Culture (Princeton UP, 1994), pp. 112ff.

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Diplomatic account of Constantinople under Suleiman the Magnificent
4

[Trevisan, Domenico, Venetian bailo in Istanbul (fl. mid-16th century). Relazione dell'Impero Ottomano]. Northern Italy, probably 1560/1570s. Northern Italy, probably 1560/1570s. Folio (222 x 324 mm). Italian ms. on paper (incipit "S'io mi persuadessi"; explicit "debbo servir per sempre alla patria mia. Dixi"). 134 pp., final blank leaf. Modern unsophisticated paper wrappers.

USD 9,500.00

Near-contemporary manuscript copy of the 1554 relation to the Doge of Venice, by Domenico Trevisan, the returning bailo (resident ambassador) to Constantinople, about the Ottoman Empire and the duration of his station there. Much in the manner of present-day diplomatic cables and station reports, Trevisan gives an account of the ruling dynasty and the background of the various living or recently deceased family members to be reckoned with. He discusses the structure and hierarchy of the Ottoman administration, relations with foreign powers, events of foreign policy such as the ongoing Ottoman-Habsburg wars in Hungary, the weaponry of the army and navy (providing many new and vital details on the strength of the Ottoman galleys and their armaments, at a time when the Spanish-Italian fleet of Charles V under the command of Andrea Doria was suffering a series of successive defeats against the Turks), the tributes exacted from the various provinces of the Empire (departing in some details from the figures given by Alberi's edition), etc. - "The bailo's appointment usually lasted two years [... He] was obliged to send Venice information not only about politics and colonial affairs but also about the prices and quantity of the goods sold in local markets. A bailo was more important than a consul [...] The bailo in Istanbul began to deal more and more with the highest Ottoman authorities, even if extraordinary ambassadors or lower-ranking diplomatic envoys were also assigned to the city. When a bailo came back to Venice he had to deliver a detailed report or country study (Relazione). - The office of bailo in Istanbul was usually much desired by Venetian noblemen because it was the only important position abroad that was profitable, not expensive. It was given to experienced diplomats who often went on to become doges" (Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire, p. 73). - Well preserved. Some browning and ink bleeding to other side of leaf, but in all well legible. Other manuscript copies of the same relation are known in the Bibliothèque nationale de France and the Bertoliana in Vicenza. - Watermark: circle with star; counter-mark: clover and letters SF (or ST?). Briquet lists very similar examples in his first volume under nos. 3089 and 3092 (the first, a specimen in the Venetian state archives, dated Vicenza, 1559, with similar examples from Graz [1557], Vicenza [1573], Salo [1574] and Udine [1574-87]; the other, a specimen in the Venetian state archives, dated Salo, 1565-70). Piccard Online shows similar specimens from the Tyrolean State Archive dating from Vienna, 1562 (AT3800-PO-160995) and Innsbruck (as early as 1514: PO-160878).
¶ E. Alberi, Relazioni degli Ambasciatori Veneti al Senato, ser. III, vol. I (1840), pp. 111-192.

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Fifty imaginary island cities, drawn for the Doge of Venice
5

Vericci, Marco. Inmaginationi Millitari. Manuscript on paper, in Italian. Venice, 20. IX. 1595. Venice, 20. IX. 1595. Oblong folio album (245 x 380 mm). 57 ff. 50 full-page pen and ink drawings of imaginary cities and their armies; 50 emblematic cartouches each containing an octave describing the opposite city, some with Latin mottos; dedication in ornamental border; allegorical cartouche with octave praising Venice on the verso. Contemporary red morocco with gilt triple fillets enclosing large oval centerpiece composed of double fllets in arabesque patterns with armorial shield, edges gilt. Stored in custom-made half morocco case.

USD 185,000.00

Unique album with splendid manuscript designs for imaginary fortified cities, created for and dedicated to Marino Grimani in the year of his appointment as Doge of the City and Republic of Venice, which he would reign over until his death. Grimani served as Superintendent of Fortresses before becoming Doge and worked for many years on the design and construction of the Palmanova fortress, the greatest of the Renaissance star forts and constantly embattled by the Ottomans as well as by other forces for centuries to come. Verricci's album constitutes a paragon of Renaissance idealism: a utopian vision which champions the might derived from pushing human genius to the limits of the imagination, combining mathematics, philosophy, and military prowess with art, poetry, and design. Little is known about the author-artist Marco Vericci, some of whose other ingenious military designs survive in the Biblioteca Bertoliana in Vicenza, but he may have worked with Grimani on the designs for Palmanova. Italian art historian Lionello Puppi has cautiously suggested that "Vericcius" may be a pseudonym of Fillipo Pigafetta, a Venetian soldier and mathematician who wrote extensively on military fortifications. In this album, Vericci illustrates and whimsically describes fifty imaginary cities whose designs are based on the utopian mathematical ideals of the Renaissance star fort. The cities, with names like "Mirabella", "Grimanopoli", and "Durissima", are situated in elaborate landscapes (almost all are island fortresses, like their model) and are rendered in exquisite detail. The octave opposite each illustration describes the strengths and virtues of each fantastical fortress in the vein of Italo Calvino's novel "Invisible Cities" - which also featured a litany of imaginary towns all reflective of La Serenissima herself. The last illustration but one depicts the 1571 Battle of Lepanto, a major naval victory by the Holy League over the Ottomans. The Palmanova fortress was dedicated exactly 22 years, to the day, after the battle - thus its inclusion here links the glory of Lepanto explicitly to the achievements of Doge Grimani, in addition to re-situating this imaginative work in its real-life context of simmering conflict not just between Europe and the Turks, but also between Venice and Austria - her enemy to the North. - Some light soiling and spotting; some early marginal repairs where ink has corroded the paper; traces of paste on first two leaves with loss to a few letters. Otherwise in excellent state of preservation and still in its richly gilt morocco binding commissioned for the Doge of Venice (his arms in the centre of the back cover rubbed).
¶ Manfredo Tafuri, Venice and the Renaissance (Boston: MIT Press, 1995). Lionello Puppi, Scrittori vicentini d'architettura del secolo XVI (Venice: Accademia Olimpica, 1973).

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Hunting and Falconry: an early manuscript
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[Falconry - Meurer, Noe]. Wie weidmennisch vonn allem Weydwerkh zu reden. Probably Southern Germany, later 16th century. Oblong 4to (222 x 172 mm). 1 blank leaf, 50 unnumbered written pages, 2 blank leaves. German manuscript (dark brown ink) on paper, fine calligraphy by a single scribal hand (titles and headlines in blackletter, text in cursive script). Later limp vellum wrappers, spine reinforced with a fragment of a 15th century vellum manuscript with red and blue rubrication. Stored in a modern custom-made half morocco case.

USD 9,500.00

Calligraphically appealing 16th century manuscript on the art and terminology of hunting and falconry, written by a professional scribe for an unidentified sponsor, though likely for a highly placed personage or member of the nobility in South-Western Germany. The manuscript contains contemporary extracts from the end of the third part of Noe Meurer's "Von Forstlicher Oberherrlichkeit und Gerechtigkeit", an important study of hunting first published in Pforzheim by Georg Rab in 1560, and then, in expanded form, in Frankfurt, by Georg Rab & Weigand Han, in 1561. Meurer (born ca. 1525 in Memmingen in Southern Swabia, died in Heidelberg in 1583) was one the first German legal scholars to write in his native tongue rather than in Latin; among his works are treatises on the law of inheritance and of water. In particular, he was the first German author to publish monographs on the subjects of forestry and hunting, not as mere chapters within the larger framework of agriculture, for which reason he was of great importance for the study of forestry in the 16th century. The present extracts comprise the only parts of Meurer's book concerned with the practical, technical aspects of hunting, rather than with its legal foundations. They include sections on hounds, canned and net hunting, the hunting of stags, roes, boars, foxes, rabbits, bears, wolves, ibexes and chamois, as well as a section on how to tell a deer from a roe when viewing the animal from the rear. The final part is dedicated to hunting with falcons and hawks. The entire section on deer ("Die Hürsch zu suchen, wie auch der Hürsch für der Hinndin zue erkennen etc.") is not part of the first edition of Meurer's book, suggesting that the scribe based his work on the second edition of 1561 (leaves LXXXIIII verso to XCVII verso). Yet the order of the individual sections does not follow the published book in all particulars, and the present arrangement would seem to reflect the scribal editor's or the sponsor's private considerations. - The paper stock for this manuscript is from a paper mill in Meurer's native Memmingen (watermark: Gothic letter "P" - or more likely "Q" - with the arms of Memmingen: Briquet III, no. 8750 and p. 468; cf. Briquet I, p. 72; specimens dating from the late 1580s to 1590s). - Very well preserved and legible, untrimmed manuscript from the collection of the Swiss-born German merchant and entrepreneur Hans Dedi (1918-2016), chairman of the "Quelle" mail order concern and the Schickedanz business group, with his bookplate in the marbled solander case and his gilt signet on the spine.
¶ Cf. VD 16, M 5017.

