The Vice of Dice
1

Augustine of Hippo, Saint. Sermones de verbis domini [and other works]. [Austria], 1448. [Austria], 1448. Small folio (235 x 314 mm). Latin ms. (gothic book cursive) on paper. 550 pp. (page numbers addeed in pencil, c. 1900, written on 547 pp.). Leaf size 210 x 295 mm, written area mainly 140 x 190 mm. 2 cols., mainly 30-31 lines (but final gathering: 41-43 lines), partly rubricated with red chapter headings and ends; numerous red Lombardic initials. Contemp. blindstamped Gothic calf binding over wooden boards. Wants the fittings and clasps.

EUR 45,000.00

Fine late mediaeval manuscript, principally comprising sermons of St Augustine (pp. 1-410), but also containing four shorter treatises of his slightly older contemporary, Gregory of Nazianzus (pp. 411-523); dated "1448" at the end. Bound after this are 12 additional leaves, apparently penned slightly later by a different scribe, with theological writings of the early 15th century, namely two treatises by the French mystic Jean Gerson (pp. 527-540) and the treatise on the vice of dice by the Vienna canon Johann Geuss (pp. 541-550). - Contents: A) St Augustine. 1-121: Sermones de verbis domini secundum Mattheum (with a table of contents, followed by "Evangelium audivimus ... agite penitentiam"); 122-181: Sermones de verbis domini secundum Lucam (inc. "Petite et dabitur"); 182-344: Sermones de verbis domini secundum Johannem (inc. "Capitulum Evangelii quod lectum est"); 345-347: Sermo de verbis domini evangelio secundum Lucam de verbis apostoli, omnes nos manifestari oporte ante tribunal Christi (inc. "Omnium Christianorum spes"); 348-410: Liber de spiritu et anima (inc. "Quoniam dictum est mihi", expl. "quem cernere finis est doloris"). - B) Gregory of Nazianzus. 411-470: De urbana vita [ad Pronianum; tr. Rufinus] (inc. "Proficiscenti mihi ex urbe magnopere iniungebas Aproniane fili"); 470-487: De nativitate domini [oratio XXXVIII] (inc. "Christus nascitur"); 487-506: De luminibus et secundis epiphaniis [oratio XXXIX] (inc. "Iterum Jesus meus et iterum"); 506-523: De pentecoste [oratio XLI] (inc. "De sollemnitate huius diei pauca dicenda sunt"; expl. "et potestas in spiritu sancto in secula seculorum. Amen"); followed by date: "et finitus est liber anno etc. 1448"; 524-526 vacant. C) Johannes Gerson: 527-537: Tractatus de trepidantibus accedere ad celebrationem misse post pollutionem in sompniis habitum (inc. "Dubitandum est aput me"); 537-540: De duplicii stuatu in dei ecclesia, curatorum et privilegiatorum (inc. "Pax quam omnibus"; expl. "inveniri. Deo gratias. Deo gratias"). D) [Johannes Geuss]. 541-550 [Sermo de ludo alearum] (inc. "Confundatur sorcium distributio scribitur Numeri ultimo. Hec verba possunt intellegi de sortilegio lusorum et confusione ipsorum"; expl. "unam libram et sic posset fieri recompensatio" (lacking the final four columns of text). - Occasional addenda and marginalia by a roughly contemporary hand in the wide blank margin throughout. The 12-leaf quire bound at the end (watermark: type Piccard V [libra], section V, no. 294 ["Vienna 1461"]) must originally have been followed by a now-lost final leaf of text. Binding rubbed and bumped; small crack to upper cover; traces of a pasted grey paper wrapper. Occasional slight browning to manuscript; insignificant waterstain near beginning. Slight tear to first 3 ff. (not touching text), loss of corner to first leaf (loss of page number and a 17th century monastic ownership "Conven[tus] C[...]").

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A source for Copernicus: the first use of decimal fractions in Europe
2

Bianchini, Giovanni. Tabulae de motibus planetarum. [Ferrara, ca 1475]. [Ferrara, ca 1475]. Folio (242 x 340 mm). Latin manuscript on paper. 160 leaves (complete including four blank leaves at the beginning and six at the end). Written in brown ink in a neat humanistic hand, double columns, 37 lines to each page, numerous two and three line initials supplied in red or blue. With one large illuminated initial and coat of arms of the Scalamonte family flanked by floral decoration on first leaf, painted in shades of blue, green and lilac and heightened in burnished gold. With altogether 231 full-page tables in red and brown, some marginal or inter-columnar annotations, and one extended annotation on final leaf. Fifteenth century blind stamped goat skin over wooden boards, remains of clasps.

EUR 280,000.00

The so-called Toledan Tables are astronomical tables used to predict the movements of the Sun, Moon and planets relative to the fixed stars. They were completed around the year 1080 at Toledo by a group of Arab astronomers, led by the mathematician and astronomer Al-Zarqali (known to the Western World as Arzachel), and were first updated in the 1270s, afterwards to be referred to as the "Alfonsine Tables of Toledo". Named after their sponsor King Alfonso X, it "is not surprising that" these tables "originated in Castile because Christians in the 13th century had easiest access there to the Arabic scientific material that had reached its highest scientific level in Muslim Spain or al-Andalus in the 11th century" (Goldstein 2003, 1). The Toledan Tables were undoubtedly the most widely used astronomical tables in medieval Latin astronomy, but it was Giovanni Bianchini whose rigorous mathematical approach made them available in a form that they could finally be used by early modern astronomy. - Bianchini was in fact "the first mathematician in the West to use purely decimal tables" and decimal fractions (Feingold, 20) by applying with precision the tenth-century discoveries of the Arab mathematician Abu'l-Hasan al-Uqilidisi, which had been further developed in the Islamic world through the writings of Al-Kashi and others (cf. Rashed, 88 and 128ff.). Despite the fact that they had been widely discussed and applied in the Arab world throughout a period of five centuries, decimal fractions had never been used in the West until Bianchini availed himself of them for his trigonometric tables in the "Tabulae de motis planetarum". It is this very work in which he set out to achieve a correction of the Alfonsine Tables by those of Ptolemy. "Thorndike observes that historically, many have erred by neglecting, because of their difficulty, the Alfonsine Tables for longitude and the Ptolemaic for finding the latitude of the planets. Accordingly, in his Tables Bianchini has combined the conclusions, roots and movements of the planets by longitude of the Alfonsine Tables with the Ptolemaic for latitude" (Tomash, 141). - The importance of the present work, today regarded as representative of the scientific revolutions in practical mathematics and astronomy on the eve of the Age of Discovery, is underlined by the fact that it was not merely dedicated but also physically presented by the author to the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II in person on the occasion of Frederick's visit to Ferrara. In return for his "Tabulae", a "book of practical astronomy, containing numbers representing predicted times and positions to be used by the emperor's […] astrologers in managing the future" (Westman, 10ff.), Bianchini was granted a title of nobility by the sovereign. - For Regiomontanus, who studied under Bianchi together with Peurbach, the author of the "Tabulae" counted as the greatest astronomer of all time, and to this day Bianchini's work is considered "the largest set of astronomical tables produced in the West before modern times" (Chabbas 2009, VIII). Even Copernicus, a century later, still depended on the "Tabulae" for planetary latitude (cf. Goldstein 2003, 573), which led to Al-Zarquali's Tables - transmitted in Bianchini's adaption - ultimately playing a part in one of the greatest revolutions in the history of science: the 16th century shift from Geocentrism to the heliocentric model. - In the year 1495, some 20 years after our manuscript was written, Bianchini's Tables were printed for the first time, followed by editions in 1526 and 1563. Apart from these printed versions, quite a few manuscript copies of his work are known in western libraries - often comprising only the 231 full-page Tables but omitting the 68-page introductory matter explaining how they were calculated and meant to be used, which is present in our manuscript. Among the known manuscripts in public collections is one copied by Regiomontanus, and another written entirely in Copernicus' hand (underlining the significance of the Tables for the scientific revolution indicated above), but surprisingly not one has survived outside Europe. Indeed, the only U.S. copy recorded by Faye (cf. below) was the present manuscript, then in the collection of Robert Honeyman. There was not then, nor is there now, any copy of this manuscript in an American institution. Together with one other specimen in the Erwin Tomash Library, our manuscript is the only preserved manuscript witness for this "crucial text in the history of science" (Goldstein 2003, publisher's blurb) in private hands. Apart from these two examples, no manuscript version of Bianchini's "Tabulae" has ever shown up in trade or at auctions (according to a census based on all accessible sources). - Condition: watermarks identifiable as Briquet 3387 (ecclesiastical hat, attested in Florence 1465) and 2667 (Basilisk, attested to Ferrara and Mantua 1447/1450). Early manuscript astronomical table for the year 1490 mounted onto lower pastedown. Minor waterstaining in initial leaves and a little worming at back, but generally clean and in a fine state of preservation. Italian binding sympathetically rebacked, edges of covers worn to wooden boards. A precious manuscript, complete and well preserved in its original, first binding. Provenance: 1) Written ca 1475 by Francesco da Quattro Castella (his entry on fol. 150v) for 2) Marco Antonio Scalamonte from the patrician family of Ancona, who became a senator in Rome in 1502 (his illuminated coat of arms on fol. 1r). 3) Later in an as yet unidentified 19th century collection of apparently considerable size (circular paper label on spine "S. III. NN. Blanchinus. MS.XV. fol. 43150"). 4) Robert Honeyman, Jr. (1928-1987), probably the most prominent U.S. collector of scientific books and manuscripts in the 20th century, who "had a particular interest in astronomy" (S. Horobin, 238), his shelf mark "Astronomy MS 1" on front pastedown. 5) Honeyman Collection of Scientific Books and Manuscripts, Part III, Sotheby's, London, Wed May 2, 1979, lot 1110, sold to 6) Alan Thomas (1911-1992), his catalogue 43.2 (1981), sold to 7) Hans Peter Kraus (1907-1988), sold to 8) UK private collection.
¶ Bernard R. Goldstein & José Chabas, 'Ptolemy, Bianchini and Copernicus: Tables for Planetary Latitudes,' Archive for the History of Exact Sciences, vol. 58, no. 5 (July 2004), pp. 553-573. Bernard R. Goldstein & José Chabas, Alfonsine Tables of Toledo (= Dordrecht-Boston-Londres, Kluwer Academic Publishers ("Archimedes, New Studies in the History and Philosophy of Science and Technology" 8), 2003. José Chabás & Bernard R. Goldstein, The Astronomical Tables of Giovanni Bianchini (Leiden & Boston: Brill, 2009). Thorndike, 'Giovanni Bianchini in Paris Mss,' Scripta Mathematica 16 (1950) 69ff. & his 'Giovanni Bianchini in Italian Mss.,' Scripta Mathematica 19 (1953) 5-17. Rashed, Development of Arabic Mathematics: Between Arithmetic and Algebra. Boston, 2013. Mordechai Feingold & Victor Navarro-Brotons, Universities and Science in the Early Modern Period. Boston 2006. R. Westman, Copernicus and the Astrologers. Smithsonian 2016. M. Williams, The Erwin Tomash Library on the History of Computing, 2008, 141. Simon Horobin & Linne Mooney, English Texts in Transition: A Festschrift Dedicated to Toshiyuki Takamiya on his 70th Birthday. Woodbridge 2014. Silvia Faschi, Prima e dopo la raccolta: diffusione e circolazione delle Satyrae, di Francesco Filelfo. Spunti dall' epistolario edito ed ineditio. In: Medioevo e Rinascimento. XIV, n.s. XI (2000), 147-166 (mentioning a connection between the Italian Humanist and Marco Antonio Scalamonte). C. U. Faye & W. H. Bond, Supplement to the Census of Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts in the United States and Canada (1962), p. 21, no. 12 (this manuscript).

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The Hammer of Witches - editio princeps
3

Institoris, Heinrich. Malleus maleficarum. [Speyer, Peter Drach, before April 1487]. [Speyer, Peter Drach, before April 1487]. Folio (215 x 294 mm). 129 ff. (wants final blank). 48 lines, double-columned, gothic type. Rubricated, with lombardic initials in red and blue, occasional pen flourishes, paragraph marks at beginning of chapter headings, some capital strokes. 19th-c. white paper boards with printed paper spine label. Stored in custom-made full green morocco gilt clamshell box.

EUR 175,000.00

First edition of the notorious "Hammer of Witches", which laid down procedures for finding out and convicting witches. Due to the innovation of the printing press, it contributed significantly to the early modern witch craze. "The most important and most sinister work on demonology ever written. It crystallized into a fiercely stringent code previous folklore about black magic with church dogma on heresy, and, if any one work could, opened the floodgates of the inquisitorial hysteria [... it was] the source, inspiration, and quarry for all subsequent treatises on witchcraft" (Robbins, Encyclopaedia of Witchcraft and Demonology). The book was published and republished in at least 13 editions up to 1520, then revived from the late 16th century, undergoing at least 16 editions between 1574 and 1669, as well as numerous editons in German, French and English. Complete copies of the first edition are rare, and only a few copies are found in American institutions. - Upper cover stained and soiled, first three pages of text with some soiling and staining, neat repair to final printed leaf. All in all, a remarkably fine, clean copy from the famous Donaueschingen library of the princes of Fürstenberg with their printed spine title and shelfmark "298" on the spine label (repeated in pencil on recto of f. 1).
¶ HC* 9238. Goff I-163. British Library IB.8581 (acquired in 1867 but not recorded in BMC). ISTC ii00163000. Coumont I4.2. Danet 16. Graesse III, 425.

