A 15th century artisan's recipe book
1

[Pigment recipes]. Collection of recipes for the preparation of dyes,... pigments, gilding, etc. [Probably Bohemia, c. 1480]. [Probably Bohemia, c. 1480]. 12mo (85 x 104 mm; leaf size 78 x 96 mm). 138 ff. (276 pp.), single column. German (and Latin) manuscript: black and red ink on paper, in Gothic cursive hands, partly rubricated and with pointing hands in the margin (including an 11-page text written in red throughout). Several quires of blank paper inserted by the binder before and after the manuscript. 17th c. vellum binding, sewn on 2 alum-tawed thongs laced through the joints, the parchment taken from a liturgical manuscript with red Lombardic initials and diamond-head music notes on a red staff ("Multum quidem ... ut mens sobria a labe ... munera Amen", hymn attributed to Gregory the Great). Remains of alum-tawed ties. Edges coloured in dark blue.

EUR 65,000.00

A remarkably early and copious collection of artisanal recipes of the late mediaeval and early modern period, mainly in German, almost entirely devoted to colours and gilding. On a total of 265 pages (not counting several interspersed pages of mathematical calculations), this pocket-sized manual presents a rich array of instructions by and for the artisanal practitioner. The manuscript comprises recipes in at least three different but obviously roughly contemporary hands, perhaps representing a small workshop, and was apparently compiled over a longer period of time from a variety of sources as well as from professional experience. The binding clearly post-dates the manuscript by two centuries, and the binder took little care over the proper collation of the gatherings. While the original arrangement of the various parts of this collection cannot be reconstructed with any certainty, it appears that their sequence was always somewhat haphazard, following the order of writers as well as available space in the book. Two lengthier sections are foliated 1 through 46 and, separately, 1 through 14 (with fol. 14 containing an intriguing, apparently incomplete table of anatomical terms - "Brust", "femur", "planta pedis" etc., and calculations, notes and more recipes on the unmarked ff. [15-16]). These sections (the quires of which are now jumbled) were obviously conflated almost from the very beginning, for they are preceded by an 8-leaf index which references the leaf numbers of both sections. Remarkably, this "registrum" is arranged by subject, with curly brackets and margin captions comprehending references to more than 200 recipes for individual colours ("gel", "viol[lett]", "grün") and substances ("laz[ur]", "cin[nober]", "gol[d]" etc) - evidence of the manual's eminently practical purpose. These indexed parts, however, account for less than half of the entire manuscript, which is concerned throughout with colour dyestuffs, pigments and paint from both plant and mineral sources, but also including gum arabic, gilding ("Bücher übergülden") and other uses of gold and silver colours, with the occasional reference to goldsmiths' techniques. Materials discussed include "sanguine draconis", "mermel steyn" (alabaster) and a wide variety of materials of which to make red, green, black, yellow, violet, blue and white. The 11-page text written in red ink includes recipes for red and other colours. Near the end we even encounter sections on fish and fishing (with numerous short entries), further pages on plants, glass and fruits, and also 13 pages on metals and metallic colours. - This collection is remarkable not only for its scope but also for its thematic coherence: while hundreds of mediaeval and early modern manuscripts containing artisanal recipes have survived, in most cases these constitute merely small parts of manuscripts on more general subjects; very few are exclusively devoted to the subject, and fewer still reach the length of this anthology (cf. the Colour ConText database hosted by the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science in Berlin, recording some 600 texts, and Mark Clarke's recent checklist "The Art of All Colours" [London 2001], recording about 400 mss., but not the present specimen). Indeed, the self-begetting, almost "literary" quality of many of these collections, whose recipes often can be traced from one anthology to another, sometimes down to the 18th century, has raised doubts as to whether many of them in fact reflect true artisanal routine or whether they had not taken on an existence independent of all practical experience (cf. Schießl, Die deutschsprachige Literatur zu Werkstoffen und Techniken der Malerei [Worms 1989], p. 15). Conversely, the practical arrangement of at least parts of the present manual, its comprehensiveness as well as its convenient size, would suggest we have here the rare case of a recipe book likely compiled by practicioners for their colleagues' handy reference. - The watermark of the main paper stock would appear to be a bull's head topped by a serpent coiled around a cross (though severely fragmented by 12mo folding and trimming), while the first and final quires show the Prague coat of arms. The assumption of a Bohemian provenance is supported by the ownership note on the first page: the "Bibliotheca Dietrichsteiniana" (as it is stated) was situated at Mikulov in Moravia, near the Austrian border. The Austrian nobleman Adam von Dietrichstein (1527-90), a powerful Catholic diplomat in the service of the Emperors, began building his remarkable library in the mid-16th century. In 1572 Maximilian II granted him the lordship of Mikulov. When the Habsburgs suppressed the Czech Protestants in 1620, the books confiscated from the Protestant nobility were added to what had already been a world-renowned library, making it the largest library in Moravia. It remained the property of the Princes of Dietrichstein until 1931, when a large proportion was dispersed in sales - including the present manuscript, which was auctioned by Gilhofer & Ranschburg in 1933. - First leaf with several small tears and a corner restored (obviously no later than the 18th century); a small marginal chip and tear in one later leaf (loss of a thumb tab in the fishing section). The occasional heading, leaf number or marginal note shaved, with paper slightly browned, but still in good condition.
¶ Gilhofer & Ranschburg, Auktion XI: Bibliothek Fürst Dietrichstein, Schloß Nikolsburg, Luzern 1933, p. 100, no. 503. Ulrich-Dieter Oppitz, Die deutschspr. Hss. der Fürsten Dietrichstein aus Nikolsburg/Mähren, in: Fata Libellorum. FS f. Franzjosef Pensel z. 70. Geburtstag, hg. von R. Bentzinger und U.-D. Oppitz (Göppinger Arbeiten zur Germanistik 648), Göppingen 1999, pp. 187-214, at p. 194.