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A Letter from the King of Thailand to Maurice of Orange
7

[Newe Zeitung - Thailand]. Nova ex India (Zeitung auß India). Transladt van... eenen brieff yeschriebe te Hout in by den Conninck van Syam yesondne aen Syn Excl Mauritjo de Nassau. No place, [1608]. No place, [1608]. Folio (210 x 335 mm). 1 p. Dutch manuscript (a regular cursive hand in brown ink) on paper, watermark "STRVB" (probably the papermill founded by the printer Leonhard Straub in Aach near Rorschach in 1582). Written space ca. 180 x 240 mm.

USD 9,500.00

An important and early document relating to the history of the Dutch East India Company: the Dutch translation of a letter of King Ekathotsarot of Siam to Maurice of Nassau, Prince of Orange. The original letter was presented to Maurice by a Siamese embassy that reached the Hague in 1608. - The first Dutch merchants had visited Siam in the early 17th century; in 1608 King Ekathotsarot (Sanphet III) was the first ruler of Thailand to send an embassy to Europe. In September the mission reached the court of Maurice of Orange in the Hague. Maurice, stadtholder (steward) of the Dutch Republic, here addressed as "Connick van Hollant" (or King of Holland), was presented with various gifts as well as with King Ekathotsarot's letter, of which a translation is here provided. "It proved the beginning of a relationship with the Dutch East India Company that was to last for more than 160 years. It was not long before new European inventions such as telescopes and binoculars reached Siam" (cf. Gerroldt, Politik und Monarchie in Thailand II, 67). The news of the Thai embassy created a sensation throughout northern Europe, of which the present handwritten newspaper gives rare evidence. - Very minor spotting, a few minor cracks at the folds, but finely preserved.

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Manuscript astrological volvelle with 3 rotating dials and detailed instructions for use
8

[Astrological Volvelle]. [Dell' hore planetarie]. [Italy (Genoa?), ca. 1650?]. [Italy (Genoa?), ca. 1650?]. 4to (225 x 160 mm). [6 blank], "31" [= 30], [1], [1 blank] pp. including the paste-downs. Manuscript in dark brown and red ink on paper, written in Italian, with a brown and red astrological volvelle on the paste-down at the end, with 3 rotating dials (5.5, 7.5 and 10.5 cm diameter, those for the sun and moon with pointers) over a fixed dial (13.5 cm diameter), secured with a copper pin through a small round copper disk. Further with planetary signs in the text, and 4 tables on 6 pages. Sewn as a single quire through 6 holes, in heavy, plain paperboard wrappers, cut flush with the text leaves (except for the paste-downs, which are a couple millimetres smaller).

USD 9,500.00

A carefully constructed and drawn, and beautifully preserved astrological volvelle with one fixed and three rotating dials, with a 30-page Italian manuscript discussing planetary dials, with tables associating the planets (including the sun and moon) with the 24 hours of the seven days of the week and providing other data, and with explanations of the tables and volvelle and instructions for their use. Although the manuscript has no title-page or general drop-title, the eight numbered chapters are titled: 1) Dell' origine dell' hore planetarie. 2) Dell' hore planetarie, e loro distributione. 3) Ordine della successione de i pianeti nell' hore planetarie. 4) Modo d'adoperare la precedenti tavola. 5) Modo di sapere quanto longa sia l'hora planetaria in qualtitia hora del giorno in tutto l'anno. 6) Spiegatione della tavola, e modo d'adoperarla. 7) Spiegatione delle ruote mobili posti nil fine di questo libretto. 8) Modo d'adoperare queste ruote. - The outer (fixed) dial of the volvelle has the daytime hours in red in the upper half and the nighttime hours in brown in the lower half, labelled "hore planetarie diurne" and "hore planetarie notturne" respectively. The hours of both the day and the night are numbered twice from 1 to 12 (clockwise and counterclockwise). The first rotating dial gives the 12 months and the twelve zodiac signs, the latter indicated with both the abbreviated name and the sign. The second rotating dial gives the days of the month, numbered 1 to 29 with a space left for 30 (or 30 and 31 together). It has a pointer with a red sun that can be rotated to align with the desired hour and time of year in the outer two dials. The third rotating dial has only a pointer, with a brown moon, which can be aligned with the desired day of the month. Its centre is attractively coloured with a brown square (a separate slip, covering the axis) on a white hexagon on a red circle. - The three-page table with data to relate the planetary hours to the Italian hours for the entire year is based on a latitude of 44 degrees, 30 minutes, which corresponds to Genoa and Bologna, but not to Rome or any of the other largest Italian cities. - The manuscript collates: [A]20 (- A9) = 19 ll. A9 was probably removed during production of the manuscript, for A8v (p. 11) has a catchword pointing to the heading on A10r (p. 12) and there is no gap in the text. The number 7 was accidentally omitted in the pagination. There is a small correction slip on part of the table on p. 26. The paper of the entire manuscript is watermarked: bird in a 45 mm circle = --, the mark centred on a chainline with about 27.5 mm between the chainlines (so that the mark nearly fills two spaces) and with initials A and N inside the circle (the A left above centre and the N right below centre). There is nothing in the circle below the bird (where many marks of this style show three hills). We have found no close match in the literature, but the closest examples seem to date from the 1640s (Heawood 177, 179, 182) and marks in the general style were used in Rome and Genoa but rarely in Bologna. Heawood 748 also records similar initials "AN" in a different mark that may also date from the 1640s. The general style of the manuscript (including that of the lettering for the volvelle) make an earlier date unlikely. - The ink sometimes shows through and has occasionally eaten a small hole through the paper, but the manuscript is otherwise in very good condition, with the volvelle well-preserved and its three rotating dials working smoothly. An Italian manuscript astrological volvelle with 3 rotating dials and detailed instructions for use.

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Album of the Imperial blanket maker J. F. Hörmannsperger
9

Baroque pattern book and album of the blanket maker Johann Franz Hörmannsperger. Vienna, 1736. Vienna, 1736. Oblong folio (390 x 252 mm). 118 numbered ff. (but 115: ff. 96, 106, and 112 skipped). Calligraphic preface by Hörmannsperger, 58 full-page textile designs by the same, mostly in red, blue, green, and gilt (including one folded, double-page sized specimen and 4 ff. with 2 designs each), 7 splendid gouache washes raised in gilt and silver; bound in between these are a total of 52 engravings on 48 plates, all in splendid contemporary colour raised in gilt and silver. Contemp. marbled boards.

USD 85,000.00

Unique, museum-quality document of late Baroque craftsmanship among the urban Third Estate: apart from 58 meticulously executed textile designs, the album contains seven large-format gouaches showing the self-assured author practising his trade in his workshop, advertising and selling his wares to customers, as well as playing music and even bowling, but also attending the general meeting of the Viennese blanket makers. The engravings which Hörmannsperger inserted between his own works all show mundane subjects (dwarves, soldiers, caricatures, etc.): thus, his autograph textile designs and gouaches are interleaved with some of the rarest and most charming pieces produced by the 1720's Augsburg school of engraving. - The album is introduced by a self-portrait of the 26-year-old Hörmannsperger in his workshop (with his compass and one of the later-included textile designs lying on the table); on the opposite page he offers a brief preface to the volume: "for true art speaks for the master: here is a book, all mine, with many drawings, as they will be seen, all drawn by me, though I say so myself, with much time, labour, and trouble [...] I, Johann Frantz Hörmansperger" (transl.). The captions to the splendid gouaches prove the author's humour (sometimes bawdy) as well as a trait of surprising self-confidence. Pitching his self-plaited blanket to a female customer, he addresses her: "My dear lady, here's a fine blanket for you - you may well stretch yourself under this: one and a half ells wide and two in length; perfect for flipping over with your husband underneath" (transl., f. 84). Another image shows him selling saddlecloths to military officers ("we'll have these and take them into battle", f. 86); yet another shows him bowling in a Baroque garden at the weekend ("All gay and jolly, for we are journeymen of the trade: and so the virgins may be; they will not be bored - here is red wine and white, so well we may make merry", f. 94) and dancing ("Be merry all. Musicians play! Thus do the blanket makers frolic and dance with pretty girls until their shoes may fall to pieces", f. 104). The final leaf shows an apprentice received into the society of blanket makers at their quarterly general assembly ("The blanket makers convene today to discuss what concerns the society: the young man must have learned his trade; he is not too tall nor too small. But he must put in his time, until he is made a journeyman", f. 118). Some of Hörmannsperger's ornamental designs, created with the use of a compass, include centerpieces showing armorial or figural motifs; one design (f. 113) is apparently a commission for Emperor Charles VI (bearing his monogram and Imperial insignia); according to the later caption, it was indeed executed for him. - Between his own works Hörmannsperger bound engravings by the great Augsburg masters of his age, all splendidly coloured and raised in gilt and silver: eight engravings from Elias Bäck's dwarf series (fencing school, drinking, gluttony, and tobacco addiction), a complete cycle of the seasons and the life stages of man by Martin Engelbrecht ("Der Menschen Jahr Veränderung"), a total of 19 of the famous engravings by Pfeffel, Schmidt, and Engelbrecht showing a soldier's life (two with movable parts), as well as a fine broadsheet by Albrecht Schmidt showing the seven Honest Swabians, and finally an untitled eight-page cycle showing the female tempers. - The Austrian and especially the Viennese bedclothes were known for their high quality throughout the continent. During their golden age in the 18th century they were exported to all European courts, as well as to Greece, Turkey, and many oriental countries. At the time this album was drawn up, there were ten masters of the profession in Vienna alone creating blankets and mattresses as well as backpacks and cuirasses. - Provenance: acquired in 1893 "from Mr Josef Lang's son-in-law" by the bedclothes merchant Josef Pauly, supplier to the Royal and Imperial court, and passed on by him to Mr. Junghofer, chairman of the bedclothes makers' cooperative, in 1896 (cf. Pauly's autograph dedication note on the flyleaf); last in an Austrian private collection. Boards imperceptibly restored at lower spine end; interior slightly fingerstained; slight tears to two leaves, but in excellent state of preservation altogether.