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A 15th-Century Vernacular Account of a Pilgrimage to the Holy Land
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Barbatre, [Pierre], Norman priest (b. 1525). Account of a Pilgrimage to Jerusalem in 1480. [France, after 1480, circa 1490-1500]. [France, after 1480, circa 1490-1500]. 4to (209 x 165 mm). Middle French decorated manuscript on paper (watermark "licorne sanglée", pointing to Normandy: similar to Briquet 10387 & 10390 - Coutances 1497 and Frene d'Archeveque, 1499). 116 pp., collation: i1, ii8, iii8, iv8, v8, vi8, vii8, viii10; complete save for loss to the lower corner of the final leaf, concerning 9 lines of text on the last page but one. Incipit: "In nomine domini Amen. 1480. L'an de grace mil quatre cens octante, le mardi IIIIe jour d'apvril apres pasques, je, Pierre Barbatre, prebstre, aagé de LV ans ou environ, me party de la ville de Vernon pour et intencion d'aler en Hierusalem visiter le sainct sepulchre Nostresegneur Jesuschrist et les aultres sainctz lieulx de la terre saincte"; explicit: "et la feusme attendans passer a Ravennes, pour tirer a Ancone a cause que avions loué une barque a Venize pour nous passer la mer jusques audit Ancone. Et nous coutoit le passage de maistre Nicole, de Sainct Omer, mon frere et moy .x. marcelins". Bound in a parchment leaf from an 11th c. codex, containing fragments of the "Passio Pauli" attributed to Pseudo-Lin and a fragment of the "Life of St Ethbin", both in Latin (lower cover poorly legible).

EUR 185,000.00

Rare document containing a first-hand vernacular account of a pilgrimage to the Holy Land in 1480, the only expedition allowed to leave Venice for the Palestine in that year. - The priest Pierre Barbatre relates the story of his journey, which he begins at the age of ca. 55 years at the Norman town of Vernon on the Seine. He travels south via Chartres and Orléans, Savoy, Turin, Leghorn, Milan (where he reports on the ongoing construction of the cathedral), Brescia, Vicenza and Padua to Venice; here, he spends a month, giving details of Venetian life, including the great festivals. On 6 June 1480 he embarks on the "Contarina" - the only pilgrim galley to make the voyage to the Holy Land that year, for the Ottoman-Venetian War of 1463-1479 had led to a sharp drop in the numbers of pilgrims, and boats were strictly controlled. Only about sixty pilgrims would return from the journey. Barbatre gives accounts of the various places he visits during the voyage - especially Rhodes, which he portrays with much precision - before the ship reaches Jaffa on 24 July 1480. He describes his exhilaration at finally beholding the holy places of Palestine and visits Ramla, Jerusalem, Bethlehem and Jericho as well as the Dead Sea; his story provides much information about the relic cult, local customs and the political situation after the recent Turkish offensive. - It appears that Barbatre did not manage to return to France after his pilgrimage, for his account of the return journey ends abruptly with the embarkation for Ancona. In spite of much research having been dedicated to his text, too little is still known about its author. While the present manuscript constitutes the sole witness for Barbatre's travelogue, scholarship is lucky to possess three further accounts of this same 1480 pilgrimage by other authors: that of Sancto Brascha of Milano, chancellor to Ludovico Sforza, whose "Itinerario ... alla santissima città di Gerusalemme" was published at Milan in 1481; the account by Félix Faber (Schmidt), a Dominican from Ulm who was Barbatre's travel companion (ed. C. Hassler, Stuttgart 1843-49), and an anonymous report by a Parisian traveller, published in Paris in 1517 as "Voyage de la Saincte cyte de Hierusalem en l'an mil quatre cens quatre vingtz". - Provenance: a fair copy prepared in France, likely in Normandy, by a professional scribe after 1480, probably following the author's own notes. Rediscovered in 1972 by the French physician Dr. Lemonnier in the estate of his grandmother Henriette Rooy, née Masmoudet, whose father had been an educator at Athis-Mons (Orge) (cf. Pinzuti/Tucoo-Chala [1973], p. 8). Previously in a collection owned by the Duguet family, connected with the painter Eugène Fromentin. - Binding tattered, some writing on parchment faded, but stitching tight with the manuscript in excellent condition and well legible throughout.
¶ N. Pinzuti & P. Tucoo-Chala (eds.), Le voyage de Pierre Barbatre à Jérusalem en 1480. Edition critique d'un manuscrit inédit, in: Annuaire-Nulletin de la Société de l'histoire de France, 1972/73 (1974), pp. 75-172. The same, "Sur un récit inédit de voyage aux Lieux Saints sous Louis XI", in: Comptes rendus des séances de l'Academie des inscriptions et belles-lettres, 117:1, 1973, pp. 188-204. Europäische Reiseberichte des späten Mittelalters II (1999), no. 23. P. Cantoni, Les pelerinages a Jerusalem et au mont Sinai du XIVe au XVIe siecle, diplome d'archiviste paleographe, Ecole nationale des chartes (Paris 1972), pp. 33-42. Dansette (1977), p. LXXI. Esch (1984), pp. 384-416. Crouzet-Pavan (1984), pp. 489-535. Ashtor (1985), p. 211. Chevallier (1987), pp. 366, 370f.

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A Complicated Incunable for a Bohemian Witch-Hunter
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Institoris, Heinrich (Heinrich Kramer). Sancte Roma[n]e eccl[esi]e fidei defe[n]sio[n]is p[ro]pungnaculu[m] [!] Adversus... walde[n]sium seu Pickardorum heresim Certas germanie Bohemieq[ue] naciones in odium cleri ac enervacione[m] ecclesiastice potestatis virnlenta [!] co[n]tagio[n]e sparsi[m] inficientis [...]. Olmütz, Conrad Baumgarten, 20. IV. 1501. Olmütz, Conrad Baumgarten, 20. IV. 1501. Folio (220 x 315 mm). 128 ff. (a-b8, c-d6, e4, f6, g4, h-p6, q4, r-x6, y4; page count: [t.p.], iii, v, iiii, v-ix, v, xiii, xii, [2 ff.], xiiii, xvi-xliii, xlvii, xlv-cvii, cix-cxxviii), complete thus. With half-page title woodcut, full-page woodcut on verso, large woodcut initial, and printer's device at the end (all with contemporary touches of red ink), as well as numerous fleuronee and lombardic initials in red and green, including five figurated initials. Rubricated throughout. Contemp. blindstamped gothic binding: dark brown calf over wooden boards, remains of engraved brass claps.

EUR 85,000.00

First edition of this polemic against the Bohemian Brethren, written by the author of the notorious "Malleus Maleficarum": a "Bulwark of Faith of the Holy Roman Church Against the Heresy of the Waldensians and Picards". Extremely rare: the present copy represents the hitherto unknown first impression of the first edition, still bearing a slightly different title; all other known copies printed that same year (three via OCLC, one in the Scientific Library of Olomouc, one in the Bavarian State Library), as well as the 1502 second edition, are entitled "Sancte Romane ecclesie fidei defensionis clippeum adversus waldensium seu pickardorum heresim, certas Germanie Bohemieque nationes in odium cleri ac enervatioe ecclesiatice potestatis virulenta contagione sparsim inficientes" (changing the - misspelled - "bulwark" into a "shield"). Quire signatures and pagination depart from those stated by OCLC in several details. In particular, the head-over-heels "u" in "virulenta" (here printed as "virnlenta"), corrected in other editions, identifies the present variant as the earliest one. - In the year 1500, 15 years after he first published his "Malleus Maleficarum", Institoris had been installed by Pope Alexander VI as inquisitor to Bohemia and Moravia, where he was to take action agains heretics, sorcerers, and witches (cf. Tschacher). In the present work, his last to see publication, "he once more invokes his 'Malleus' and his earlier sermons against witchery and its doubters. The Bohemian Waldenses, he argues, had not only perpetrated numerous heresies, but also questioned the legitimacy of the witch trials. It is telling that Kramer, in his final polemic, would interpret the heresies of the Waldenses and witches as conjoined harbingers of the approaching apocalypse" (ibid.). The inquisitor who prided himself on having sent no less than 200 witches to the stake discusses other heresies as well: fol. 86ff. contains an entire chapter "De origine legis machometice". - One of the most extensive and technically ambitious works to leave the press of the itinerant German printer Konrad Baumgarten, active in Danzig, Olomouc, Breslau, and Frankfurt/Oder between 1498 and 1509. The page count is exceedingly confused, as in all copies. Indeed, only a single leaf in the entire "a" gathering bears a signature: the second, counted as "a iii" in error; thus agreeing with all copies available for comparison. The count of the first four leaves in our copy has therefore been corrected to "a i-iv" in red ink by a contemporary hand. - From the library of the disputatious Bohemian Franciscan friar John Aquensis, who in 1502 was to publish his own polemic against the "Picards", with his marginalia and his autograph ownership on the title page. "Although Johannes Aquensis, Jan Vodnansky in Czech, was one of the most active Catholic writers at the turn of the Middle Ages to the Age of Reformation, he has been largely ignored by scholarship so far. Born in Vodhany (some 30 kilometers to the north-west of Budweis and considered Utraquist) around 1460, he attended the school of St. Henry's in Prague since 1473, later studying Divinity at the University there. After obtaining his Bachelor's degree in 1480, he joined the Observant Franciscans and soon became one of the most vocal antagonists of the Utraquists, Begards, Waldensians, Bohemian Brethren, and other heretics. He disappears after 1534 [...] Most of his works, almost entirely ignored by scholarship but apparently marked by a curious mixture of erudition, bellicose dialectics, vivid imagination, and credulity, are known in manuscripts only; a very few were printed, and some must be presumed lost or awaiting discovery" (cf. Dietrich Kurze, Märkische Waldenser und Böhmische Brüder. Zur brandenburgischen Ketzergeschichte und ihrer Nachwirkung im 15. und 16. Jh., in: H. Beumann [ed.], Festschrift für Walter Schlesinger II [Cologne 1974], p. 456-502, at: 480). Some staining to first and last leaf; occasional insignificant waterstaining, otherwise very clean, showing very little browning. Altogether an excellent copy in its contemporary, original binding. The individual blindstamps could not be traced in the Kyriss or Schunke collections; the clasp hitches are engraved with an invocation of the Virgin ("MARIA AVE"). Text carefully rubricated throughout; the inhabited initials depict dragons and other mythical creatures, as well as the bearded head of an old man. - Of the utmost rarity: this present first edition is not listed in German or international auction records. The last copy of any edition in the trade was that formerly in the Broxbourne collection (1502 second ed.: Sotheby's, 8 May 1978, lot 408, to Breslauer).
¶ Not in VD 16 or ISTC. Cf. Panzer VII, 486, 1. Cf. OCLC 22369397. Zibrt III, 5181. Isaac 14475. Werner Tschacher, "Kramer, Heinrich (Henricus Institoris)", in: Lex. zur Geschichte der Hexenverfolgung, ed. G. Gersmann, K. Moeller & J.-M. Schmidt (historicum.net, ).

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Medieval refutation of the Qur'an, from the library of Sultan Mehmed V
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Ricoldus de Monte Crucis. Confutatio Alcorani seu legis Saracenorum, ex graeco nuper... in latinum traducta [per Bartholomeus Picenus de Montearduo]. [Basel, Nikolaus Kessler], ca. 1507. [Basel, Nikolaus Kessler], ca. 1507. Small 4to (140 x 187 mm). 68 ff. (but title is fragmentary, preserving the letterpress only, laid down to old paper). Near-contemporary full leather binding, spine rebacked. All edges red.

EUR 15,000.00

Rare edition of this famous and scare refutation of the Qur'an. The Dominican Ricoldus (ca. 1243-1320) was sent to the orient as a missionary in 1288. He visited the Holy Land and travelled to Baghdad via Cilicia, Erzurum, and Tabriz. During his stay in Baghdad, Ricoldus studied the Qur'an and other works of Islamic theology, for controversial purposes, arguing with Nestorian Christians. He is said even to have begun a translation of the Qur'an about 1290, but it is not known whether this work was completed. - Ricoldus returned to his native Florence around the year 1300 to compose or edit several works about the Middle East. While many of his writings praise the Muslims' social behaviour, hospitality and sense of honour, his best-known work, the "Contra legem Sarracenorum", is a notorious refutation of the Islamic doctrines. Largely a compilation from William of Tripolis, Marcus of Toledo and the "Contrarietas alpholica", and probably an early effort written in preparation of Ricoldus's mission, it contends that the Qur'an's self-contradictory passages, confused arrangement and want of miracles prove that Islam cannot be a true revealed religion. Despite Ricoldo's hostility towards Islam his work shows specific knowledge of the Qur'an and overcomes one important prejudicial error common to other medieval criticisms of Islam: the perception that Muhammad introduced a christological heresy. The work was widely received; a Greek translation was prepared as early as 1385 by Demetrius Kydones, which was re-translated into Latin by Bartolomeo Piceno as "Improbatio" or "Confutatio Alcorani". A Spanish version appeared at Toledo in 1502, and Luther translated parts into German in 1530 (his "Verlegung des Alcoran" appeared in 1542). It influenced Pope Pius II, John of Segovia and Nicolaus Cusanus (cf. LMA VII, 808). - Binding worn but professionally repaired; spine rebacked. Some fingerstaining and browning with occasional slight worming to gutter. Trimmed rather closely with printed marginalia cropped in places, title fragment torn out and mounted, preserving some old handwritten annotations. Provenance: Mehmed V (1844-1918), Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1909, with his his Arabic bookplate on the pastedown.
¶ VD 16, R 2328. BNHCat R 296. This edition not in Panzer.

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The Plague in Wittenberg
7

[Medical manuscript]. Eyn gor nutzes puchle von vil ercznay der... menczen ros und ander fish und wy man fisch fahen sol mith vil peberten schtuken flaysig zusamen geklaubth. (Probably Wittenberg, second quarter of the 16th century). (Probably Wittenberg, second quarter of the 16th century). 8vo (10 x 14 cm). German ms. on paper. 48 unnumbered ff. with 92 written pages (ff. 43 & 48 blank). Written space 11 x 6 cm, ruled in red ink. Regular, well-legible German cursive script in brown and red ink, red and umber initials. Early 19th c. boards.