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From one of the greatest German mediaeval libraries
2

Monastic devotional manuscript. Latin compendium containing an Antiphonal for the whole... liturgical year, a Hymnal, the Common of the Saints and a number of short texts on the Art of Dying. Central Germany (Erfurt), c. 1498. Central Germany (Erfurt), c. 1498. Latin ms. (brown ink) on paper. 258 leaves (watermark: Briquet 4895), complete (11th gathering misbound between 18th and 20th, corrected by a contemporary scribe). Single column, 17-24 lines in a single semi-cursive, legible German hand. Capitals striked in red, rubrics and small initials in red, larger initials (2-5 lines) in same in ornate penstrokes. Contemp. monastic binding of blindtooled pigskin (rollstamps of flowerheads, fleurs-de-lys and agnus dei within roundels and lozenges, enclosing a central panel of chevrons) over thick wooden boards sewn on 3 double thongs; original red-stained leather thong stitching at head and foot of spine; 5 small metal bosses on each board; remnants of single clasp with metalwork fittings; front board with original large paper title-label (discoloured).

EUR 45,000.00

A fine monastic manuscript from one of the greatest German mediaeval libraries, the Charterhouse of St. Salvatorberg in Erfurt, in an excellent state of preservation and in its original binding. Apart from its liturgical contents, it holds a number of versions of a rare text written by members of the Erfurt Charterhouse, one of which is evidently of great importance for the history of the text and its future study, and others which appear to be unique. - The volume contains the antiphons with some associated versicles, collects and hymns for the liturgical feasts of the entire year, opening with those for the feast of an apostle (f. 2r), and ending with that for an elect (f. 155r). Of special note here are the feasts of the saints from Germany and the neighbouring regions to the east: Ulrich of Augsburg, 4 July (f. 24v), Gereon of Cologne, 10 Oct. (ff. 76r & 77v), Elizabeth, queen of Hungary, 19 Nov. (ff. 85r & 104r), Stanislaus of Poland, 7 May, Wenceslaus of Poland, 28 Sept., and Ludmilla, the grandmother of Wenceslaus, 16 Sept. (ff. 149v & 150v); as well as a handful of Anglo-Saxon missionaries and saints, including Oswald, king of Northumbria, 5 Aug. (f. 39r); and the two SS. Ewalds of Northumbria who died in Westphalia in 692, 1-3 Oct. (fol. 70r). A hymnal for the Temporal follows on f. 120v, with the same for the Sanctoral from f. 133v. After these come prayers for various feasts and saint days (f. 155v), as well as prayers ascribed to Pope Gregory or addressed to the Virgin Mary, which promise their readers reduced time in purgatory (ff. 170v & 176r); and others for the dead (f. 177v). The Common of the Saints opens on f. 182v and ends on f. 231v. Around 1500, a short series of closely related devotional texts were added on gatherings at the end of the volume. The first three are longer or shorter variants of a version of a well-known text on how to achieve a happy death, the "Modus disponendi se ad mortem", in the extended version of a previously unidentified Carthusian writer (cf. R. Rudolf, Ars moriendi, 1957, pp. 75-82). All open with variants of the incipit "confitebor tibi clementissime deus pater multitudinem magnitudinem et enormitatem". The text is apparently unedited. Other mss. containing a version of this Carthusian version of the work are recorded at the Augsburg, Munich and Graz university libraries as well as at the library of the monastery at Stams and the Slovenian and Austrian national libraries. The author of this text is normally given only as “N” (for "Nomine"), and this has led academic consensus to state that the author is unknown and undated. However, one of the Augsburg mss. names its author as "Johannes" and dates it to 1481, and the Vienna ms., while giving no name, dates the text to 1476. In addition, a lengthy version of the text (closely corresponding to that of ff. 234r-236r of the present ms.) was published in the "Neujahrsblatt für Basels Jugend" for 1838 (pt. II, pp. 6-7), naming the author as "Ego frater Martinus indignus nomine carthusiensis ordinis". Clearly the arguments for authenticity are neither strong nor straightforward, and hitherto there have been no indications where the text might have been composed. The present manuscript casts a great