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Unknown manuscript by a Jesuit about his sojourn in China, bound with two other relations
10

[China - Jesuit Letters]. Biblioteca volante ou colleçao de varias relacoes pertencentes... à Embaxada da China. Collection of relations about China compiled by Fr. Matthias da Conceiçao, librarian of the monastery at Mafra. Likely Mafra near Lisbon, 1756. Likely Mafra near Lisbon, 1756. 4to. 3 parts in one volume (with handwritten collective title as quoted above). I: Relaçao verdadeira dos sucessos da embaxada, que o Fidelissimo Rey de Portugal o Sr. D. José I mandou ao Imperador dal China no anno de 1752. (232) pp. Portuguese manuscript on paper. - Bound between (II): Jean Sylvain de Neuvialle. Relação da jornada, que fez ao Imperio da China, e summaria noticia da embaixada que deo na Corte de Pekim em o primeiro de Mayo de 1753, o Senhor Francisco Xavier Assiz Pacheco e Sampayo. Lisbon, Antonio Pedrozo Gairam, 1754. (16) pp. - (III): Noticia admiravel, e curiosa relaçam do grande imperio da China. Lisbon, Domingos Rodrigues, 1755. 8 pp. Contemporary full calf with title to giltstamped spine. All edges sprinkled in red.

USD 18,000.00

A unique Chinese-themed sammelband compiled by the librarian of the famous palace-monastery of Mafra, built between 1717 and 1755. Bound between two rare, brief printed reports about the Portuguese missions to China carried out in 1753 and 1755 is an extensive unpublished manuscript that provides a "true relation of the successes of the embassy which King José I of Portugal sent to the Emperor of China in the year of 1752". Closely written in a fine, well-legible secretarial hand, the relation is dated December, 1754 and signed "Luis de Sigueira". Sequeira (1693-1763) was a French Jesuit who came to China in 1726, worked in Hukwang (Hankou) and served later as rector in Macao (cf. Pfister). No publication of his relation could be traced in the National Library of Lisbon or in library catalogues internationally. - Paper of letterpress relations and handwritten title noticeably browned, paper of Sequeira's manuscript unaffected, showing merely some occasional ink bleeding or corrosion in the bolder pen flourishes. Binding rubbed and bumped along extremeties; some chipping to spine. A unique survival with old handwritten library shelfmark "Est. 12.C.4.L.21" to flyleaf.
¶ Cf. Pfister, Notices biographiques et bibliographiques sur les Jésuites de l'ancienne mission de Chine 1552-1773, II, p. 698 ff). OCLC 6407381 (II), 29132403 (III).

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11

[Hospital day-book]. Anno 1768 Jahr. Mit Gott angefangen das Buch... von Versorgung und Auferstehung deren Krancken in daß Hospitall deren Closterfrauen Elisabethinerin auf der Landtstraß zu Wienn. Wie auch vorgemerckt werden darinen die Verstorbene und gesunds Entlassene. (Vienna), 1768-1773. (Vienna), 1768-1773. Folio. (464) pp. Contemporary half calf over marbled boards with four ties.

USD 5,000.00

An interesting manuscript originating from Vienna's St. Elizabeth Hospital, founded in 1710 and operating to the present day. It lists the incoming women patients day by day, stating their names, age, civil status, birthplace, address, place of work and medical condition. At the end of each entry is either the date of their discharge or of their passing. As the hospital admitted female patients only, this MS provides an exceptional insight into the living conditions of women in 18th century Vienna, thus representing an important source for social history, containing information on common diseases and life expectancy, as well as on the patients' occupation and private life. Likely just one of a series, the MS documents the busy operations of a city hospital over a period of six years. - Old pencil shelfmark to lower pastedown. Insignificant traces of worming to spine, a bit of the lower spine end chipped. Light browning to paper, otherwise well preserved. From the library of the Viennese collector Werner Habel, with his signed and stamped ownership, dated 1985, to the pastedown.

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An 18th century Prussian Cloth Manufacturer's Handwritten Pattern Book
12

[Weaving patterns]. Busse, Johann Friedrich, clothmaker (fl. ca 1772). Ein Muester-Buch vor Johann Friedrich Bußen. Berlin den... 20ten October 1772. The hand-drawn pattern book of a Prussian cloth-maker. Berlin, ca 1768-1789 (with a few addenda to 1893). Berlin, ca 1768-1789 (with a few addenda to 1893). 4to (ca. 167 x 200 mm). German manuscript on paper. 64 ff. (including 2 blanks) with a total of 19 large (full-page) and 2 smallers patterns in red varnish, as well as 6 large and ca. 100 smaller black-and-white patterns in ink. Contemporary red half vellum.

USD 17,500.00

An extensive and uncommonly early handwritten pattern book by Johann Friedrich Busse, a clothmaker who thrived in the Berlin of Frederick the Great. The designs are drawn in brown and black ink, but also in a glossy red, showing a plethora of weaving patterns: diagrams identified as "Rieg" or "Boden" as well as presentations of the finished motifs in their horizontal and vertical grid of warp and weft. Many patterns bear flowery names such as "Tulip and Eyes", "Star and Eyes", "Ducat and Window Pattern", "Brambles and Clover", "Colourful Wreath", "Redoubled Clover", "4 Hearts with Wreath", or "Wreathed Rose" (as they might be translated) and include technical commentaries as well as instructions regarding material and colours in a generally well-legible German script: "Ketten-Muster 20 schaftig", or "Die Kette zu diesem Boden mus mit 14 weisen und 1 blauen Faden gestochen [werden], sie müßen auf den Hinterschafft kommen". An extensive recipe ("Schön Roth zu Ferben Auf ein Pfund Wolle") provides practical instructions for dyeing wool red. Interspersed are notes on orders and commissions, some written in a private cipher of digits and letter codes, as well as private details such as the names of children who took First Communion in 1768-69 and, added by later owners, the dates of family weddings, births, and deaths from 1841 to 1893. - The patterns are not dissimilar to their counterparts in contemporaneous printed collections, all of which today are of the utmost rarity (the best-known early publication of this type is likely Marx Ziegler's "Weber-Kunst- und Bild-Buch" from 1677). Even later editions of such books have proved almost unobtainable, as they typically remained in heavy workshop use, often for more than a century, until they literally fell to pieces. Thus, it is all the more surprising to find a manuscript specimen in such good overall condition, aside from the quite heavy fingerstaining, particularly as this, too, clearly remained in use within a family of weavers for more than 100 years. Although Johann Busse so far could not be traced, it is almost certain that he was related to the far-flung Busse family of clothmakers based in Luckenwalde and well established both in Berlin and Brandenburg at least from the early 19th century onwards (known representatives include the manufacturer Christian Gottlieb Busse, 1769-1841, the dyer Johann Andreas Busse, born 1768, and the cloth finisher Georg Busse). The fine calligraphic title as well as the pious inscription underneath suggest that the writer enjoyed some degree of education: "Nichts daß ich erfunden habe oder Möcht vollkommen sein, ich jage ihn aber Nach daß ich es ergreiffen Möchte, oder ich vergeße alles waß dahinter ist u. strecke mich nach dem daß da vornen ist. Drum auch Jhesu du allein, soll mein ein und Alles seyn. An Gottes Seegen Ist alles gelegen. Alles mit Gott biß in den Todt. Friedrich Busse". - Only a few decades after Busse drew up the present collection of weaving patterns, the French weaver Joseph Marie Jacquard would develop his programmable loom which used punch cards to compose the same kind of textile designs mechanically - an invention that would prove to have paved the way for the computer when the English mathematician Charles Babbage realized that such a programmable machine could be fed punch cards to execute complex calculations rather than weaving patterns. And yet even Busse had been fully aware of the fundamental importance of mathematics for the art of weaving. On a separate page near the end of his manual he includes a discussion of the basic arithmetic operations necessary to his profession: "Wer die Edle, und allen Menschen sehr Nützliche Rechen Kunst recht Gründlich aus dem Grunde Erlernen will Derselbe muß auf Fünfferley Art und weise mit den Ziffern oder Zahlen Umzugehen wißen. Den er muß lernen Erstlich die Ziffern recht Lesen Schreiben und aussprechen. Zweytens viele Zahlen zusammen zu zehlen oder in Eine gantze Summe zu bringen. Drittens Eine kleine von der größern abzuziehen. Viertens Eine Zahl mit der Andern zuvermehren oder um so viel mahl zuvervielfältigen. Fünftens Eine Zahl durch die andere in so viel gleiche Theile zu theilen. Diese Fünf Arten Nennet man die fünf Species der Rechen Kunst, Alß: Ersten Numeriren, Zweytens, Addiren, Drittens, Subtrahiren, Viertens Multiplicatio, Fünftens Dividiren". - Binding rubbed and bumped; covers and spine chipped. Interior shows marked thumbstaining and occasional ink bleeding to versos; some leaves warped by shrinkage of the red varnish. An extraordinarily rare survival.