EUR 15,000.00

A carefully prepared manuscript of popular medicine, apparently written under the impression of the plague epidemic that ravished Wittenberg in the summer and autumn of 1527 (described in Luther's letters). The most copious first part (ff. 1-24) contains recipes for the treatment of human diseases, including "Drey peberter schtuk vor dy pestilencz: czu wittenberg vor den armen man: so nith in dy apteken vormugen" ("three proven items for the pestilence, at Wittenberg, for the poor who cannot go to the pharmacy"). The third recipe is promoted as having been "well tried and proven by an experienced physician on 300 persons at Wittenberg in the year 27, when the pestilence ruled". Further recipes include treatments for nosebleed ("Wen eynem dy nasen pluth: und man dos plut nith schtellen kan"), to prevent gangrene after stepping on a nail or thorn ("So eyner in eyn nagl oder dorn trit: das im kayn pluth wyl gen: und das es nith schweren sol"), for a rotting liver ("So eynem menczen dy leber faulet"), tertian fever ("Vor das draytagig fiber"), a special ointment against the stroke, credited to Squire Jacob von Lichtenberg ("Junker iocobs von lichtenpergs gulden wasser: vor den schlag vast gut"), against anorexia ("Wer nith lust czu essen hath") and ailments of the male member ("Czu des mans gemecht"), a potency remedy ("Pro coitu viri"), against rabies ("Vor wuten hunth pis"), snakebite ("Vor den nater pis"), rats ("Wer von raten pesaicht wer"), an irregular menstrual cycle ("So eyn frau ir czayth czu vil hat"), head lice ("Vor dy lays auff dem habth"), severe sunburn ("Wen eyn mencz von der sune vorprent wirt das er am gesicht ader an henden schwarcz ist"), bilestones ("Eyn bebert recept vor den schtayn"), etc. This is followed by a section on the treatment of farm animals (ff. 25-32), with a focus on hippiatry. The third part (ff. 33-42) discusses the preparation, storing, and application of wine and vinegar; the final chapter (ff. 44-47) treats various methods of catching fishes and crabs. - Slight brownstaining throughout; binding rubbed and bumped, front inner joint detached: while the manuscript is complete, a different work, formerly bound first, appears to have been removed. Flyleaf has late 19th century stamp of a Viennese gardening society; a handwritten note identifies the book as a gift from the Austrian landscape gardener Franz Erban, best known for having created the Kurpark at Reichenau an der Rax in 1892.

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The birth of modern anatomy: a coloured copy of the first edition, used by the surgeon of the Duke of Saxony
8

Vesalius, Andreas. De humani corporis fabrica libri septem. Basel, (Johannes Oporinus, June 1543). Basel, (Johannes Oporinus, June 1543). Folio. 355 leaves and two folding sheets. Roman and italic types, occasional use of Greek and Hebrew types, printed shoulder notes. Woodcut pictorial title, author portrait, and printer’s device; 7 large, 186 mid-sized, and 22 small woodcut initials; more than 200 woodcut illustrations, including 3 full-page skeletons, 14 full-page muscle men, 5 large diagrams of veins and nerves, 10 mid-sized views of the abdomen, 2 mid-sized views of the thorax, 13 mid-sized views of the skull and brain, and numerous smaller views of bones, organs and anatomical parts. All woodcuts and initials up to page 165 in full contemporary hand colour. Contemporary blindstamped leather over wooden boards with bevelled edges, on five raised double bands, with two clasps.

EUR 950,000.00

A truly outstanding copy of one of the greatest and most appealing books in the history of science. Preserved in its original binding with the blindstamped initials of its first owner, the German physician Caspar Neefe (1514-79), and with his handwritten annotations throughout, the present copy is partly coloured by a contemporary artist (including the iconic woodcut used as title page and all anatomical illustrations up to page 165). Caspar Neefe, who later served as personal physician to Duke Albert I of Saxony, acquired the precious volume only a year after its publication and obviously consulted it extensively throughout his career as a medical practitioner. - With the publication of "De humani corporis fabrica" (when he was only twenty-eight) Vesalius revolutionized both the science of anatomy and how it was taught. In his preface he describes his disappointing experiences as a student in Paris and Louvain, stating his intention to reform the teaching of anatomy by giving in this book a complete description of the structure of the human body, thereby drawing attention "to the falsity of Galen’s pronouncements". Vesalius also broke with tradition by performing dissections himself instead of leaving this task to assistants: the striking and dramatic title illustration shows him conducting such a dissection, his hand plunged into a female cadaver (striking in itself, as only the cadavers of executed criminals could be dissected legally and female criminals were rarely executed), surrounded by a seething mass of students. - The "Fabrica" is also revolutionary for "its unprecedented blending of scientific exposition, art and typography" (Norman). The woodcuts by artists of the school of Titian are both iconographically and artistically important. The series of fourteen muscle men show landscapes that, when assembled in reverse order, form a panorama of the Euganean Hills near Padua, a scenery well known to Vesalius while he was at work on the Fabrica. - Of the few copies of the first edition to have come to the market in recent decades, only two were in a contemporary binding. Apart from Vesalius's dedication copy to Emperor Charles V (Christie's New York, 18 March 1998, lot 213: $1,652,500), only a single other partly coloured copy was previously known, a list to which ours must now be added as the third known copy in contemporary colour. - Acquired in 2017; previously in a Tyrolean private medical collection, where the book rested for three generations (erased circular library stamp in the blank lower margin of the title page): an outstanding copy hitherto unknown to scholarship (cf. the recent census published by Dániel Margócsy, University of Cambridge, below; further relevant correpondence with Dr Margócsy is available upon request). Occasional waterstaining to margins, the splendid binding a little rubbed and bumped, but altogether a wonderfully crisp, wide-margined copy of the first edition. Unquestionably the most desirable copy of a milestone in the history of science still in private hands, and likely the most important medical book obtainable for decades to come.
¶ PMM 71. VD 16, V 910. Durling 4577. Cushing VI.A.1. Eimas 281. Norman 2137. Wellcome 6560. Graesse VI.2, 289. Cf. D. Margócsy, M. Somos, S. N. Joffe: "Vesalius' Fabrica: A Report on the Worldwide Census of the 1543 and 1555 Editions", in: Social History of Medicine Vol. 30, No. 1, pp. 201–223. For Neefe cf. A. Lesser, Die albertinischen Leibärzte (Petersberg 2015), p. 71-74.

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"For these Jews are not Jews, but devils incarnate who curse our Lord"
9

Luther, Martin, theologian and reformer (1483-1546). Autograph letter signed ("Martinus LütheR D"). [Wittenberg, ca 1 Sept. 1543]. [Wittenberg, ca 1 Sept. 1543]. Folio (200 x 307 mm). 2 pp. German manuscript (brown ink) on paper (watermark: letter F in circle).

EUR 450,000.00

An extensive, uncommonly well-preserved letter to Georg Buchholzer (1503–66), Provost of St Nikolai in Berlin, regarding the latter’s altercation with the Brandenburgian court preacher Johann Agricola from Eisleben (1492–1566, also known as “Magister Eisleben”) about the treatment of the local Jews. Prince Elector Joachim II, who in 1539 had introduced the Reformation to Brandenburg and whose tolerant politics toward Jews enraged the population, had long desired a reconciliation between Luther and his former disciple Agricola, and he must have suspected that Provost Buchholzer was poisoning Luther’s mind against his court preacher. Buchholzer therefore wrote to Luther requesting an interpretation of some Biblical verses by which Agricola justified his pro-Jewish stance, and in his answer Luther insists that Buchholzer has done well to preach against the Jews and shall continue to do so, ignoring the habitual liar Agricola: “Grace and Peace. My dear Provost! I must be brief with writing, for the sake of my weak head. You are aware that you have no previous association with me, nor I with you, other than that you recently wrote to me asking for an explanation regarding several statements. And even if you were to write me many things about M. Eisleben, how could I believe you alone? For whoever says that you or anyone in Berlin or in all of Brandenburg is inciting me against Eisleben, if he says so unwittingly, may God forgive him, but if he says it knowingly, then he is a roguish liar, as well as M. Eisleben himself has lied frequently, here in Wittenberg. M. Eisleben needs nobody to incite me against him; he himself is much better at that, much better than anyone whom he might suspect of such dealing. He knows that full well. [...] In my opinion, he will give up his life before he gives up his lying. – You have preached against the Jews and fought serious battles over that with the Margrave. [...] And you were quite right to do so. Stand fast and persevere! The words against you which you quoted to me, allegedly protecting the Jews, I will not hope to be true, nor shall I believe that M. Eisleben ever will preach or ever has preached such. I do not yet consider him so deeply fallen. May God prevent him! [...] For then M. Eisleben would not be the Elector’s preacher, but a true devil, letting his sayings be so shamefully misused to the damnation of all those who associate with Jews. For these Jews are not Jews, but devils incarnate who curse our Lord, who abuse His mother as a whore and Him as Hebel Vorik and a bastard, this is known for certain. And anyone who is capable of eating or drinking or associating with such a foul mouth is a Christian as well as the devil is a saint. [...] You may show this letter to whomever you wish. I do not know, nor do I care, who wrote the other three letters from Wittenberg to Berlin. You will undoubtedly confess this to be the first letter you ever received from me. For your name and person were previously unknown to me [...]” (translated). - Luther had apparently forgotten that several years previously, in late 1539, he had answered a letter of Buchholzer’s inquiring about Catholic rites still in use in Reformed Brandenburg. More notably, although Luther is writing to a fellow scholar, this letter is written in German so as that the recipient may show it “to whomever he wishes” – that is to say, to the Elector himself, thus providing Buchholzer with a writ of protection against any suspicion which Joachim may harbour against him. - The Hebrew words “Hebel Vorik” (vanity and emptiness) are taken from Isaiah 30:7. They were part of a Jewish prayer in which Jews thanked God for having made them different from those peoples who worshipped “Hebel Vorik”, though Luther construed the words as a code for Jesus Christ. - Luther’s anti-Judaism had not always been this rabid – as a young man he had spoken out judiciously against the traditional defamation of Jews and against all forms of forcible conversion – but he soon grew increasingly bitter, and by 1543 his attitude was one of undisguised loathing. His most notorious antisemitic pamphlet, “On the Jews and Their Lies”, was published only months before the present letter was written. With the same rhetorical skill with which he had previously ridiculed the papacy he now invoked a grotesque abhorrence of Judaism. As an embodiment of his sentiments in his later years, demonstrating how precisely the antisemitic church politics and discourse of the 1540s matched Luther’s instructions, the letter has been quoted or paraphrased by several important biographies of the Reformer (cf. M. Brecht, Luther, vol. 3 [1987], p. 344; most recently: L. Roper, Luther [2016], p. 532 n. 33). - Less than two years later, in a letter dated March 9, 1545, Luther would write to Elector Joachim II directly, warning him against the “tricks” of the Jews, in whom he is said to have too much confidence, adding that he is “glad that the Provost [Buchholzer] is so severe on those Jews, which is a proof of his loyalty to your Grace; and I encourage him to continue in the path he has chosen”. - Condition report: several corrections in the text by Luther’s own hand. Date of receipt noted by Buchholzer at the foot of the verso page: “Received by me in Berlin on Wednesday after St Egyd [5 September] anno etc. 43.” Slightly browned and brownstained throughout; traces of contemporary folds. Not noticeably wrinkled; no significant edge tears; a beautifully preserved specimen. - Provenance: before 1914 nothing more of the letter was known than the words branding Agricola an incorrigible liar (“will give up his life before he gives up his lying”), which Buchholzer had hurled at his adversary during a disputation as late as 1562, offering to show him the passage in Luther’s letter. In the early 19th century, the editors of Agricola’s writings confessed that such a letter could not be found (cf. B. Kordes, Agricola’s Schriften möglichst vollständig verzeichnet [Altona 1817], p. 393: “To my knowledge, this letter does not exist”). Only in 1914 was it discovered in the collection of Baron Heinrich von Hymmen (1880–1960), and in the same year the theologian G. Kawerau published it in the appendix to volume 15 of Luther’s letters. It was still in the Hymmen collection in 1947 when the critical Weimar edition published it, based on a photograph. The Hymmen family is known to have supported the Protestant cause: during the Nazi era, Heinrich placed his Unterbach castle at the disposal of the illegal Confessing Church; the theologian Johannes Hymmen was Vice President of the “Evangelischer Oberkirchenrat” from 1936. The letter first surfaced in the trade more than three decades ago (Stargardt 630 [1983], lot 1238: DM 172,270 including premium and taxes; remarkably, that same year a four-page Luther manuscript [Z&K 2/II, 1856] commanded no more than DM 10,000). The letter has since rested in the private collection from which we recently acquired it.
¶ Luther, Werke: Kritische Gesamtausgabe, Briefwechsel vol. 10 (Weimar 1947), no. 3909 (pp. 388-391). First published in: Enders-Kawerau XV, no. 3309a (pp. 359-362). In modernized spelling: Kawerau, "Ein Brief Luthers an den Propst von Berlin, Georg Buchholzer", in: Schriften des Vereins für die Geschichte Berlins 50 (1917), pp. 430-436.

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With 35 movable parts, coloured
10

Bassantin, James. Astronomique discours. Lyon, J. de Tournes, 1557. Lyon, J. de Tournes, 1557. Folio (300 x 445 mm). 286, (2) pp. With 175 woodcuts and diagrams in the text, of which 14 have a total of 35 (instead of 38?) movable parts, all in fine original hand colour. Modern half calf with giltstamped title to spine.