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Spectacular late 18th-century Italian manuscript on fireworks, illustrated throughout
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[Fireworks]. Arte Pirotecnia. [Italy, late 18th century]. Large 4to (270 x 195 mm). 36 ff. With 72 very interesting pen-and-ink drawings, partly coloured in brown, yellow and reddish washes. Contemporary marbled boards. In custom-made cloth portfolio.

USD 28,000.00

Spectacularly illustrated manuscript describing and illustrating many moveable and rotating pyrotechnical units and machines, including rockets. The title-page, bearing the name of a former owner (Valentino Vieri, who probably also added some probationes pennae), is followed by a description of the first 62 coloured drawings, beginning with the "Giuoco della Luna e Sole" (games of moon and sun), including all sorts of revolving, spouting, exploding and firing units, rockets, and other gadgets: On fol. 20r three objects are illuminated: an aloe vase, a tree, and a coat of arms, inscribed "Dini". Fols. 20v-23r show full-page installations, including a "Colona Trionfante" with a winged angel on top, a Lion of St. Mark, the symbol of the free Republic of Venice, holding an open book with his right paw (displaying the text "Pax tibi Marce Evangelista meus"), an oval on top of a balustrade, bearing the text "W. Gesu Giuseppe e Maria", a "Piramicia Egiziana", and a cupola with lanterns and fire pots. Fols. 23v-25r contains two double-page war scenes: the first, a fortified castle by a coast, with a vessel and a galley at sea; the second, a fortified tower and an army camp with tents opposite, with symbols of war and military equipment in the foreground. The final fols. 25v-36v contain indexes and instructions for fireworks: (1) "Indice delli Giuochi di Fuocho" (the various units and rockets; fols. 25v-26v); (2) "Regole Generali": 84 numbered instructions for construction and operation of fireworks (fols. 27r-35r); (3) "Indice delle Misture" (fols. 35v-36r); and "Catalogo de Generi ed Utensili" (fol. 36v). - There may be a connection between this manuscript and the Papal Master of Ceremonies Msgr. Giuseppe Dini (d. 1799). The Library of the Getty Research Centre possesses a ms. written by Dini ("Relazione o sia diario di tutto quelle che e stato osservato in Roma nelle venuta del Re delle due Sicilie Ferdinando IV e la Regina Maria Carolina Arciduchessa d'Austria", 1791) containing biographical and historical notes, including descriptions of the preparations for the royal visit with details about the route, the number of soldiers guarding the visitors, and the costs of the entertainment (including operatic performances and fireworks). At the back of that manuscript are printed announcements of the firework display and official appearances by Pope Pius VI. - In 1782 Dini - as that Pope's Master of Ceremonies - published a diary of the Papal journey, via Venice, to Vienna (undertaken with an aim to mitigate the social and ecclesiastical reforms enacted by Emperor Joseph II). Perhaps the ms. with its explicit references to the Republic of Venice can be connected with this 1782 journey (a German edition, "Vollständiges Tagebuch von der Reise des Pabsts Pius VI. nach Wien", appeared in Breslau in 1783). Another possibility is a connection with the election of the new Pope Pius VII in March 1800 in Venice, after a very difficult conclave in Venice that began in December 1799, soon after the death of Pius VI and just before the death of Dini on 2 November 1799. - Spine slightly damaged; some browning. In good condition.

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Original illuminations in the Second Gondar style
14

Marian legends. Illuminated manuscript in Ge'ez on vellum. Ethiopia, late 18th century. 180 x 170 mm. Two columns, 18 lines. 132 leaves. With 13 (8 full-page) miniatures. Contemporary brown calf over wooden boards. Panelled and eloborately stamped in blind.

USD 18,000.00

Ethiopian illuminated manuscripts of the present quality today have virtually disappeared from the market (Hartung & Hartung, original sales note). Occasional marginalia by a later hand. The illuminations are marked by short strings sewn into the blank margins of the relevant pages. - Provenance: Hartung & Hartung 79 (2 May 1995), lot 127; sold to an Austrian private collection and acquired from the descendants.

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North Indian sex handbook in Persian, with 29 beautiful illustrations showing a mix of ethnic backgrounds and sexual orientations
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[Manuscript - Erotica]. [Sexology handbook]. [Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India], 1811. [Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India], 1811. Manuscript in Persian. 69 ff., collation: [A]-[B]8 [C]6 [D]-[H]8 [I]8(- I8), written in black ink with frequent words in red, with each page in a frame of (outside to inside) blue, gold and red rules (the gold wider) with an outer frame of gold rules near the edges, the opening of the text elaborately decorated with flowers, vines and abstract forms in blue, lavender, green, orange, white, gold and bronze, and 29 original erotic illustrations (2 full-page, 27 half-page) in numerous colours of gouache and with extensive use of gold and some silver. Contemporary black calf, resewn on 2 green cloth tapes, each board with an embossed gilt paper inlay (18.5 x 9 cm) embossed with arabesque plant decoration in a decorative border, surrounded by 9 smaller embossed gilt paper inlays forming a frame, with green double rules bordering the inlays and green linear decorations connecting the inlays in the frame, gold-tooled spine, gold-tooled brown calf paste-downs. With tissue guard leaves between most pairs of facing pages.

USD 28,000.00

A rare example of an early 19th-century north Indian sexology handbook, beautifully and extensively illustrated. It was commissioned by Saadat Ali Khan II (ca. 1752-1814), 5th Nawab of the princely state of Awadh (officially called Oudh by the British Raj) and written by his personal physician (hakim), possibly Ali Sharif, who had been hakim to the Nawabs before and after Saadat's reign. The illustrations (75 x 90 and 145 x 90 mm) were made by the official royal painter, who has not been identified (several Indian artists who worked for Saadat Ali Khan II are recorded by name). The manuscript is divided into 14 chapters including those on development of male sexuality, development of female sexuality; things to do before, during and after copulation; descriptions of 14 sexual positions (assan); medical compounds for erectile dysfunction; and information about the female orgasm. It illustrates one male homosexual couple and one lesbian couple. The men and women depicted are all Asian or Middle Eastern in appearance, some light-skinned and some dark-skinned, and they copulate in various combinations. Some of the men are depicted with grey skin, suggesting that they are devotees of the god Shiva, who smeared their bodies with ash as he did. - Awadh under the Nawabs, straddling the present Indian-Nepalese border, was famous for its harmonious mixing of the Hindu religion and Islam (the Nawabs were Shi'ite). It was most opulent under the Nawab Asaf-ud-Daula, who reigned from 1775 (when he shifted the cultural centre from Faizabad to Lucknow) to his death in 1797. He was a great patron of the arts, supporting both Indian and European artists and inaugurating an Awadh school that mixed elements of European and traditional Mughal styles. In other genres the European styles tended to dominate after his death, but the present erotic miniatures still follow the Awadh traditions, with European perspective in many of the backgrounds but sometimes also showing hierarchical prospective (one scene depicts a horse in the foreground much smaller than the erotic couple, and a tiger also smaller than natural size). The Awadh school of miniatures "gradually acquired a prominent place in the cultural history of India which no other province gained" providing a "glorious heritage [...], we should make efforts to preserve the rich cultural legacy of Awadh" (Awasthi, p. 102). - The manuscript is written on laid paper with horizontal chainlines but no watermarks. One new endleaf has been inserted at the end. The decoration at the opening of the text (105 x 85 mm) was clearly taken from an earlier manuscript, for it is on a separate piece of paper mounted on a backing sheet and inserted where a piece of the leaf has been cut out for the purpose, and it has about three dozen tiny worm holes that do not continue in the backing sheet or the leaves before or after it. - The gutter folds of many leaves have been restored and the sewing is later than the binding. With some stains and worm holes, mostly in the gutter margin, and a few leaves with tattered edges, but generally in good condition and with the illustrations well preserved. The binding is loose, with 1 leaf detached, and slightly rubbed, with a few small parts of the gilt paper scuffed. A beautifully and extensively illustrated north-Indian sex manual, with a very topical mixture of ethnic backgrounds and sexual orientations.
¶ For background information cf. Preeti Awasthi: Awadh - Congenial Home for Nurturing Arts, In Historical Perspective of Painting and Music (1722-1856), PhD thesis, University of Lucknow, 2014.