EUR 75,000.00

First edition, excessively rare. Latin editions were published by de Tournes in 1559 and 1599, another French one appeared in 1613. James (or Jacques) Bassantin, son of the laird of Bassendean (Berwickshire), lived in Paris as a mathematician; he is said to have died in Scotland in 1568. - "The size of this volume and the extent of its illustrations make this an unusually fine example of the attention given to the printing of scientific works at this period" (Mortimer). "A very impressive work, though partly a plagiarism of Apianus' great Astronomicum Caesareum, 1540" (Honeyman). The proper number of movable parts is not easily determined. The Honeyman copy had 25 volvelles, the Horblit copy (according to the latest count) 36; Mortimer cites 36, though neither copy at Harvard has more than 33. In the present copy we count 35 "movable parts". Compared with the count given by Honeyman ("counting volvelles is always a risky business"), we lack one part on p. 202 and two on p. 278; further differences concern pages 205 & 209 as well as 219 & 221: here, some parts have probably been fastened in the wrong place in our copy. The three parts which the Honeyman copy (p. 216) lacks from 38 are present here, however. - Bound with four engraved plates with 2 constellation maps each (after Beaublé, probably from a Parisian edition of Flamsteed's celestial atlas) with occasional edge damage reinforced with Japanese paper. - Slightly browned and frequent waterstaining to margins (more pronounced in title page, edge flaws reinforced). Some of the large woodcut scales printed on the text leaves are trimmed; slight loss to p. 119 from overpasting. The large movable disc on p. 196 is rubbed in places; some movable parts are creased or have been re-fastened; one small dial near the edge of a disc on p. 102 appears to have been torn off. Title has handwritten ownership of "Gregorius Morel Alenconieus subdiaconus" (likely the Jansenist theologian Grégoire Morel from Alençon, 1644-1750).
¶ Adams B 369. Houzeau/Lancaster 2592. Mortimer 47. Honeyman 244. Cartier, de Tournes 357 (and cf. 775).

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Undocumented manuscript for Emperor Ferdinand I about combat in the Hungarian-Turkish border area
11

[Renaissance mercenaries]. Dedication manuscript for Emperor Ferdinand I, written by... the provost of a Landsknecht army who fought against the Turkish troops of Sultan Soliman II between 1532 and 1552. [No place, 1560]. [No place, 1560]. Folio (280 x 390 mm). German ms. on paper. German chancery cursive in brown ink with calligraphic chapter headings and initials. 28 lines, written space ruled in ink. 12 ff., 1 blank f., 83 ff., 2 blank ff. (thus complete with 190 written pages). Contemp. limp vellum with giltstamped cover borders and diagonal cross using the same roll-tools. Spine divided into six compartments by same tools and decorated with floral stamps. All edges goffered.

EUR 25,000.00

The as yet unidentified writer of this manuscript had until 1552 served on the staff of Maurice, Elector of Saxony, and thus was one of the highest-ranking commanders in the Imperial Landsknecht army led by the Elector. In the office of a "oberster provossen Leutnant" (head lieutenant provost), his duty had been to enforce military order among the mercenary regiment: he investigated and arrested lawbreakers; in trials he acted as prosecutor, and afterwards he executed the punishment. After the end of the campaign, the provost would no longer be protected by military law, for which reason he would usually leave the regiment early so as to escape acts of revenge by the soldiers. After more than 20 years of Imperial army service, our provost was thus without occupation or pay, and so in 1560 directly applied to the Emperor in the present, strongly autobiographical manuscript, requesting (in the 146th and final chapter) that he graciously bestow on him a benefice or sinecure ("aus lauterer genaden mit ainer genetten Pfründt oder schlechten Ofidicio oder Beneficij"). Obviously aware of the difficulties of his appeal, the author states in the preface that even if granted a personal hearing, he would hardly be permitted to present his case in such detail ("gibt ainem nit sovil audienz, biß Er sein wichtige sachen khann genuegsamblich fürbringe"), which is why he has decided on the written form. He is not a learned man, nor does he have an eloquent scholar ("ain doctor der wolreden khann") at his disposal to help him with his phrasing, but even a simple man has memory and brains enough to thus lay down his opinions. His extensive descriptions of personal involvement in important, historically documented battles against the Turks permit a precise dating of the manuscript. The writer participated in the campaign against the Raab fortress ("ungeverlich vor 8 Jahren mein gnediger Herr Herzog Moritz Curfürst [...] biß für Rab Innß Landt zue Hungern ist gezogen") and fought against the Turks at Steinfeld as early as 1532 ("bin auch dabey gewesen, wie man dazumal ein streifenden Haufen mit Türggen an der Schwarzach geschlagen hat [...] da Herr Sewastian Schertlin Obristen Leitnanbt war"). This Imperial mercenary probably remained in the regiment of the famous Landsknecht commander Kaspar Schertlin von Burtenbach (1496-1577), victor of the battle at Steinfeld and a participant in the 1527 Sack of Rome, until the mid-1540s. He also remarks on the desolate condition of the contemporary military, straightforwardly addressing the issues of corruption among the upper echelons ("wie die falschen blinden Namen C. May. so grossmechtigen schaden bringen"), poor pay ("wie die Armen Kriegsleuth über vortailt und genediget werden mit der schlechten Müntz"), and grievances regarding enlistment, food, and clothing, and advances suggestions on how to improve matters ("so man auf allen Musterungen mieglichen Vleiß fürwendt guette kriegsleuth zue bekommen"). - The manuscript begins with the index ("Register diser Oration oder Solticitation"); the counter-leaf of the first index page is glued to the vellum cover, forming the front pastedown. The index is immediately followed by the preface to the Emperor, the "Allerdurchleuchtigste Großmechtigste unnd unyberwindlichsste Erwelte Romischer Kayser aller genedigster Herr", which in turn is followed by the 146 chapters of the petition. Both the fact that the manuscript remained unsigned and also its provenance suggest that the author ultimately lacked the courage to submit to Ferdinand this manuscript, a work remarkable for its strongly autobiographical character as well as for its candid criticism of the Imperial military. - From the collection of the Austrian Minister of War, Count Theodor Baillet de Latour (1780-1848; hanged by revolutionaries), with his armorial bookplate on the front pastedown.

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The record of a major exchange of land between the crown and England's premier peer, signed three times by the Queen
12

Elizabeth I, Queen of England and Ireland (1533-1603). Document signed ("Elizabeth R"). No place, 24. VIII. 1562. No place, 24. VIII. 1562. Three vellum membranes. Later endorsements, a few early ink marginal markings and underlinings, substantial fragment of Great Seal in white wax pendant on original vellum tag, ink somewhat faded on first membrane, some light staining, seal discoloured and worn. Framed and glazed.

EUR 65,000.00

An indenture detailing the exchange of lands between the crown and Thomas, 4th Duke of Norfolk, signed three times by the Queen, recording that the Duke will "sell geve and graunte unto our Soveraigne Ladie the Quene All those his Mannors & Lordshippes of Chesworth and Sedgewicke [...] in the County of Sussex [...] also all that mannor Lordshipp and Forest of St Leonard and all ground and Soyle of the same Forest And also all those his Parkes of Bewbushe and Shelley", and related lands and rights, in exchange for lands in royal gift including the "Celle of Sainte Leonard in her county of Norfolk" and associated lands and buildings "neare unto the Citie of Norwich", Norfolk lands formerly of Wymondham Abbey, lands in Essex (Wigborough, Saltcote, Tollesbury) that were formerly "assigned to the late Ladie Anne of Cleves" and also lands in "Pitchesey" (Pitsea) in the same county, the manor of Dowdike in Lincolnshire (previously of Crowland Abbey), and lands of Newenham Abbey in Devon. The indenture then lists the extensive debts of the Duke to the crown, further detailing that a portion of this debt is discharged by the value of the woodland hereby sold to the crown, and commands the exchequer to produce a new bond for the residue of the debt, being a mere £1823 15s. 5 3/4d. Signed by the Queen at the head of each membrane, additionally signed at the foot by the Lord Treasurer William Paulet, Marquess of Winchester ("Winchester"), the under-treasurer Richard Sackville, and the Chancellor of the Exchequer Walter Mildmay. - Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk (1538-72), was the head of the powerful Howard family. He was a Privy Councillor, had commanded English forces in Scotland at the beginning of Elizabeth's reign, and was one of the greatest land-owners in the land, with estates centred on Norfolk. The agreement with the crown that is formalized in this document saw enormous tracts of land near Horsham in Sussex - including the 12 square miles of St Leonard's forest - conveyed to the crown. Norfolk gained considerable land in return, primarily former monastic land scattered across four counties, but - and this was probably of greater importance to him - he also saw his overall debt to the crown, which had been more that £6500, reduced by some £4680. The counterpart of this indenture remains in the Exchequer (The National Archives, E 211/39). Less than ten years after this agreement was made, Norfolk was executed for treason for conspiring with Mary, Queen of Scots. His son and heir, Philip, Earl of Arundel, was permitted to inherit most of his estates.

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The Nuremberg Carnival, Chronicle and City Records, Illustrated and Explained for One of the Participating Families
13

[Nuremberg - Renaissance Chronicle and Schembartbuch]. Ein schönne unndt kurtze Kronnica alter ergangenen geschichten... insonderhait von der kayserlichen Reichsstat Nurmberg (Bound with:) Schemverdt buch von 1449 bis auff 1539 (Bound with:) Alle die Genandten des Grossen und klainern Rahts, so im gnadten Buch, des 1560 Jars alhie in Nurmberg von Neuem bestettigt. Nuremberg, 1603. Nuremberg, 1603. Folio (225 x 353 mm). German manuscript on paper, splendidly illustrated. 440 leaves (including 119 blanks), complete (later pencil foliation 1-439, skipping a leaf after 188). 24 pages painted in full colour showing a continuous procession beneath panels of text, two of these pages with fold-out extensions pasted on, 64 illustrations of full-length masked and costumed figures identified by coats of arms and beneath text panels outlining the carnival of that year. Contemporary panelled pigskin stamped in blind with brass cornerpieces, remains of clasps. All edges red. Stored in a brown cloth box with leather lettering-piece.

EUR 125,000.00

A splendid authorial copy of a 1603 chronicle of the city of Nuremberg, combined with pictorial presentation of its most celebrated public spectacle (a so-called "Schembartbuch") and precise records of the city's civic appointments and government. Commisioned by William Kress von Kressenstein, a member of one of Nuremberg's most renowned patrician families, the present manuscript is illustrated with a total of 88 elaborate, full-page watercolours by a skillfull and experienced artist, obviously trained in the Augsburg-Nuremberg area with such masters as Hans Schäufelein, Hans Sebald Beham, or Jörg Breu the Younger. Mentioning numerous members of the Kress family, the Chronicle (ff. 1-224 in our manuscript) reports notable events from the founding of the city in 1139 until 1603 and is especially remarkable for including an account of a 1592 parade of the municipal militia, not otherwise documented in such detail: 24 pages in full colour form a continous illustration of this procession, showing standard bearers, a large field gun drawn by six horses, musicians, numerous officers, all distinguished by their coat of arms painted above their heads, together with their commander - the latter himself identified as a Kress von Kressenstein. - The two-page verse chronicle on the origin of the "Schembartlauf", a carnival parade held on Shrove Tuesday in Nuremberg from 1449 to 1539, is followed by 64 full-page illustrations of costumed figures, one for each year in which the carnival was held. Offering a history of changing dress over nearly a century, the watercolours portray the participants dressed up in garments richly decorated with embroidery and ribbons, and often with bells that jingled as they ran through the streets. Again, each individual portrayed is accompanied by his coat of arms, enabling us to identify among the participating perfomers Hans Kress, who acted as captain ("Hauptmann") of the Schembart procession in 1464, 1465, 1468 and 1495. A fantastic galley with a crew of devils, part of the final show held in 1539, concludes the cycle of illustrations. According to Sumberg, some 80 manuscripts recording the Schembartlauf have survived, all of which can be dated after 1540, when the carnival festivities had ceased; they are thus a retrospective commemoration of the event itself. None of the Schembart manuscripts was ever printed until the second half of the 18th century. "Each manuscript is unique, and all are rare" (M. Reed, 145). - The third and last group of texts (ff. 316-414) in the present hefty folio reports, among other matters, on the municipal elections and records all appointed council members and office holders in the city of Nuremberg from 1477 to 1603 by name. - Creasing, tears and some losses from lower edges of ff. 179-188 and 283-314, one of the fold-out extensions mostly lacking. The finely preserved blind-tooled pigskin binding shows the Annunciation, Baptism of the Christ, Crucifixion and Resurrection. - Provenance: 1. Wilhelm Kress von Kressenstein (1560-1640), engraved armorial bookplate inside upper cover. 2. Princely House of Liechtenstein, their shelfmark on upper pastedown; purchased from H. P. Kraus in 1956. 3. Paul and Marianne Gourary, their sale, Christie's New York, 12 June 2009, lot 314.
¶ S. Sumberg, The Nuremberg Schembart Carnival, 1941. H.-U. Roller, Der Nürnberger Schembartlauf: Studien zum Fest-und Maskenwesen des späten Mittelalters, 1965. M. Reed, Fireworks and Fish Baskets: The Schembart Festival in Nuremberg, Getty Research Journal, no. 4 (2012), pp. 145-152.

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The rare first edition of
the foundation work of modern international law
14

Grotius, Hugo. De jure belli ac pacis libri tres. In... quibus ius naturae & gentium: item iuris publici praecipua explicantur. Paris, Nicolas Buon, 1625. Paris, Nicolas Buon, 1625. 4to (240 x 169 mm). (36), 506, (2), 553-586, (8) pp. Title printed in red and black, roman and italic type, a few words or phrases in Greek type, shoulder notes. Woodcut printer's device on title, woodcut head and tail-pieces and floriated initials. Contemp. French calf, spine with 5 raised bands richly gilt in compartments and with gilt-lettering in 2nd compartment (extremities rubbed, corners bumped and worn, boards rubbed, foot of spine little chipped), marbled endpapers, red-sprinkled edges. Leaves a3 and a4 loose, short tear in blank margin of p. 213, little occasional spotting and browning of text, small wormhole to lower corner of first few leaves. Occasional light pencil annotations, text markings and corrections in contemporary hand.

EUR 150,000.00

First edition of the "foundation of modern international law" (PMM). A prodigy in his youth, Grotius became a statesman and thinker of the greatest integrity whose influence on modern European thought can scarcely be overestimated. In 1619, cutting short a successful career in the law and diplomacy, Grotius was sentenced to life imprisonment in the Louvestein fortress in Holland by order of the stadtholder, Prince Maurice of Nassau, for having attempted to orchestrate a compromise between the Calvinist and anti-Spanish party, led by Maurice, and the more moderate Remonstrant party, who advocated self-government of the Dutch states in matters of religion. After a dramatic escape two years later (his wife smuggled him out of jail in a book trunk), Grotius took refuge in France, where he survived on meagre pensions, settling in 1623 in the country house of the President de Meme near Senlis, close to the property of de Thou fils, who gave him free access to his father's splendid library. There Grotius began writing his master work, "De jure belli ac pacis". Many of the ideas developed therein had been outlined in an unpublished work of his youth, "De jure praedae", the manuscript of which he had brought with him, enabling him to finish the treatise in under a year. The fundamental importance of the mature work is its attempt, a century before the spread of the Enlightenment, "to obtain a principle of right, and a basis for society and government, outside the church or the Bible" (M. Pattison, art. "Grotius", Enc. Brit. 1911, v. 12, p. 623). "The distinction between religion and morality is not clearly made, but Grotius' principle of an immutable law, which God can no more alter than a mathematical axiom, was the first expression of the 'droit naturel', the natural law which exercised the great political theorists of the eighteenth century, and is the foundation of modern international law" (PMM). - Buon commenced printing the work in November 1624. By using two or three presses, a few copies, presumably of the first state (Ter Meulen/D., p. 565), were ready to be sent to the Frankfurt fair in March 1625. This first state (of which Ter Meulen and Diermanse record only one copy, at the Bodleian) contains no table, indices, addenda or errata; all but the errata were added, constituting a second state (Ter Meulen/D. 565'), copies of which are also extremely rare, as it appears not to have been published. Both first and second states contain substantive textual variants, principally in bifolium 3Q2.3 and in quires 5E-5G, which were modified under the author's supervision, probably in the course of printing, forming a third and final state. While 3Q2.3 appear to have been entirely re-typeset, other corrections or revisions, according to Grotius's bibliographers, appear erratically in different copies. States II and III have title in red and black, in both, book 3, ch. 24 begins on p. 781 and text ends on p. 786, and both are complete, except that state II lacks the errata. Our copy conforms to state III, with the following points present: mis-signing 3 as o3 and 3C2 as 3C3, misprinting of p. 212 as 213, 407 as 707, 410 as 41, 456 as 458, 492 as 462; gathering 3C2 (pp. 385/386-391/392) has double page numbering to fill up the count preceding 393 on 3D1r; that sequence continues through 464 (3M4v), then reverts to the actual count beginning with 461 on 3N1r. Book 3 begins on leaf 4A1r (p. 553), as if preceded by A-3Z? (which would end with p. 552), indicating that its printing was begun before completion of the preceding text. State III leaves 3Q2-3 (p. 487-490) are a resetting of states I and II, with incorrect headline "LIB. III" on p. 489 (perhaps an unmodified re-used headline from book 3), though it has not been determined whether the inner bifolium 3Q2.3 only, or the whole of 3Q, was reprinted. - Provenance: M. de Kernier (bookplate to front pastedown), De Lherbetti, Lieutenant Criminel au Chateau du Loire (inscription on title-page). An outstanding, clean and completely unsophisticated copy.
¶ PMM 125. Ter Meulen, Liste bibl. de 70 editions et traductions du De lure belli ac pacis, p. 9-10. Ter Meulen/Diermanse, Bibliographie des écrits imrimés de Hugo Grotius, La Haye, 1950. Books That Made Europe p. 86.

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"An Innocent Arab Proposing the Destiny of the Universe"
15

Allaeus, Franciscus. Astrologiae Nova Methodus. Francisci Allaei, Arabis Christiani. [Rennes, Julian Herbert], 1654[-1655]. [Rennes, Julian Herbert], 1654[-1655]. Folio (235 x 360 mm). (4), 4, 12 pp. 57, (1) pp. 26 pp., terminal blank. With 1 engraved disc in the text of the first count (a repeat of disc 2 of the first volvelle), 3 volvelles in the first section, composed of 11 parts; and 2 volvelles in the second section, composed of 6 parts (all but two stitched together, but inserted loosely, never sewn into the book). Contemporary full vellum.

EUR 25,000.00

Rare second, expurged edition of this remarkable treatise offering predictions for the destiny of European nations, issued without place or printer in the year of the almost unobtainable first edition, most copies of which were burned by the hangman at Nantes and Rennes shortly after publication. The first edition was deemed offensive due to the predictions of five volvelles in the second section which offered horoscopes for Islam, Christianity, France, Spain, and England. A "Figura Sectae Mahometanae" dared to give a horoscope of the Prophet Mohammed and a list of significant events in the history of Islam; this was followed by predictions which included the suggestion that a quarter of the world would be Islamic by 1703. The horoscope of Christianity also included dire predictions: indeed, those for the fate of England (ending with the wiping out of the English nation in 1884) caused a serious diplomatic rift, resulting in the English ambassador demanding the book be suppressed. The present edition of the "Astrologiae Nova Methodus" (and subsequent ones) omits the incriminated 7 pages and 5 volvelles; instead, it prefixes a new, two-page introduction entitled "Principiorum Astrologiae Brevis Expositio" ("The Principles of Astrology, Set Out in Brief"), which explains one of the movable discs in detail. - The book's authorship remains a mystery. It is attributed on the title-page to a certain Francisco Allaeio, "Christian Arab", but this is probably a pseudonym for Yves de Paris, a Capuchin monk known for his anti-establishment views. The third section of the work offers a religious justification for the relevance of astrological prediction, in which the author defends himself as an "innocent Arab proposing the destiny of the universe" (p. 5). - Endpapers not pasted to covers; some browning, fingerstaining and edge defects, but still a good, wide-margined copy. Uncommonly, none of the volvelles are sewn into the book, as they seem intended to be removable; two volvelles are not stitched together, though the discs are cut out. A 13-page typewritten German translation of the preliminary matter ("The Fate of the Author" and "The Principles of Astrology"), apparently the work of a German scholar of the 1930s with an attractive hand-drawn title page in red, yellow and black ink, is inserted at the end. - Provenance: 1) Heinrich Xaver Baron Wiser, minister of Palatinate-Neuburg at the court of Madrid in the 1690s and at Naples from 1709 to 1713 (his handwritten ownership to title); 2) Johann Oeler, legal advisor to the Barons Sturmfeder (his handwritten shelfmark and ownership, dated Mannheim, 24 Nov. 1806, on front endpaper); 3) Moritz (Carl August) Axt (1801-62), German classicist and educator (his handwritten ownership on flyleaf).
¶ Cf. Houzeau/Lancaster 5217. Caillet III, 11557. Thorndike VIII, 310ff. Peignot, Dictionnaire des livres condamnés au feu II, 204f. Dorbon-Ainé, Bibliotheca Esoterica, 61f.

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The first Book about America by a Muslim
16

Tarikh al-Hindi al-Gharbi. Tarikh al-Hind al-Garbi al-müsemma bi-Hadis-i nev [A History... of the Western Indies]. Qustantaniyah (Istanbul), Ibrahim Müteferrika, mid-Ramazan 1142 AH [= 1730 AD]. Qustantaniyah (Istanbul), Ibrahim Müteferrika, mid-Ramazan 1142 AH [= 1730 AD]. 4to (168 x 217 mm). (3), 91 ff. All pages ruled, border coloured in gilt. With an illuminated golden headpiece (serlevha), 4 double-page engraved plates in contemporary colour (celestial chart, diagram with table, 2 world maps), and 13 woodcut illustrations in the text, all coloured by a contemporary hand and partially heightened with gum arabic. Slightly later (c. 1840) half calf, with gilt ornament and the name of the previous owner in Arabic lettering gilt to spine. Marbled endpapers.

EUR 250,000.00

A unique copy, with notable provenance, of the first book published with Arabic lettering to contain illustrations, the earliest book about the New World published in the Islamic world, and one of the first titles printed by a Muslim in Turkey. Formerly in the possession of Ahmed Cevdet Pasha (1822-95), one of the most pre-eminent scholars of his time and a prominent figure in the Tanzimat reforms of the Ottoman empire, the present copy is ruled in gold throughout, printed on a variety of burnished papers (a total of 30 leaves dyed in yellow, green, and brown in addition to the standard white), and coloured throughout. It is especially the contemporary colouring of the woodcuts, which depict curious oddities, fantastic creatures and the native people of the New World, that lends the present specimen a visual appearance completely different from that of the rather plain copies in which this book is usually known (14 copies recorded by OCLC). The only similarly embellished copy of the Hindi al-Gharbi we could trace is the one held by the Lilly Library. - "Despite the title, this is not a history of the West Indies. It opens with a general geographical and cosmological discussion, and follows with an account of the discovery of the New World, with considerable fantastic elaboration in the spirit of the more fabulous passages of Abu Hamid and Qazwini. Among the illustrations are depictions of trees whose fruits are in human form, long-snouted horses, mermen at battle with land-dwellers, and other men and beasts of nightmarish aspect" (Watson). The present work, which survives in a number of mss. (though in less complete variants than this printed edition), was composed in Istanbul around 1580 by an unidentified author. After a synthesis of Islamic geographical and cosmographical writings, notably drawing from al-Mas'udi, who is the most frequently cited source, and Ibn al-Wardi, mentioned almost 20 times, the book relates the discovery of the New World. In this Chapter 3, which comprises the final two thirds of the text, the author describes the explorations and discoveries by Columbus, Balboa, Magellan, Cortés and Pizarro. As Goodrich's study of the book's sources shows, this section is derived directly from Italian editions of 16th-century texts - particularly works by López de Gómara, Peter Martyr, Agustín de Zárate, and Oviedo - which the author excerpted, rearranged, and translated into Turkish. The history of their discoveries is enlivened with fantastic elaboration, some of which is visible in the woodcuts. The two world maps derive from those in Mercator-Hondius "Atlas minor" and reappear in Katib Celebi's "Cihânnümâ" atlas, printed by Müteferrika two years later, with California represented as an island. Complete examples are rare: the book was printed in an edition of only 500 copies, many of which were subsequently defaced or destroyed for contravening the Islamic teachings against the representation of living things. Toderini appears to call for an astronomical chart in addition to the 4 plates, but Watson describes an astronomical chart and 3 plates. Sabin calls for 3 plates only, as does the John Carter Brown library catalogue. The Bibliothèque nationale copy, sent from Constantinople by the press's patron, Sad Aga, contains 4 plates, as does the present copy, including the Ptolemaic astronomical chart. - Old annotations in Arabic script to front flyleaf. Three leaves remargined. Celestial map with closed tears and 2.5 cm loss to upper right corner (though slightly less near center) and minor loss to the cartouche at lower right corner; the other plates including the two coloured world maps in excellent condition, as most of the printed pages.
¶ John Carter Brown 463. Toderini III, 41. Karatay 250. Sabin 94396. William J. Watson, "Ibrahim Müteferrika and Turkish Incunabula," in: Journal of the American Oriental Society 88, no. 3 (1968), pp. 435-441, no. 4. OCLC 416474553. Cf. T. D. Goodrich, The Ottoman Turks and the New World (Wiesbaden 1990).

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Complete and in contemporary colour, including the the first scientific map of Arabia published in the Islamic world
17

Katib Chelebi (Haji Khalifa/Mustafa ibn Abdallah). Kitab-i Cihânnümâ. [Jihan-numa, The mirror of the world].... Constantinople, Ibrahim Müteferrika, 3 July 1732. Constantinople, Ibrahim Müteferrika, 3 July 1732. Folio (312 x 200 mm). (28), 698 pp., each page within double rule border added in red. With ornamental headpiece, hand-coloured and raised in gilt, 13 (4 double-page-sized) engr. plates and celestial maps, and 27 (14 double-page-sized) engr. geographical maps, all in contemporary hand colour, some sparingly raised in gilt. Contemp. auburn morocco with fore-edge flap, blindstamped with ornamental borders, cornerpieces and central oval medallion.

EUR 150,000.00

First edition. Almost unobtainable thus with 40 maps and plates as present: Koeman mentions a total of merely 37 maps and plates; Shirley cites 27 maps (including one of the celestial hemispheres) and an unspecified number of "other prints". Even the British Library copies (Oriental and India Office Collections, Or.80.a.10 and a.7) have one map fewer than ours. Includes the famous map of the Arabian peninsula drawn by Ahmed Al-Qirimi, based on Sanson's 1654 map, but with important changes. Tibbetts depicts this rarest and most desirable map of Arabia - the first ever to be printed with captions in Arabic - as the frontispiece of his groundbreaking bibliography of "Arabia in Early Maps". "This map can be seen as a mixture of Eastern and Western cartographic experiments of the 17th century. It was the first scientific map published in the Islamic world. Its details include data on the names of the towns, watercourses, and topographical features. The Red Sea is labelled bahr Swîs (Sea of Suez) and the Arabian Gulf is labelled Basra kûrfazî (Gulf of Bassora)" (Khaled Al Ankary). - For his famous universal Islamic geography, the Ottoman scholar Katib Chelebi (1609-57) drew on Mercator's and Hondius's "Atlas Minor" as well as other Western sources. "Of the utmost interest both as the best-known work of Ottoman geographical literature and as the document of a pivotal moment in the history of ideas" (Wolff). Printed at the first Turkish press by Ibrahim Müteferrika, a Hungarian convert to Islam, who completed Katip's unfinished work, hitherto circulated in manuscripts only, and had the maps specially engraved for it. "In a report given to the Académie after the Danish expedition of Niebuhr, it is stated that D'Anville's main sources for Arabia in his Asia map were the Geographies of Idrisi and Abu'l Feda, and the 'Jihan-numa' of Katib Chelebi" (Tibbetts, p. 29). - Occasional brownstaining and remarginings; an old reinforcement to p. 502. A splendid copy in its original binding. Of the utmost rarity when found complete with all maps as present. We could not trace a complete copy in libraries worldwide (the Houghton copy at Harvard also wants 2 pages of text and the celestial map, inter alia), and all copies recorded at auction within the last decades were incomplete.
¶ Shirley T.KAT-1. Koeman II, 549 (but misdated). Wolff, Mercator 2.12.a. Lex. der Kart. 829. HoC 2.1, p. 195 & 218. Khaled Al Ankary collection (The Arabian Peninsula in Old European Maps), p. 316f. Tibbetts, p. 26 (misdated "1728"). Yazmadan Basmaya (Müteferrika) 11. OCLC 613412138.