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The introduction of electricity to the Islamic world: the earliest surviving manuscript
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Yahya Naci Efendi. [Introducing electricity through experiments]. Constantinople, 1227 AH (= 1812 AD). Constantinople, 1227 AH (= 1812 AD). 8vo (222 x 150 mm). 16 ff., mostly with 24 text lines to each page (text area 155 x 70 mm). Written in excellent Naskh script with black ink on waxed paper. Headings and highlighted words in red. Two (folded) plates on velin paper (watermark: A. Stace 1802). With carefully executed pen-and-ink drawings with notes in red (167 x 194 mm each). Contemp. red half leather. Covered with Ebru paper, with leather edges and marbled endpapers.

USD 35,000.00

The original Ottoman Turkish manuscript of one of the most important texts in the history of electrical engineering and science: the complete treatise on electrical fluid, as drafted by the Turkish engineer Yahya Naci the same year. "In the early 19th century, the teaching of science at the Imperial Engineering School in Istanbul was mostly based on the material translated from textbooks compiled for the French 'grandes écoles'. Translations and compilations were generally made by the professors of the school. Yahya Naci Efendi (d. 1824), a lecturer in French language and sciences, compiled in 1812 a treatise introducing the properties of electricity through experiments. His aim was also to show that the lightning flash and the thunderbolt were electrical phenomenons. Yahya Naci's main source was the chapter on electricity of Mathurin-Jacques Brisson's (d. 1795) 'Traité Elémentaire de Physique', a popular book of physics in French colleges. This translation is important because Yahya Naci endeavoured to create Ottoman terms from Arabic regarding electricity and because it points to the initiatives in introducing experimentation in the teaching in the Imperial Engineering School" (Günergün, cf. below). The colophon states the name of the scribe as "Yahya Naqi" and the date "Zilqa'da 1227 H.", proving that the present volume contains the author's long-lost original manuscript. - In very fine condition; only a few insignificant spots.
¶ Feza Günergün, Deneylerle elektrigi tanitan bir Türkçe eser: Yahya Naci Efendi'nin Risale-i Seyyale-i Berkiyye'si. In: Osmanli Bilimi Arastirmalari IX/1-2 (2007-2008), pp. 19-50.

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Richly illustrated manuscript explaining Catholic doctrine to deaf-mutes
17

Assarotti, Ottavio Giovanno Battista, philanthropist and pedagogue (1753-1829). Dottrina Christiana. [Genoa, c. 1815-20]. [Genoa, c. 1815-20]. 8vo (233 x 170 mm). Contemp. half calf, spine gilt with with title lettered in gold. With 117 (out of 118) full-page coloured drawings within borders consisting of two lines (206 x 138 mm) illustrating the Christian Doctrine, on strong paper. One leaf with written introduction (one leaf missing), 117 ff. (numbered 1-95, 97-118) with drawings, 3 blank ff.

USD 18,000.00

Interesting manuscript by Padre Ottavio Giovanni Battista Assarotti (1753-1829), containing a method to teach and explain the 'Dottrina Christiana' to Genoese deaf-mutes. Assarotti was an Italian philanthropist and founder of the first school for deaf-mute people in Italy. After qualifying for the church, he entered the society of the Pietists, Scuole Pie, who devoted themselves to the training of young men. In 1801 he heard of the Abbé Sicard's education of deaf people in Paris, and resolved to do something similar in Italy. He began with one pupil, and by degrees collected a small number around him. In 1805, Napoleon, hearing of his endeavours, ordered a convent to give him a school-house and funds for supporting twelve scholars, to be taken from the convent revenues. This order was poorly heeded until 1811, when it was renewed, and the following year Assarotti, with a considerable number of pupils, took possession of the new school. He continued here until his death in 1829. The traditional and distinctive Italian manual alphabet is said to have been invented by Assarotti. - It is not certain that Assarotti himself is the author of the manuscript: while it may equally well have been conceived by one of his collaborators, it is based on the method invented and developed by Assarotti, who also designed the plates. The introduction explains how difficult it is to teach abstract concepts, such as religion, to deaf-mute pupils, so he painted these plates, invented by Assarotti: "He (Assarotti) never wrote down his educational philosophy and methods, and so fell into obscurity after his death" (Deaf History Unveiled, 244f.). As far as we know this manuscript is the only surviving witness of his theories. - The style of the watercolours is somewhat primitive and popular, but very rich in detail, including elaborate plates illustrating Faith in general ('Fede'; nos. 1-42); Commandments ('Legge'; nos. 43-51); Prayers ('Preghiera' 1-10; nos. 52-61); 42 Sacraments ('Sacramenti'; nos. 62-95, 97-104); Virtues ('Virtu' 1-14; nos. 105-118). The illustrations include views of paradise, hell, creation, functions of priests, symbols of all kinds of aspects of the Catholic faith, etc. - In very good condition.
¶ Dizionario biogr. degli Italiani IV, 433f. S. Monaci, Storia del R. Istituto nazionale dei sordomuti in Geneva (1901), 17-88 and passim. F. Donaver, "Il padre Assarotti", in: La Rass. naz. 23 (1901), 79-87. Deaf History Unveiled, ed. John Vickrey van Cleve (1993), 244f.

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A Gift for Sovereigns, illustrated with 17 large miniatures
18

Kashfi, Sayyid Ja’far ibn Ishaq. Tuhfat al-Muluk. Iran, dated "1151" (i.e., H 1251 = CE 1835/36). Iran, dated "1151" (i.e., H 1251 = CE 1835/36). 4to (295 x 185 mm). Persian ms. on smoothed paper. 384 unnumbered ff., 21 lines to a page. With decorative, richly coloured 'unwan headpiece and 17 coloured miniatures, many raised in gilt. Highlighted words written or overscored in red. Contemporary half calf with coloured, lacquered gouache paintings to covers; inside covers show finely excuted floral designs on a red background.

USD 28,000.00

Lavishly illuminated manuscript on the knowledge of the world and state philosophy, the title of which might be rendered as "A Gift for Sovereigns". This important treatise was composed in 1817/18 on behalf of Prince Muhammad Taqi Mirza, son of Fath Ali Shah, the second king of the Persian Qajar dynasty, and is the major work by the Iranian philosopher Sayyid Ja’far ibn Ishaq Kashfi (c. 1775-1850), who lived in Borujerd in western Iran. Prince Muhammad Taqi (c. 1791-1848) was the eighth son of the Shah. He was regent of Borujerd but was imprisoned after the death of his father in 1834. The present manuscript with its rich illumination and magnificent binding was begun during the last years of Fath Ali Shah and not completed until after his death. Peculiarly, the manuscript is written in Naskhi rather than in the usual Persian Nastaliq script. While most Persian calligraphers could prepare their work in Naskhi upon request, this may serve to indicate that the manuscript is not a copy by a professional scribe, but rather the manuscript of a scholar (possibly by Kashfi himself?). - The ms. is dated "1151" at the end of the text, which must mean 1251, i.e. 1835/36 C.E. Written on western laid paper with several watermarks, including - in the first half - a prominent one with an eagle above a circle. The typical Qajar enamel binding shows charming cover illustrations of lavish flower bouquets with three birds; the inside covers show more conventional, stylized floral ornamentation. Several late 19th-century. ms. notes to reverse of the first leaf. With occasional edge damage professionally repaired or showing repairs by a contemporary owner (including final leaf: insignificant loss to text); colours show some bleeding to reverse. Some rubbing throughout, with the occasional stain.