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Album of the Imperial blanket maker J. F. Hörmannsperger
18

Baroque pattern book and album of the blanket maker Johann Franz Hörmannsperger. Vienna, 1736. Vienna, 1736. Oblong folio (390 x 252 mm). 118 numbered ff. (but 115: ff. 96, 106, and 112 skipped). Calligraphic preface by Hörmannsperger, 58 full-page textile designs by the same, mostly in red, blue, green, and gilt (including one folded, double-page sized specimen and 4 ff. with 2 designs each), 7 splendid gouache washes raised in gilt and silver; bound in between these are a total of 52 engravings on 48 plates, all in splendid contemporary colour raised in gilt and silver. Contemp. marbled boards.

EUR 85,000.00

Unique, museum-quality document of late Baroque craftsmanship among the urban Third Estate: apart from 58 meticulously executed textile designs, the album contains seven large-format gouaches showing the self-assured author practising his trade in his workshop, advertising and selling his wares to customers, as well as playing music and even bowling, but also attending the general meeting of the Viennese blanket makers. The engravings which Hörmannsperger inserted between his own works all show mundane subjects (dwarves, soldiers, caricatures, etc.): thus, his autograph textile designs and gouaches are interleaved with some of the rarest and most charming pieces produced by the 1720's Augsburg school of engraving. - The album is introduced by a self-portrait of the 26-year-old Hörmannsperger in his workshop (with his compass and one of the later-included textile designs lying on the table); on the opposite page he offers a brief preface to the volume: "for true art speaks for the master: here is a book, all mine, with many drawings, as they will be seen, all drawn by me, though I say so myself, with much time, labour, and trouble [...] I, Johann Frantz Hörmansperger" (transl.). The captions to the splendid gouaches prove the author's humour (sometimes bawdy) as well as a trait of surprising self-confidence. Pitching his self-plaited blanket to a female customer, he addresses her: "My dear lady, here's a fine blanket for you - you may well stretch yourself under this: one and a half ells wide and two in length; perfect for flipping over with your husband underneath" (transl., f. 84). Another image shows him selling saddlecloths to military officers ("we'll have these and take them into battle", f. 86); yet another shows him bowling in a Baroque garden at the weekend ("All gay and jolly, for we are journeymen of the trade: and so the virgins may be; they will not be bored - here is red wine and white, so well we may make merry", f. 94) and dancing ("Be merry all. Musicians play! Thus do the blanket makers frolic and dance with pretty girls until their shoes may fall to pieces", f. 104). The final leaf shows an apprentice received into the society of blanket makers at their quarterly general assembly ("The blanket makers convene today to discuss what concerns the society: the young man must have learned his trade; he is not too tall nor too small. But he must put in his time, until he is made a journeyman", f. 118). Some of Hörmannsperger's ornamental designs, created with the use of a compass, include centerpieces showing armorial or figural motifs; one design (f. 113) is apparently a commission for Emperor Charles VI (bearing his monogram and Imperial insignia); according to the later caption, it was indeed executed for him. - Between his own works Hörmannsperger bound engravings by the great Augsburg masters of his age, all splendidly coloured and raised in gilt and silver: eight engravings from Elias Bäck's dwarf series (fencing school, drinking, gluttony, and tobacco addiction), a complete cycle of the seasons and the life stages of man by Martin Engelbrecht ("Der Menschen Jahr Veränderung"), a total of 19 of the famous engravings by Pfeffel, Schmidt, and Engelbrecht showing a soldier's life (two with movable parts), as well as a fine broadsheet by Albrecht Schmidt showing the seven Honest Swabians, and finally an untitled eight-page cycle showing the female tempers. - The Austrian and especially the Viennese bedclothes were known for their high quality throughout the continent. During their golden age in the 18th century they were exported to all European courts, as well as to Greece, Turkey, and many oriental countries. At the time this album was drawn up, there were ten masters of the profession in Vienna alone creating blankets and mattresses as well as backpacks and cuirasses. - Provenance: acquired in 1893 "from Mr Josef Lang's son-in-law" by the bedclothes merchant Josef Pauly, supplier to the Royal and Imperial court, and passed on by him to Mr. Junghofer, chairman of the bedclothes makers' cooperative, in 1896 (cf. Pauly's autograph dedication note on the flyleaf); last in an Austrian private collection. Boards imperceptibly restored at lower spine end; interior slightly fingerstained; slight tears to two leaves, but in excellent state of preservation altogether.

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Rare maritime atlas of the East
19

Keulen, Johannes van. Maritime composite atlas. Amsterdam, ca. 1750. Amsterdam, ca. 1750. Uncoloured. 530 x 305 mm. 20 large engraved sea charts, pasted back to back, nineteenth-century half calf.

EUR 45,000.00

A rare maritime atlas for V.O.C. ships bound for the Far East, published by Johannes van Keulen II, the Dutch East India Company's official map maker and hydrographer during the years 1726-55. This atlas is a fine and rare example to be used on board, including 20 large engraved sea charts, pasted back to back, as typical for on-board use, making them more durable. This atlas also includes the most important celestial chart of the period, the "Stellatum Planisphaerium" of Louis Vlasbloem. The small spheres show the geocentric and heliocentric configurations of the solar system. The expansion of Dutch maritime trade in the Far East provided new astronomical knowledge of the southern hemisphere: twelve new constellations were added to the Ptolemaic canon, making a total of 60. The newly discovered southern constellations include: Pavo, Phoenix, Indus, and others, and Coma Berenices in the north. Celestial navigation was practiced by Chinese and western sailors, and a celestial chart was of the highest importance for navigation. The volume also includes an important and scarce world map, here in its second state with additional privilege. It is on Mercator's projection with only a relatively small number of coastal place names and no interior features or localities at all. After 1682 other general maps were used by Van Keulen, possibly because of the unfamiliarity of Mercator's projection. Shows California as an island and no further coastlines to the north. Includes: 1. Stellatum Planisphaerium 2. Wassende Graade Kaart van Alle Bekende Zeekusten op den Geheelen Aardbodem 3. Pascaerte van't Noordlyckste Deel van Europa 4. Wassende Graade Kaart van de Noort Zee Beginnende van de Hoofden tot t'Land Stadt in Noorwegen met de Gantse Oostkust van Engeland 5. Nieuwe Wassende Graaden Paskaart van het Schagerak de Sond ende Beld Beginnende van de Hoek van Schagen tot Bornholm. 6. Nieuwe Wassende Graade Paskaart over de Geeheele Oost-Zee Nieuwelijcks Opgestelt door Nicolaas de Vries 7. Wassende Graade Kaart van 't Noordelykste Deel der Noord Zee tussen Schotland, Ysland Noorwegen en Finmarken tot Booven de Noord Caap 8. Wassende Graade Kaart van de Noord Ys Zee. Behelsende de Kusten v. Finmarken, Lapland, Rusland, Nova Zembla en Spitsbergen 9. Wassende Graade Kaart van de Noord Oceaan van Terra Nova en de Straat Davids en Hudson tot Hidland en de Westkust van Schotland en Engeland en Bretagne Begrypende ook Yrland en Ysland. Door C.J. Vooght Geometra 10.Pas Caert van Texel tot aende Hoofden 11. Nieuwe Wassende Graade Paskaart van 't Canaal tuschen Engelandt en Vrankryk 12. Wassende Graade Kaart van de Spaanse Zee 13. Wassende Graade Kart vande Geheele Cust van Portugaal (4 languages) (later 1704?) 14. Nieuwe Wassende Graade Paskaart van de genee;e Middelandsche Zee 15. Paskaert waer in de Graden der Breedde over Weder Zyden vande Middellyn, Wassende ... Vertonende (Behalve Europaes Zuijdelijkste) een Gedeelte van de Custen van Africa en America 16. Pascaerte van Westindien Begrypende in zich de Vaste Kusten en Eylanden. 17. Pascaarte vande Zee Custen van Guinea, en Brasilia: van Cabo de Verde, tot C. de Bona Esperanca: en van R. de Amazones tot Rio de la Plata 18. Nieuwe Pascaert van Oost Indien Verthoonende hen van C. De Bona Esperanca tot aen het Landt van Eso 19. Pascaert vande Zuyd Zee en een Gedeelte van Brasil van Ilhas de Ladrones tot R. de la Plata. 20. Pascaerte vande Noord Oost Cust van Asia Verthoonende in Sich Alle de Zee-Custen van Tartarien van Japan tot Nova Zemla. - Light staining at upper corners, hinges weak, binding slightly rubbed as usual.

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"Aaron Burr, sir?"
Writing as an exile of the French Revolution in the USA
20

Talleyrand-Périgord, Charles-Maurice de, French statesman (1754-1838). Autograph note signed. [Probably Philadelphia or Manhattan, ca 1794/1795]. [Probably Philadelphia or Manhattan, ca 1794/1795]. 54 x 116 mm. 1 p. Matted.

EUR 3,500.00

A plain, unpresuming note that probably once accompanied a small hospitality gift, inscribed by one of the most powerful French statesmen of all time to a Founding Father of the United States, reading: "Presented to hon. M. Burr / by M. Talleyrand". The Frenchman's use of English appears to be a polite signal of deference to his American host, for Burr's French undoubtedly would have been more than sufficient to understand the same note in the international language of education and diplomacy, whereas Talleyrand's command of English is largely agreed to have been extremely limited (cf. Earl, p. 290). - Talleyrand's career straddled the Ancien régime, French Revolution and Restoration; he was successively a bishop, a revolutionary who assisted in the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man, an exile in America, and later Foreign Minister to both Napoleon and his successor, the restored Bourbon king, Louis XVIII. Talleyrand had left revolutionary France just before the beginning of the Great Terror on a diplomatic mission to Britain, but earlier French exiles pressured Pitt to expel him to the Republic, where a warrant for his arrest had been issued in the meantime. "A return to France meant certain death, and most of the other countries of Europe were openly hostile to him for the part he had played in the early days of the Revolution. In mid-February, 1794, he booked a passage on the American ship 'William Penn'. He had made up his mind; the United States would be his refuge until such time as France returned to a normal, stable, and reasonable condition" (Earl, p. 282). In America, Talleyrand settled comfortably into the cosmopolitan society of Philadelphia, the federal capital and a haven for Gallic émigrés. Fortified with his reputation as well as with warm letters of recommendation to Washington, Benjamin Rush and the Hamilton family, the French exile found American drawing rooms open to him, and "from his April arrival until his visit to New York in June, 1794, Talleyrand was hardly ever without an invitation to dinner" (Earl, p. 289). One of his famous hosts was Aaron Burr, two years Talleyrand's junior and then serving as U.S. Senator representing New York. At his Richmond Hill estate in Manhattan, which he had purchased in 1794, Burr "maintained a liberal establishment, and exercised the hospitality which was then in vogue. Talleyrand, Volney, Louis Philippe, and other strangers of distinction, whom the French Revolution drove into exile, were [there] entertained with princely profusion and elegance" (Parton I, p. 154). Burr's biographer Parton reports that Talleyrand was among those with whom the Senator "became particularly intimate" (ibid.), and it is possible that Burr, who like Talleyrand had forsaken theology for politics, sensed in his guest a kindred instinct for nimbly "doubling one's choices" in that ever-shifting world. Indeed, Alexander Hamilton's biographer Chernow describes Burr as an "agile opportunist", a "chameleon who evaded clear-cut positions on most issues and was a genius at studied ambiguity" - a portrait recreated in the words put into his mouth by a recent broadway hit: "Talk less, smile more - don't let them know what you're against or what you're for." The loose friendship between the two statesmen, both notorious womanizers, lasted throughout the Frenchman's American exile: as late as 1796, Parton writes, Talleyrand was among the notabilities invited to a dinner party which Burr gave at his Philadelphia residence for the Mohawk chief Joseph Brant (cf. p. 204). - When the political climate in France changed after the fall of Robespierre and the threat of the guillotine receded, Talleyrand petitioned to the National Convention for permission to return. The intercessions of Madame de Stael and other friends proved successful. "On June 3, 1796, Talleyrand paid a visit to the French Minister to the United States, Pierre Auguste Adet, and received his passport. The last barrier had been hurdled" (Earl, p. 297). On 13 June, Talleyrand left Burr and the United States behind him, sailing back to Europe and an extraordinary career on the Danish vessel "Den Nye Prove" - "The New Enterprise". His host Burr would go on to serve as third U.S. Vice President, though his political career was to be ruined when he famously shot Alexander Hamilton in a duel, eight years hence. When the tables were turned and Burr himself was an exile in France in 1810, the affair proved to have frustrated his hopes of gaining access to Napoleon through his old acquaintance, who had also been a friend of his opponent's: "when Burr requested an interview, Talleyrand rebuffed him with a haughty note: 'General Hamilton's likeness always hangs over my mantle'" (Merrill/Endicott, p. 32). - A slight waterstain. Removed from an old collection; mounted on backing paper with the collector's bio-bibliographical annotation "Galerie hist[orique] des contemp[orains] VIII. 319b" (referencing the 8th volume of the said work, published in 1820).
¶ Cf. J. L. Earl III, "Talleyrand in Philadelphia, 1794-1796", The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, Vol. 91, No. 3 (1967), pp. 282-298. J. Parton, The Life and Times of Aaron Burr (Boston, 1867). R. Chernow, Alexander Hamilton (NY, 2004). J. Merrill/J. Endicott, Aaron Burr in Exile (Jefferson, NC, 2016).

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The roots of the Viennese Waltz: a complete collection in first editions
21

[Viennese Dance Music]. Altogether 200 engraved scores of waltzes, polkas, quadrilles... and other types of dance music. Vienna, Haslinger, Cranz, Spina and others, early to mid 19th century. Vienna, Haslinger, Cranz, Spina and others, early to mid 19th century.

EUR 35,000.00

An outstanding collection covering the entire relevant ouevre of Johann Strauss Father and Son in original editions, as printed for the works' first perfomances at various balls, festivities and for other occasions in Vienna. Comprises 150 printings of compositions by Johann Strauss I and 50 by Johann Strauss II, including his famous waltz "Wiener Blut".

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The seminal work of the father of Italian Egyptology
22

Rosellini, Ippolito. I monumenti dell' Egitto e della Nubia. Disegnati... dalla spedizione scientifico-letteraria Toscana in Egitto. Pisa, Niccolò Capurro, 1832-1844. Pisa, Niccolò Capurro, 1832-1844. 3 atlas vols. and 9 text vols. Atlas vols.: Royal folio (747 x 554 mm). Half-title, 395 engr. plates (of which 137 are in original hand colour). Contemp. green half morocco on seven raised bands with giltstamped cover borders, double giltstamped spine labels and elaborately gilt spine. Marbled endpapers. Text vols.: 4to (164 x 243 mm). With 18 folding plates and 44 full-page plates. Contemp. half vellum with ms. spine title and marbled covers.

EUR 150,000.00

Massive, extremely rare set of the "Monumenti" by Ippolito Rosellini (1800-43), the father of Italian Egyptology and one of the field's leading scholars of his age. The plates, many of which are splendidly coloured, depict Egyptian murals, architectural views, and plans of tombs. The monumental set, divided into antique, profane, and religious monuments, was the result of an Egyptian expedition undertaken in 1828 with his teacher and friend Jean François Champollion, jointly funded by King Charles X of France and Leopold II of Tuscany (to which latter ruler the entire work is dedicated). Together with the works of Champollion and Lepsius, this is one of the pre-eminent coloured-plate publications of the 19th century. - A little browned in places (more pronounced near end of 3rd vol.); two plates creased in the blank margins. Embossed library stamp of the Wigan Free Public Library on title page: one of the many luxury publications acquired by the mining town of Wigan in Lancashire in the late 1870s after the local surgeon Joseph Taylor Winnard (d. 1873) had bequeathed the sum of £12,000 to the municipal library. The library's most prominent visitor is probably George Orwell, who researched his "Road to Wigan Pier" there in 1936. The text volumes (in three departments: Monumenti storici, civili, and del culto) are bound in unsophisticated half vellum, an untrimmed and wide-margined set showing occasional foxing and marginalia. - Extremely rare; a single complete copy with all plates in auction records of the last decades (Sotheby's, 10 May 2011: £169,250).
¶ Ibrahim-Hilmy II, 182. Gay 2218. Hiler 759. Brunet IV, 1393. Not in Atabey or Blackmer.

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"to establish a general theory of the geomagnetic field deserving of the name"
23

Gauß, Carl Friedrich, German mathematician (1777-1855). 4 autograph letters signed. Göttingen, 1836 to 1849. Göttingen, 1836 to 1849. 25 Jan. 1836. 2 pp. Large 4to. - 27 Feb. 1839. 2 pp. Large 4to. - 28 Dec. 1841. 3½ pp. 8vo. - 6 Jan. 1849. 3 pp. Large 4to (altogether 10½ pp.). All written on bifolia; the first two letters bear seals with the autograph address on the reverse of the counter-leaf.

EUR 65,000.00

Collection of four long, unpublished letters spanning more than a decade, all to the Berlin physicist and geologist Georg Adolf Erman (1806-77), who had returned from a long voyage around the world and was in the process of publishing his findings ("Reise um die Welt durch Nordasien und die beiden Oceane", 5 vols. of history [1833-42] and 2 vols. of physics [1835-41, with atlas]). Gauss was able to draw on Erman's empirical observations about earth's magnetic field. All four letters begin with thanks for gifts sent by Erman, then develop into extensive scientific discussions which even touch upon Gauss's thermogalvanic experiments. Also, Gauss mentions his attempts to obtain books of Russian fiction. - In 1836 Gauss thanks Erman for presenting him with the 2nd part of his "Reise um die Erde" ("Ortsbestimmungen und Declinationsbeobachtungen auf dem festen Lande"): "This work contains a great wealth of facts. I am particularly interested in your magnetic observations and therefore am glad that you decided to include in this early volume your compass declinations with their results. These, in connection with other observations, will serve to supply the gap left by Barlow's map of declinations [...] But now I dearly look forward to the publication of the second part which is to contain the intensities and inclination readings. Hopefully we will then soon possess a general map for the horizontal intensity, which is devoutly to be wished. Indeed, as things stand now, the entire intensity in most cases is to be conceived merely as a unit of calculation at which one cannot directly arrive with any degree of precision, but which is a mere function of immediately observable elements, such as one rarely will find together in a single place, and even more rarely with the same degree of reliability; and, even more importantly, there are precious few occasions on which the entire intensity will be of any use at all; what is really needed are those very separate elements themselves. To arrange the three coordinates in such a fashion that one of them represents the whole intensity would seem to me, considering the present state of affairs, like wanting to draw up a star index in longitude and latitude only, omitting right ascension and declination. Indeed, at close examination even this comparison proves misleading, as an astronomer ultimately needs latitudes and longitudes for planets and comets so as to establish a general theory, whereas to establish a general theory of the geomagnetic field deserving of the name it is indispensable to disassemble the whole intensity back into its components. To be sure, this statement, which you must not take as an off-handed remark but rather as the result of long and thorough deliberation, cannot possibly be explained in a letter, but this much I can add: that I am fully satisfied as to the method by which the establishment of an exhausting General Theory is to be attacked [...] You may be interested to learn that our recent thermogalvanic experiments have already succeeded in so amplifying an electric current that it is capable of setting even the 25 pound rods in violent motion after passing through a wire of a mile's length [...]". - In 1839 Gauss thanks for a "postcard from Kamchatka" and for the "full communication of Erman's declination readings": "I will be most happy soon to receive also the corrected data of your intensities, although there is no hurry about that. I am merely making mention of a few of your observations in an article intended for the 3rd part of the Findings of the Magnetic Society, the first sheet of which is now in the press. Should your corrected calculations for these 16 locations [followed by a table of 16 cities, including St Petersburg, Kazan, Moscow, San Francisco, and Rio de Janeiro] have yielded intensity readings departing from those published by Major Sabine, I would be able to include these changes in the proofs of the said article [...] According to the most recent news I received from England, our hopes that the government there might do something splendid for the study of the geomagnetic field have suffered a severe blow; but this is not for want of the scholars' diligence, and no blame can be attached to them if the government fails to act [...]". - In late 1841 Gauss thanks for the gift of the 2nd volume of "Reise um die Erde" ("Inclinationen und Intensitäten, Declinationsbeobachtungen auf der See. Periodische Declinationsveränderungen"): "Regarding your observations I can only agree with Sabine's judgment that they contain the most substantial and valuable contribution to the knowledge of magnetism ever made by anybody. It gives me pleasure to see that the new reduction of intensity readings for Tahiti differs considerably from the earlier one, approaching that of Fitz Roy, and nearly duplicating that of Belcher. The large difference, according to Sabine, is mainly due to local interferences [...] I am much pleased with your plans for a journal aiming at acquainting us with Russia's literary productions, the more so because I myself during the past year or two have begun to study the Russian language and find this occupation most agreeable entertainment. The only thing that rather spoils this hobby for me is the difficulty in obtaining Russian books [...] However, l'Appetit vient en mangeant, and in particular I should like to have more in the way of belles lettres. My fiction department so far is limited to Krylov's Fables, a few volumes of Pushkin, and the complete collection of the writings of your Yakutian friend Bestuyev-Martinsky. All my endeavors to obtain something through the German booksellers have been in vain; a single shop did not refuse me outright, but demanded, apart from other onerous conditions (such as that one must accept the shipment regardless of when it arrives, and whatever the charge), the absolutely precise titles of the books ordered [...]". - In 1849 Gauss thanks Erman for sending him various works, including the "3rd volume of the historical section of your travel account", and criticises an article that appeared in the "Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science": "Observations all made from points upon or near a single line encircling the earth are quite as hopeless for such a purpose as would be the attempt to determine all the lunar elements and equations from the observations of a single week, even if they were made continuously from a hundred observatories. One might go even further and say that, to a degree, the observation data must not only encompass most of the earth's surface, but must also be more or less evenly distributed across the same [...] Altogether, the correction of my constants will certainly prove a tough nut to crack (for posterity), one that will turn out to be harder than the teeth of many a coming scientist [...]". - Clean and well-preserved throughout. Three letters are written in neat Latin handwriting, while that of 1841 is in German script, written somewhat overly carefully at first, then becoming more and more fluent and finally descending into a rather loose style.

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Very early photographic record of Constantinople by one of its first photographers, James Robertson: one of the largest and most significant Constantinople albums
24

[Turkey - early photographs.] Robertson, James D. Album of early photographs of Constantinople. Constantinople (Istanbul), 1853-1857. Constantinople (Istanbul), 1853-1857. Oblong folio (488 x 292 mm). 1 leaf (calligraphic ink title), 21 salt paper print photos including two panoramas. Near-contemporary Qajar lacquered papier-mâché binding, likely Persian, with court motifs on both panels, front flyleaf with sticker of "E. Picart, Papétier, 14 Rue du Bac, Paris". Pink and silver decorative floral endpapers.

EUR 50,000.00

Early, uncommonly extensive album of photographs of Constantinople (including some of Athens and Crimea), most signed by the photographer, James Robertson, created during his stay in Istanbul between 1853 and 1857. Of the 21 photographs present, no fewer than 14 show Constantinople and Scutari: they include a magnificent panorama of the city and across the Golden Horn, seen from Camp Daoud Pasha, sweeping views of the Sultan Ahmed Mosque, the Hagia Sophia and other mosques, the ancient hippodrome with its obelisks, views of the Seraglio, Nusretiye Mosque and Tophane Square, the Fountain of Ahmed III, Süleymaniye Mosque, street scenes, etc. Comparable albums with Constantinople photographs by Robertson are located at the Bibliothèque nationale de France (including the magnificent four-volume album of the Comte de Paris), the Getty Research Institute, Harvard (12 photographs, of which only a few show Constantinople), and other institutions with loose prints such as Princeton (four photographs, one of Constantinople) and State Library of Victoria (31 photos, of which only four are of Constantinople). In all this is one of the strongest albums known with Constantinople contents. The five photographs of Athens include a view of the Acropolis, the Tower of the Winds, the Erechtheion, the Parthenon, and the Temple of Hephaestus (Theseion); the latter two photographs are also in the large Robertson album at the Getty. Two final images show Sevastopol in Crimea (the docks and a large, cloth-backed panorama). Each image is accompanied on the opposite leaf by a handwritten French caption of the place recorded. - Far too little is known about the pioneering Scottish photographer James Robertson (1813-88), who moved at an early date to Constantinople to take the position of Chief Engraver for the Royal Mint, as part of the modernization of the country. He was related by marriage to the younger Felice Beato, a pioneer of 19th century photography, with whom he later opened a studio and recorded the Crimean war, the earliest conflict to be thus recorded. It is possible that the Beato brothers - Felice and Antonio - learnt their craft from Robertson; this album, however, pre-dates that partnership, as the photographs are signed by Robertson only. From 1853 onwards, a collection of Robertson's photographs was published with the title "Photographic Views of Constantinople" (by Joseph Cundall at the Photographic Union). - Upper cover shows severe chipping to polychrome lacquer; lower cover in better condition though also with defects. In excellent condition internally, photographs in general in good to very good prints, a few a little faded.
¶ N. Perez, Focus East: Early Photography in the near East (1839-1885), New York, 1988, pp. 210f. R. Taylor, Impressed by Light: British Photographs from Paper Negatives, 1840-1860, p. 363. J. Hannavy, Encyclopedia of 19th Century Photography, pp. 1200f.

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Original letters by the Sultan of Sulu to the Spanish governor about piracy, shipwrecks and Chinese merchants
25

[Sultanate of Sulu]. Pulalun Kiram, Mohammad, Sultan of Sulu. A collection of 17 official letters and other documents. Joló, Zamboanga and Pilas Island, all in the Sultanate of Sulu, 1856. Joló, Zamboanga and Pilas Island, all in the Sultanate of Sulu, 1856. 4to & 8vo. In total 40 ff. containing 44 written pp. One document written in Arabic script on Asian paper, with a red woodcut seal (33 x 40 mm, shaped like an upside-down scallop shell and with text in Arabic script); the others written in Spanish on European paper, many with 2 red round woodcut seals (62 & 34 mm diameter, with text in Arabic script, each dated 1238[?] [AH] [= 1822/23 CE], the date of establishment of the House of Kiram in the Sultanate of Sulu); one document including a dozen pencil sketches.

EUR 18,000.00

A collection of 17 official letters and other documents from the Islamic Sultanate of Sulu, situated mostly on the islands of the Sulu archipelago, between the Philippines and Borneo, now under Philippine jurisdiction. Most are letters by Mohammad Pulalun Kiram (who writes his name "Mujam-mad Pulalon"), Sultan of Sulu from 1844 to his death in 1862, written from his residence in Joló to the Spanish governor of the province of Zamboanga. A few are by Sultan Pulalun's Spanish secretary Vicente Narciso to the Governor. The document in Arabic script comprises a single written page (30 x 20 cm) with 17 lines of text written in black ink in a large clear hand. Two unsigned documents report information to the Prince of Sibugay. The documents provide information about piracy, the rescue of Dutch survivors of a shipwreck (a reference to a Captain "Jocobo Diang" of Amsterdam is presumably Jacob de Jong), trade and commerce (including information about Chinese merchants), and other matters. Sultan Pulalon, son of Sultan Mohammad Jamalul Kiram I, who had established the House of Kiram in 1823, signed an 1851 treaty with the Spanish authorities incorporating the Sultanate into the Spanish monarchy. In the 1840s, the Spanish governor general of the Philippines, Narciso Claveria y Zaldúa, had waged a successful campaign against the notorious Moro pirates who had devastated Spanish settlements in the Zulu archipelago and Mindanão, but as the British noted in April 1856, this had simply driven the pirates to prey on native settlements in northeast Borneo, also part of the Sultanate of Sulu, whose commerce was important to the British (cf. Leigh Wright, The Origins of British Borneo [1970], p. 23). Most of the items are dated, ranging from 13 May to 19 October 1856, another is written across a discarded shorter text dated 11 November 1856 (similar to a palimpsest, though the first text has not been erased), and some of the few undated items show watermarks matching or closely related to those in dated items. Only two items remain wholly undated (though probably written in 1856 as well). - Several of the items have been folded for sending and the document in Arabic script and two of the letters show remains of wax seals (the two letters with seals are also addressed on the outside as they had been folded). The document that can be dated 11 November 1856 or soon after is written in ink that has bled through and has also corroded a few small holes into the paper, but most are in very good condition, with only an occasional (mostly marginal) small tear or faint stain. A remarkable collection of primary documents from the Sultanate of Sulu in 1856.