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19

Balzac, Honoré de, French writer (1799-1850). Autograph letter signed ("de Balzac"). No place, [February 1835]. No place, [February 1835]. 8vo. 2 pp. on bifolium.

USD 15,000.00

Letter of recommendation to Baron Gérard for the Swiss painter Louis-Aimé Grosclaude: "J'ai vu hier un artiste dont le nom n'est pas encore célèbre en France quoiqu' il ait beaucoup de talent, c'est M. Gros-Claude de Genève. Il désire, avec cette ferveur qu' inspire votre talent, vous faire voir ses tableaux qu' il expose au musée. J'ai osé faire les honneurs de votre bienveillance, et il doit venir vous les apporter entre midi et une heure aujourd' hui, car le terme de rigueur expire demain pour l'admission; il n'a rien autre chose à vous demander que votre avis, et celui de mademoiselle Godefroid. Il est grand ami de Schnetz et professe pour vous cette admiration que nous avons tous [...]" ("Yesterday I saw an artist whose name is not famous in France yet, although he has great talent, it is M. Gros-Claude of Geneva. He desires [...] to show you his paintings, which he exhibits at the museum [...] he has nothing else to ask of you but your opinion, and that of Mademoiselle Godefroid. He is a great friend of Schnetz [...]"). - Louis-Aimé Grosclaude (1784-1882) was a student of Jean-Baptiste Regnault, and exhibited at the Salon de Paris since 1833. Balzac had made his acquaintance in Geneva the previous year. Gerard was to write to Balzac that Grosclaude was "quite simply a man of talent". - Contemporary numbering in upper left corner. In excellent condition.
¶ Published in: Balzac, Correspondance I, Bibliothèque de la Pléiade, no. 35-21.

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la chère bande à Godot
20

Beckett, Samuel, Irish writer and Nobel laureate (1906-1989). 19 autograph items (lettercards, picture postcards, calling cards... and one letter) signed ("Sam Beckett" or "Sam"). Paris, London, Algeria, Morocco, 1972-1989. Paris, London, Algeria, Morocco, 1972-1989. Altogether approximately 14 pp. Various formats. With 10 autogr. envelopes.

USD 14,000.00

To the German actor Stefan Wigger, who had played the character of Vladimir in Beckett's Berlin production of "Waiting for Godot" in 1975. During the following years, Wigger had sent him congratulations, books or messages of various content, and Beckett answered him kindly. - "[...] Bien reçu hier les deux livres dont je me promets beaucoup de plaisir et votre gentille carte de voeux. Je suis très touché que vous ayez pensé à mon anniversaire et vous remercie de tout coeur. Je pense souvent aux amis du Schiller et leur dis à tous un grand Grüss Gott! [...]" (13 April 1972). - "[...] Retour de voyage je trouve avec le beau livre du cher vieux Fontane votre gentille carte de voeux [...]" (23 April 1974). - "[...] Als Stock absagte, wollte ich Sie. Mir wurde geantwortet, Sie seien nicht mehr frei. Jetzt ist es mit Fernau abgemacht. Ich bedaure sehr [...]" (18 Aug. 1975). - "[...] Un grand merci pour votre toi-toi-toi. Le travail ici s'est bien passé. Retour à Paris cette semaine [...]" (10 Oct. 1976). - "[...] Many thanks for your card from Dublin. Hope all went well & no casualties [...]" (25 April 1977). - "[...] J'ai peur que le théâtre ne m'ait fait ses adieux. Moi qui aimerais tant pouvoir jouer encore une fois avec la chère bande à Godot. Bolli, Klaus, Carl, embrasse-les bien fort à ma place [...]" (12 April 1980; Beckett refers to the Berlin "Godot" performers, Horst Bollmann, Klaus Herm and Carl Raddatz). - "[...] I feel my theatre days are over - as director at least. TV perhaps not yet quite. I often think of you all & of our times together - with fondness & nostalgia [...]" (6 April 1983).

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The news from Germany are extremely sombre
21

Benjamin, Walter, German literary critic and philosopher (1892-1940). Collection of letters by Walter and Georg Benjamin... as well as by third parties. Various places, 1920-1923. Various places, 1920-1923. Various sizes. Altogether 39 pp. on 23 ff. Two addenda (cf. below).

USD 25,000.00

Comprehensive family correspondence centered around Walter Benjamin and his brother, the physician (and later resistance fighter) Georg, Georg's fiancée Grete Kliem, and her friend Lisabeth. The 18 letters and postcards highlight the ideological distance between the socialist Georg Benjamin, from wealthy Jewish merchant stock, and his bourgeois, conservatively Christian fiancée, which ultimately led to the couple's separation. Georg Benjamin, who was to be murdered at Mauthausen concentration camp in 1942, instead married Hilde Lange in 1926. The jurist Lange later served as minister of justice to the German Democratic Republic, earning her the nickname "Bloody Hilde". - On 21 January 1923, Walter Benjamin writes to his brother Georg: "When I received your message, I once again saw how little feminine skill for investigation I possess in matters of marriage and engagement, for if I had but a small measure of it, I could well have guessed at the purpose of your frequent trips to Hagen [where Grete Kliem lived]. With as much heartfelt warmth as surprise I congratulate you and your future wife on your decision [...] Dora will stay here another while; her recuperation is necessarily progressing slowly, but she is gaining weight. Still, the doctor has advised rest for the foreseeable future [...] I am working here all well as I can, preparing the edition of my friend's [Fritz Heinle's] posthumous papers. The news from Germany are extremely sombre [...]". - Comprises individually: Walter Benjamin: 1) ALS. 21 Jan. 1923. 1 p. 8vo. To Georg. ALS by his wife Dora on reverse. - Georg Benjamin: 1) APcS. [22 Aug. 1923]. 2 pp. 8vo. With autogr. address. To Grete. 2) ALS. 6 Jan. 1923. 1 p. 8vo. To Grete. 3) ALS. Undated. 2 pp. 8vo. To Grete. 4) Autogr. lettercard signed. 16 Feb. 1923. 1 p. Oblong small 8vo. To Grete. 5) ALS. Undated. 1½ pp. 8vo. With autogr. envelope. To Grete. 6) ALS. Berlin, 28 Dec. 1922. 1 p. 8vo. With autogr. envelope. To Grete. With autogr. draft reply from Grete (½ p). 7) ALS. Undated. 4 pp. on bifolium. 8vo. To Grete. 8) ALS. Undated. 3 pp. on bifolium. 8vo. To Grete. - Grete Kliem: 1) Autograph letter draft signed. Undated. 2 pp. Oblong small 4to. To Georg. 2) Autograph letter draft signed. Undated. 1½ pp. Large 8vo. On headed paper of Beyersmann, Hagen i. W. To Georg. 3) Autograph letter draft signed. Undated. 1 p. Small 4to. To Georg. - Lisabeth: 1) ALS. 20 Oct. 1920. 4 pp. on bifolium. 4to. To Grete. 2) ALS. 22 Oct. 1920. 2 pp. 4to. To Grete. 3) ALS. Ilsenburg, 27 Gilbhard [October] 1920. 2 pp. Large 4to. To Grete. 4) ALS. 6 Dec. 1920. 2 pp. 4to. To Grete. 5) ALS. 21 Jan. 1922. 4 pp. on bifolium. 4to. To Grete. - 6) ALS. Undated. 4 pp. on 2 ff. Small 4to. - Includes: 1) Postcard by various undersigners to Hilde Lange, sending congratulations on her betrothal. 2) Addressed envelope from Georg Benjamin to his fiancée.

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For the most excellent Salome, Inge Borkh, in grateful remembrance, DRichard Strauss
22

Borkh, Inge, German operatic dramatic soprano (1921-2018). Archive collection, consisting of letters, postcards, and photographs. Various places, 1947-2011. Various places, 1947-2011. 250 pp. of correspondence and 81 photos and portrait postcards with a total of 249 pictures.

USD 6,500.00

The archive collection of Inge Borkh - perhaps the most important performer of "Salome" and "Elektra" - includes an inscribed portrait of Richard Strauss ("For the most excellent Salome, Inge Borkh, in grateful remembrance, DRichard Strauss, Berne, 18 March 47") as well as letters and cards by Sir Georg Solti (2), Karl Boehm (1), Wieland Wagner (2), Leopold Lindtberg (4), Josef Krips (1), Luise Rinser (10), Josef Tal (3), Rudolf Bing (2), Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau (2), Heinz Tietjen (5), Harry Buckwitz (10 and one inscribed and signed photo from a rehearsal for the Frankfurt prémière of "Macbeth" on 21 June 1962), Ivan Rebroff (1), Ernst Schiffmann (10), Ernst Stankovski (2), August Everding (4), Anneliese Rothenberger (1 ), Ljuba Welitsch, Max Lorenz, Richard Trunk, Boy Gobert, and Gerhard Bronner. From Jess Thomas, another then highly esteemed Strauss singer, there are several signed photographs and greeting cards (5), and from Hermann Hesse's wife Ninon there is an autograph letter signed to the consul Franz Simon, Inge Borkh's father, whom she sends a copy of Hesse's "Beschreibung einer Landschaft" with an autogr. inscription by him. - Inge Borkh's numerous photographs, mostly portraits (some in costume) and portrait snapshots, cover a period of almost seven decades.

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Einstein assists a fellow émigré and engineer
23

Einstein, Albert, German-born physicist and Nobel laureate (1879-1955). A large archive of material featuring ten (1... autogr. and 9 typed) letters to Wsevolode Grünberg and a short autograph note by Einstein, an ALS by Elsa Einstein and 2 TLS by Helene Dukas. Accompanied by a large archive of Grünberg's papers, consisting of well over 1,000 pages of material including some of his original drawings for his hydrofoil improvements, copies of his patents, etc. Princeton (NJ), Peconic, New York and Saranac Lake (NY), 1939 to 1948. Princeton (NJ), Peconic, New York and Saranac Lake (NY), 1939 to 1948. I: Albert Einstein. Mostly 4to. Altogether 11 pp. II: - Elsa Einstein: 8vo. 2 pp. - III: Helene Dukas. 4to. 2 pp.

USD 50,000.00

Grünberg, who later in life changed his name to Waldemar A. Craig, was an aeronautical engineer who developed an important design for the hydrofoil. The letters accompany a large archive of Grünberg's papers, consisting of well over 1,000 pages of material including some of his original drawings for his hydrofoil improvements, copies of his patents, (including a large dossier of declassified tests performed in the years immediately following WWI), photographs, correspondence, and other related documents and ephemera. - Grünberg, the nephew of a close friend of Einstein, appears to have become acquainted with Albert and his second wife Elsa sometime in the late 1920s or early 1930s, if not personally, by correspondence. In an undated letter from Berlin, written sometime before 1932, Elsa Einstein commented to Grünberg: "I am assuming you are just as kind and clever as you uncle, our dear friend. My husband and I were so glad having been able doing this small favor for you. Mr. Dunne wrote a most gracious note to us from Florida. In particular I want to thank you for the delicious grapefruits [...]" and adding "Feel free to call on me anytime, if you think I could be of help. Please be sure and do". - Apparently Grünberg took her advice, and travelling to the United States in 1939 approached Einstein for an introduction to fellow engineers in the U. S. in order to demonstrate his hydrofoil designs. The two met in June 1939 at the home of Irving Lehman in Port Chester, New York. - In addition to the introduction to the American engineering community, Einstein also agreed to handle a complex inheritance matter for Grünberg. On 1 July 1939, the same day he recommended Grünberg to his American associates, he wrote to him that he had written "a most insistent letter to Mr. Plesch in which I suggested to name an arbitrator in the inheritance matter who would be agreeable to you as well as to me and who could personally communicate with Mr. Plesch and yourself". Enclosing the letter to Dr. Lewis, Einstein advised, "I cannot understand though, how you could succeed to find a position here without a valid residence permit. I urge you to carefully investigate this subject prior to making use of the enclosed letter". Einstein continued to assist Grünberg with the inheritance issue, acting as a go-between Grünberg in the U. S. and Mr. Plesch in France. - Despite some annoyances, Einstein did what he could for Grünberg both for his inheritance and his scientific pursuits - Grünberg's personal papers concern his research on his hydrofoil designs which he first developed in France. The archive includes some of Grünberg's original drawings demonstrating applications for his design as well as some manuscript calculations in his hand, some original U. S. patent certificates for several inventions, one German patent awarded to him in 1930, original photographs, likely from the early 1930s, and several magazines including Popular Science and others discussing Grünberg's work and designs. - Detailed description available upon request.

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A remarkable autograph album signed by several of the greatest thinkers of the 20th century
24

Einstein, Albert, German-born physicist and Nobel laureate (1879-1955). 1950 Princeton autograph book with entries by Einstein,... Oppenheimer, von Neumann, Bohr, Pauli, and many others. Princeton, mostly 1950, (some undated), but one 1953. Princeton, mostly 1950, (some undated), but one 1953. 8vo. 34 entries on 90 ff. Hardcover autograph album.

USD 20,000.00

An album signed by numerous luminaries from Princeton's Institute for Advanced Study, including Albert Einstein, John von Neumann, J. Robert Oppenheimer, Niels Bohr, Wolfgang Pauli, Abraham Pais, George Kennan, Oswald Veblen, James Waddell Alexander II, Hermann Weyl, Harold F. Cherniss, Ivan M. Linforth, Kurt Reidemeister, Walter W. Stewart, E. A. Lowe, Erwin Panofsky, Herbert Feis, Atle Selberg, Arnold J. Toynbee, Max Radin, David Mitrany, Y. K. Wong, and others. A vintage candid oblong 8vo portrait of Einstein is loosely inserted at the end. The entries are inscribed to the then twenty-year-old physicist William R. Bennett, Jr. (1930-2008), who received his bachelor's degree at Princeton before taking a doctorate in physics from Columbia. In 1960, Bennett co-invented the first gas laser at Bell Labs, then in 1962 joined the newly formed department of physics and applied science at Yale. In 1964, he was named a professor of physics and applied science at Yale, and remained there for the rest of his career. - Front cover gilt-stamped "W. B. Jr.". In fine condition, with some wear to the album's covers and vertical creases to the photograph.

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25

Feuerbach, Ludwig, philosopher and anthropologist (1804-1872). Autograph letter signed ("L. Feuerbach"). Bbg. (i.e., Bruckberg), 23. I. 1852. Bbg. (i.e., Bruckberg), 23. I. 1852. 4to. 1 p. on bifolium.

USD 16,500.00

Unpublished letter to his friend, the educator and economics administrator Josef Schibich, about preparations for an edition of his father's writings: "[...] In größter Eile weil mir eben der Einfall erst gekommen u. der Kutscher schon am Abgehen ist u. in eben so großer Unverschämtheit, weil Du selbst so gedrängt u. beschäftigt bist, schicke ich Dir hier zwei Bücher mit Stahlstichen mit der Bitte, sie zum H. Ra[a]b zu bringen u. zu zeigen mit der Bemerkung, daß mir die Größe derselben der ungefähre Maaßstab sei, wonach ich glaube, daß mein Vater zu stechen sei, daß ich soeben auch dem [Verleger] O. Wigand diese Bilder als Maaß vorgeschlagen u. ihn aufgefordert habe, unverzüglich seine Ansicht u. Willensmeinung mir oder vielmehr sogleich ihm, dem H. Kupferstecher mitzutheilen [...]". - The book, edited by Feuerbach, would be published by Wigand later that same year as "Anselm Ritter von Feuerbach's [...] Leben und Wirken aus seinen ungedruckten Briefen und Tagebüchern, Vorträgen und Denkschriften".

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The unknown first draft - "the future: radioactivity, smashing the atom [...] Einstein"
26

Friedell, Egon, Austrian writer (1878-1938). Die Reise in die Vergangenheit. Autograph manuscript, signed... within the text. No place, [1935]. No place, [1935]. 4to. 63 ff. Copying pencil on grid paper with several corrections and deletions. Stored loosely in a folded sheet with holograph title. Within a cardboard folder (addressed to Friedell in Kufstein, Tyrol, with receipt stamp dated 13 Sept. 1935), captioned in red crayon by an unidentified hand: "Friedell Original-Handschrift zur Zeitmaschine". Sender partly erased, but identifiable by the address (Berlin W. 55. Potsdamerstr. 122) as the publisher Paul Zsolnay Verlag.