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First edition, inscribed to César de Paepe
26

Marx, Karl. Das Kapital. Kritik der politischen Oekonomie [...] Erster... Band. [Author's presentation copy to César de Paepe]. Hamburg, Otto Meissner, 1867. Hamburg, Otto Meissner, 1867. 8vo (147 x 225 mm). Inscribed "Au citoyen Cézar de Paepe / salut fraternel / Karl Marx / Londres 3 Septembre 1868" on verso of title, one small pencil correction to the text, presumably by Marx. Contemporary half calf with giltstamped spine title and marbled covers. Stored in custom-made morocco case.

EUR 1,500,000.00

First edition. Inscribed not quite a year after the volume's publication to César de Paepe, the leader of the International Workingmen's Association (the First International) in Belgium: "Au citoyen Cézar de Paepe / salut fraternel / Karl Marx / Londres 3 Septembre 1868". Curiously, Marx had first written "avec les compliments de Karl Marx" before thinking better of such a comparatively bland dedication and erasing the just-penned words. As it had not yet settled and oxidized, the wiped-out iron gall ink must have appeared much fainter at the time of inscribing, and Marx wrote across the then slightly smudged area (which today appears considerably darkened) his much more cordial "brotherly greeting". - Indeed, Marx had good reason in early September 1868 thus to draw De Paepe to himself, assuring him of their fraternal affinity: three days later, on 6 September, the Brussels Congress of the First International was to begin, where the conflict with the French Proudhonists would come to a head. Marx did not attend, but nevertheless succeeded in pulling the strings from London. With De Paepe the principal leader of the Collectivist faction favoured by himself, Marx managed completely to sideline Proudhon's adherents and made the delegates accept several contentious resolutions confirming the advantages of collective, socialist ownership of the means of production and of land. Extracts from the machinery chapter of "Das Kapital" were read at the Congress (it is not too far-fetched to imagine it may have been from this very volume), and these quotations provided the theoretical basis for the resolution condemning the extortionist use of machinery by the capitalist class. Notably, the General Council also passed a resolution recommending that working men in all countries study Marx's "Kapital". - Educated as a physician in Brussels, the Belgian César de Paepe (1841-90) is considered, with Michail Bakunin, the co-founder of collectivist anarchism, the theory of which they formulated independently of each other in 1866. While De Paepe was an early disciple of Proudhon, he would often gravitate toward Marx's positions, and he was counted second only to Marx as a theoretician of the IWMA. In 1885 he was among the founders of the Belgian Socialist Party, though his attempts to reconcile anarchists and Marxists ultimately isolated him within the Socialist movement. Long a champion of universal suffrage in Belgium, he died of consumption, aged 49, only three years before it was in fact introduced. - Hailed as one of "the most influential pieces of writing in world history" (International Institute of Social History in Amsterdam), "Das Kapital" was the culmination of Marx's many years' work in the British Museum. This first volume was the only one published during Marx's lifetime, the later volumes, edited by Engels from the author's manuscript, appearing in 1885 and 1894. Marx's own annotated copy, along with the only surviving handwritten page of the Communist Manifesto, were inscribed on the prestigious UNESCO "Memory of the World Register" in 2013. - Inscribed copies of the first edition of "Das Kapital" are of legendary rarity: only two copies are known in institutional possession (Trinity College, Cambridge; Harry Ransom Center, Texas; the copy at Darwin House, Downe, inscribed to Charles Darwin, is the 1873 second edition). To these, research could add no more than three others, all of which surfaced in the trade within the last four decades. The present copy, hitherto unrecorded, was acquired directly from the estate of the Frankfurt lawyer Wilhelm A. Schaaf (1929-2015), a specialist in economic, commercial and insolvency law, in whose collection it rested for the last forty years. - A correction, presumably by Marx himself, is on page XII of the Preface, where "transatlantischen Oceans" has "trans" crossed through in pencil. Light toning throughout, with the odd brownstain near the beginning, a tiny tear to the top edge of p. 353f., but generally very well preserved.
¶ PMM 359. Rubel 633. Wheen, Marx, p. 1. Books That Made Europe, p. 238.

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67 studies of orchids
27

Maschek, Caroline, flower painter (1857-1938). 67 studies of orchids, each captioned with the... Latin name. Bohemia, 1885-1889. Bohemia, 1885-1889. Gouaches on paper. 316 x 241 mm. Partly dated and monogrammed by the artist.

EUR 48,000.00

The present works were commissioned by Baron Theodor Hruby von Gelenj (1826-1914) at Petschkau castle, where he assembled the largest and most important collection of orchids in Austria at the end of the 19th century. - Provenance: Countess Maria von Thurn-Valsassina, née Hruby von Gelenj (1924-96). A slightly smaller set from the same series, encompassing merely 59 gouaches, commanded $92,500 at Sotheby's NY on 18 Oct. 2011 (lot 922: property from the collection of Lilly & Edmond J. Saffra). Altogether, the artist is thought to have prepared some 300 watercolours of Baron Hruby's orchids.

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"... Success hangs by a thread..."
A rare letter from the Chinese Revolutionary and first President of the Republic of China, writing as Premier of the Kuomintang
28

Sun Yat-sen, Chinese revolutionary, first president and founding father of the Republic of China (1866-1925). Letter signed ("Sun Wen"). No place, 21 Oct. [1922]. No place, 21 Oct. [1922]. 2 pp. 4to. In a secretarial hand.

EUR 75,000.00

Sun was an avowed anti-monarchist, and played an instrumental role in the overthrow of the centuries-old Qing dynasty (the last imperial dynasty of China) during the years leading up to the Xinhai Revolution (1911). He went on to become the first president of the Republic of China, and later founded the Kuomintang of China (Nationalist Party of China) in 1919. - From 1923 to 1926 Sun and the Kuomintang used Guangdong (his hometown) as a base to challenge the warlords in the north, who controlled much of the nation. In this letter, at the beginning of that effort, Sun identifies the urgent need to reclaim Guangdong, and addresses his army's needs to an apparent supporter "Our troops have battled across thousands of miles, their food consumption is huge and resources are scarce. If it was not for the joint effort by supporters within the country and overseas and their generous donations, how could we have embarked on this great mission." He then goes on to note: "At this extremely critical moment where success hangs by a thread, we summon up our courage and lead all kindred spirits, each exerting the final effort towards the cause of overcoming the evildoers to settle the chaos". - Some soiling, particularly to margins, multiple small tears, some reinforced and repaired but not affecting text, a few chips to edges. Sun Yat-sen material remains exceedingly rare, only five letters have appeared at auction in the last 30 years.

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In Khabari Wadha with Ibn Saud:
the formation of the Kingdom in mostly unpublished photos
29

Mackay, Ulrich Sinclair Peter, RAF pilot (1904-1945). Two photo albums of private and operational (restricted)... photos of campaigns over the Gulf region and Iraq. Mainly Middle East, 1928-1931. Mainly Middle East, 1928-1931. Oblong 4to. 2 vols., together with Mackay's RAF Pilot Flying Log Book and his RAF Certificate. Contemporary sheepskin and cloth covered boards; ca. 220 photos of Middle Eastern locations and people, including many RAF aerial reconaissance images (as well as a small number of others showing various other subjects). Photos measure ca. 5 x 8 to ca. 16 x 20 cms.

EUR 45,000.00

An unusual, copious collection of rare original photos, assembled by a British airman who happened to be in the right places at the right time, with a quick eye for telling images and uncommonly good access to restricted documentation. The owner of these albums, the New Zealand-born RAF pilot U. S. Mackay, saw service in Arabia, Iraq and the Gulf area during the late 1920s and early 1930s, at the very time when Abdulaziz Ibn Saud was consolidating his rule over Hejaz and Nejd and striking down the Ikhwan tribal army's insurgency and their incursions into the neighboring British protectorates Iraq and Kuwait, which threatened his rule. In 1932, Ibn Saud would succeed in uniting his territories into a single state, forming the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. - Stationed with the 84B Squadron at Britain's Shaibah Air Base near Basrah, Mackay was one of the limited number of western officers well placed to witness at first hand the events leading up to the founding of the Kingdom. In his first album (whose tone is set by the opening photo on the pastedown, a large print of a Nejd riding camel), some twenty photographs - both private and rare army images - cover the arrival of the defeated Ikhwan leaders Faisal Al Dawish and Naif ibn Hithlain at the air base at Basrah after their surrender to the British on 10 January 1930 and their ensuing extradition to the King. Among this set is a fine, large group portrait of Ibn Saud with Hafiz Wahba and other retainers, together with the British officers and diplomats Hugh Biscoe, Charles Burnett and H. R. P. Dickson, taken on 22 January at the King's camp at Khabari Wadha, half-way between Basrah and Riyadh, where the captured rebels were subsequently flown to be handed over to their ruler (cf. V. Dickson, 40 Years in Kuwait, p. 80f. and plate 5; H. R. P. Dickson, Kuwait and her Neighbors, pp. 318 ff.). Several photos show the captured Shaikhs - the gaunt figure of Ibn Hithlain and the hunched one of Al Dawish, who was still labouring from the abdominal injury he had sustained at the Battle of Sabila the previous March; another shows H.M.S. Lupin in the Shatt-al-Arab, the ship where they were first detained. Numerous previously unknown photos show Ibn Saud's camp at Khabari Wadha: the royal tents, the King's luxury car, Arab retainers seated among British planes with their gyrfalcon, and Air Commodore Burnett in conversation with one of Ibn Saud's eldest sons. Another shows the "ar[r]ival of [the] Hejas Airforce", the English planes and pilots Ibn Saud had commissioned from the British government for what would be his new state. There are also photo reproductions of the pencil portraits which H. Stewart drew of the rebels at Shaibah during their surrender negotiations (cf. H. R. P. Dickson, plate opposite p. 260), as well as several of British officers. Among the many other noteworthy images in the album are street scenes in Baghdad, Basrah and other towns, British war ships in the Gulf (some identified in the captions), a flying boat over Kuwait and the Gulf, an Imperial Airways de Havilland Hercules at Shaibah, a British armoured car, Arab guides and sentries, "Two Arab Murder[er]s and Escort" before a tent, the flogging of a local overseen by British officers, and an excursion to the ruins of Baalbek in Syria, along with group photos of British squadron officers and NCOs stationed in Iraq and the Gulf during the time. Yet perhaps among the most intriguing of these albums' images are the large number of strategic aerial photographs taken either by Mackay himself or by specialist army staff on his squadron's reconnaissance flights, mostly restricted RAF imagery showing aerial views of cities (Basrah, Baghdad, the Ctesiphon Arch, Zubayr, Kut, Samarrah, Sulaymaniyah, among others), military operations ("Bombing Arab Villages Hammar Lakes" with the buildings blazing, bomb hits observed from the plane immediately above), desert fortifications and encampments (As-Sulam Fort and biplanes overflying Busaiya Fort, which had been attacked by the Ikhwan in the winter of 1927/8), etc. These aerial views - exclusively in large, well-defined prints - dominate the second album, where they are accompanied by crisp in-flight images of the various aircraft used by the British in the late 1920s and early 30s. - The collection includes Mackay's RAF Flying Log Book, documenting his ongoing flight training on various types of airplanes (ending with the entry "aircraft crashed" after "crazy flying practice" in 1931). As Mackay's RAF Certificate shows, he completed his basic flying training in 1927 with the assessment "might have done better if he had tried harder. Has done well in some subjects", though his Wing Commander thought him "an exceptionally good soldier". Mackay continued serving in the RAF as pilot and died at the end of WW2 of altitude sickness. He had been renowned for flying at extreme heights and when in charge of Spitfires refused to use pressure equipment. - A few of the loose photos have marginal tears or corner flaws, but overall are in excellent condition. An important ensemble providing first-hand views of Northern Arabia at a crucial time in its history, including rare documents of Anglo-Saudi diplomacy immediately before the founding of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, the majority entirely unpublished.

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"It is believed that Qatar will become one of the world's major producing countries"
30

Moore, Frederick Lee, jr. Origin of American Oil Concessions in Bahrein, Kuwait... and Saudi Arabia. [Princeton, 1951]. [Princeton, 1951]. Small folio (212 x 276 mm). (4), 56 pp. With a colour map. Original printed wrappers.

EUR 1,800.00

A thesis presented to the School of Politics and International Affairs, Princeton University, 1948, with appendices and additions 1951. This rare paper investigates "the story of the hidden wealth of Araby" at a time when a "gold-rush spirit pervade[d] the quest for Oil" and yet "the development of oil in the Near East [was] still in its infancy" (Preface). Chapters discuss the political and historical background to 1923, the oil options covering the Province of Hasa, the Neutral Zone, Kuwait, and Bahrein, and the development of the concessions in Bahrein, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia, including a section on the concession granted in 1935 by Sheikh Abdullah bin Jassim Al Thani, the Emir of Qatar, and subsequent development of the Qatar oil fields ("It is believed that Qatar will become one of the world's major producing countries"). - Lee Moore (d. 1982) entered Princeton in 1941, but his studies were interrupted by war service over the Atlantic in the Naval Air Corps. Returning to Princeton after the war, he earned his degree cum laude with the present thesis.
¶ OCLC 5187618. Not in Macro.

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