USD 30,000.00

Original manuscript of the unfinished first draft of Friedell's science fiction novella "Die Reise mit der Zeitmaschine", a wry homage to H. G. Wells's 1895 classic "The Time Machine" which purportedly reproduces the Time Traveller's narrative of his later journeys. Friedell signs his name repeatedly in the spoof correspondence between himself and Wells. As the cardboard envelope shows, Friedell had sent his manuscript to Zsolnay in the autumn of 1935, but was apparently turned down - since Hitler had seized power in 1933, German and Austrian publishers had become wary of Jewish authors, and none dared handle a work by so conspicuous a member of the Viennese fin-de-siècle cabaret and café culture reviled by the Nazis. Nevertheless, Friedell extensively revised his manuscript, and the later version was published from his posthumous papers by R. Piper & Co. early in 1946, eight years after the author's suicide and only months before Wells's death (the book bears the military censorship imprint, "Published under Military Government Information Control License [...] 6870th District Information Services Control Command, U.S. Army"). An English translation, by Eddy C. Bertin, appeared in 1972 ("The Return of the Time Machine", New York: DAW Books). Two years later, this unique piece of German-language science fiction was re-published by Diogenes in Switzerland, who have kept it in print ever since ("Die Rückkehr der Zeitmaschine", last reprinted in 2009). - The present first version (dedicated to "All Kantians!"), which differs markedly from the published text, has hitherto not been studied. The developed story ends at the point at which the Time Traveller picks up the Sunday Times (corresponding to the ninth of the eleven chapters of the printed version). Several closely written additional pages contain further colour-coded notes, fragments and keywords for use in the subsequent narrative, some of which are so prophetically accurate that the present-day reader can hardly resist the notion of Friedell having stepped into a Time Machine of his own: "the future: radioactivity, smashing the atom [...] Einstein". - Occasional insignificant wrinkles; perfectly preserved. Includes a copy of the printed first edition.
¶ Cf. Giebisch/Gugitz 97. F. Rottensteiner, Art. "Friedell, Egon", in: Lexikon der dtspr. Science Fiction-Literatur seit 1900, hg. von C. F. Lorenz (Frankfurt a. M. 2017), S. 282-285.

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Klimt and Schiele, as seen by a fellow artist
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[Klimt, Gustav] - Geyling, Remigius, painter and stage designer (1878-1974). Collection of 23 portrait drawings and caricatures, all... drawn "from life" and signed, dated, and titled by Geyling (often citing the place of the sitting). Includes two T.L.S. by Arthur Schnitzler. Vienna, 1897-1935. Vienna, 1897-1935. Royal folio. In later years mounted onto uniform backing boards by Geyling himself and laid into two simple portfolios, both of which contain his autogr. table of portraits. All leaves numbered throughout by the artist (1-24; Schnitzler's letters on their own backing are no. 23) and captioned with the name and dates of the person portrayed.

USD 45,000.00

The earliest portrait dates from 1897, the year in which the Vienna Secession and the artistic periodical "Ver Sacrum" were founded. According to his inscription, it was for the latter that Geyling drew the present portrait of the Secessionist sculptor Rudolf Bacher. A large proportion of the pictures collected in these two portfolios were created several years later, in 1905, during the heyday of the Wiener Werkstätte (for which Geyling designed postcards) and a year after Geyling and his partner Otto Prutscher closed their joint studio for furnishings and décor. "Although a member of the conservative 'Künstlerhaus', Geyling always was close to the Vienna Secession" (cf. AKL LII, 462). For Geyling, "Klimt, Hoffmann, Roller, Olbrich were not only my colleagues, but also my friends, and many a night did we debate about the 'new and pure art'" (cf. Remigius Geyling erzählt, aufgezeichnet von Gerald Szyszkowitz. In: Nebehay/Krug, pp. 5-8, here: p. 7). These nights apparently offered numerous opportunities for Geyling's portrait studies: apart from the portraits of the aforesaid, the present collection contains a picture of the frequent Tivoli patron Egon Schiele (from the year of his death) as well as a portrait of Adolf Loos, drawn in the famous Café Museum. It was probably here where also Karl Kraus (entitled "Fackl-Kraus" by the artist) sat for Geyling. The great painter enjoyed an especially close relationship to Gustav Klimt: for many years he belonged to the circle of those who shared breakfast with Klimt at the Tivoli (cf. Nebehay/Krug, p. 3). In that legendary restaurant at the Green Hill in Vienna's Meidling district, he drew the two portraits of Klimt in May 1905. Together with Peter Altenberg and Otto Wagner, Klimt is one of the few persons whom Geyling sketched in more than one portrait only (all on a single page). It was upon Klimt's recommendation that Geyling was hired as head of decorations at the "Neue Wiener Bühnen" in 1910; his first production was the premiere of Schnitzler's "Undiscovered Country". It was during the rehearsals for this production, on 14 October 1911, that Geyling produced the present portrait of Schnitzler. Schnitzler's two letters to Geyling concern their joint project of a "Medardus movie". Geyling had worked as decorator for the most important Austrian film productions. So successfully had he transferred the stylistic devices of the Wiener Werkstätte into historical tragedy that in 1924 Fritz Lang used Geyling's designs for his great silent "Nibelungen" series (cf. AKL LII, 462). - Provenance: From a Viennese private collection, into which the artist himself sold both portfolios.
¶ Nos. 6-8 and 18, 21 and 22 are each illustrated in full-page size in: Ch. M. Nebehay & H. Krug (eds.). Remigius Geyling. Künstler und Literaten. Gezeichnet in Wien um 1900. Wien 1974. (= Jahresgabe der Wiener Bibliophilengesellschaft). This work does not describe the present collection; all other drawings are unpublished.

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Constructing the first railroad track in Sudan
28

Gordon, Charles G., known as "Chinese Gordon", "Gordon Pasha", and "Gordon of Khartoum", British Army officer and administrator (1833-1885). 11 autograph letters signed. Khartoum, Korosko, Cairo and Shaka, 1878 and 1879. Khartoum, Korosko, Cairo and Shaka, 1878 and 1879. Mostly 8vo. Altogether 24½ pp. on 20 ff.

USD 20,000.00

Eleven letters to J. H. Gooding in Wadi Halfa, who was employed on the construction of the railway. The letters show with great clarity the problems of building the railway. The first letter, dated 1 February, informs the recipient that his position was, reluctantly, going to become redundant due to lack of funds and large budget deficit: "We have no money to carry on the Railway to which the Sudan has contributed 75000£ this year, and for which we require still 18000£ to pay outstanding debts. Under these circumstances I would be glad to dispense with your services paying up all arrears and whatever may be due to you in your contract for your return passage, but I do not like to do so unless Mr Jansen consents […]". - The third letter dated 23 March begins, "The works on the Sudan Railway must come to a close" and goes on to detail the reduction of staff and all other matters of saving costs. The fifth letter, dated 18 September, concludes, "The slave trade is giving me a lot of trouble". The sixth letter, dated 15th October, he is seeking to have the river mapped for a possible steamer service (being much cheaper than the railway). The postscript reads: "Directly I have money, I will see to your pay". The seventh letter, dated 15th November is very long, with a plan map of the river, he is seeking the possibility of passing some of the rapids and more questions with regard to the state of the railway. The other letter, dated 16 November concerns developing the project to run steamers along the stretch of river between Khartoum and Amara. The tenth letter concludes defeat of the railway project which was to be replaced by Haddens railway from Wadi Halfa to Amara and then use steamers on to Khartoum. The final letter includes the comment: "We are now dealing the death blow to the slave trade [...]". - Most letters were sent from Khartoum and there are three envelopes (2 stampless and one with stamp removed). A fascinating insight into this ill fated project due to lack of financial support from both Sudan and Egypt.

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29

Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich, philosopher (1770-1831). Autograph letter signed ("Hegel" and paraph "H"). [Heidelberg], 3. II. 1818. [Heidelberg], 3. II. 1818. Oblong 8vo. 1 p.

USD 14,000.00

To the bookseller Christian Friedrich Winter, co-owner of Mohr & Winter in Heidelberg, ordering several books: "Von der: Beurtheilung der Verh[andlungen] der wirtemb[ergischen] Landst[ände] bitte ich mir noch drey Exemplare aus, und bemerke auf Ihr gefälliges gestriges, daß ich von Fichte nur Eine Schrift, die Thatsachen des Bewußtseyns, bestellt haben wollte [...] Hr. Prof. Döderlein will die Schrift von Benedictus de Thucadide nicht um sie wieder nach gefertigter Recension zurükzuschicken, sondern um sie zu behalten, und macht nur auf den für solchen Fall ausgesetzten Rabatt Anspruch[.] - Da diese Schrift in Verbindung zu andern von ihm übernommenen steht, so würde er durch Entbehrung sehr aufgehalten; ich ersuche Sie also, sie ihm baldest zu verschaffen". - Hegel would leave Heidelberg later that same year to succeed Fichte in Berlin.
¶ Published in "Hegel-Studien" 42 (2007).

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30

Hesse, Hermann, Swiss writer and Nobel laureate (1877-1962). Ein paar Gedichte von Hermann Hesse. No place, [15 August 1935]. No place, [15 August 1935]. Typescript comprising 6 poems (altogether 6 pp.), each illustrated with an original watercolour. 6 bifolia within autograph wrapper. 4to.

USD 25,000.00

Presentation copy of the kind Hesse repeatedly prepared for close friends, comprising the poems: "Immer wieder", "Blumen nach einem Unwetter", "Karfreitag", "Der Klang", "Häuser am Abend" and "Tessiner Winter". Dedication to his sister Adele Gundert (1875-1949) on the occasion of her birthday on 15 August 1935 on the inside of the wrapper.

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