deal of light on these questions, and promises to cast much more in the future: here, a lengthy introduction on f. 240r offers the date of the copying of one of these texts as 1500, and notes the involvement of a Carthusian monk named "Jacobus Volradus", as well as naming the author as Johannes "ordinis carthusiensis et monachus professus domus eiusdem ordinis propter erffurdiam" (f. 240r), and again on f. 234r as Johannes "indignus nomine carthusiensis ordinis monachus et sacerdos professus domus sancti salvatoris". On each of the occasions when Johannes is named, a few centimetres of following text which clearly gave more information on him are lightly covered with ink. With sensitive handling and careful study these might prove readable (note in particular f. 234r, where individual letterforms are easily discernible beneath the ink panel in normal light). However, significant questions remain for the future student: the first and shortest version of the text here is ascribed to "Frater Marcellinus indignus quidam nomine Carthusiensis ordinis monachorum et sacerdos professus" (f. 233v). This clearly agrees, albeit in a slightly garbled form, with the printed identification of Martinus as the author, despite the fact that the text printed in 1838 in connection with the Charterhouse at Basel corresponds here to a version named as the work of Johannes. There may have been two authors who worked together, or one who revised the others text soon after it was finished. This manuscript appears to be the only surviving copy to name the main potential author as a member of the Carthusians of Erfurt, offers further details on him for future students of it, and with the inclusion of multiple copies of different lengths (and perhaps by two different authors) will almost certainly add significantly to our knowledge of the composition and earliest stages of this text. - Following these are three related tracts: the first opens "Sed ut dictum est ut tua iusticia" (ff. 254r-257r), the second with "Et pro omnibus volo omni modo manere" (ff. 257v-258v), the latter also mentioning Jacobus Volradus. The third opens "Et ego frater Marcellinus idem et eandem protestationem cupio et desidero" (ff. 257v-258r), again noting Marcellinus as its author. None appears in the vast In Principio database, and these may well be unique to this manuscript. - Provenance: 1. Library of the Charterhouse of St. Salvatorberg, Erfurt, Germany (contemporary and late 16th c. ownerships on pastedown and beginning of main text). Founded in 1372, the Erfurt charterhouse quickly attracted wealthy Thuringian benefactors. The Carthusian order led the way in biblical scholarship in the 15th century, and the library at Erfurt grew rapidly, coming to be one of the most important cultural repositories in Germany. It was dispersed in 1803. - 2. John Mozley Stark (fl. 1851-88), bookseller of Hull and London, who would have acquired the book on one of his frequent buying trips to the continent and who offered this in his List no. IX (1856) as no. 105, for 12 shillings. - 3. Gillyatt Sumner (d. 1877), antiquarian and collector of Woodmansey near Beverley (his ownership on front flyleaf, dated 1857). Sold for £5 in his 1877 Beverley house sale (lot 576). - 4. Charles Edward Forster (1837-1904) of Driffield, East Yorkshire (his ownership, dated 1894, on front flyleaf). - 5. By descent to his son Edward F. Forster (1875-1931), with his ownership (dated 1925) pencilled below. - 6. Adrian Massey of Hull (his mid-20th-c. ownership on flyleaf). - Extensive description available upon request.

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3

Rutilius Namatianus, Claudius. De laudibus urbis, Etruriae, et Italiae. (Bologna, in aedibus Hieronymi de Benedictis, 1520). (Bologna, in aedibus Hieronymi de Benedictis, 1520). 4to. (40) SS. Papered marble spine.

EUR 4,500.00

Editio princeps of the "Itinerarium" ("De Reditu Suo") of the 5th century Roman Gaul poet Rutilius. "On the reverse of the title page is a poem by the editor Giambattista Pio to Pope Leo X, ending on fol. 4v; text begins on 5r. A very rare edition, apparently the first" (cf. Schweiger). The poem in elegiac meter describes a coastal voyage from Rome to Gaul in 416. The solid literary quality of the work, and the flashes of light it throws across a momentous but dark epoch of history, combine to give it exceptional importance among the relics of late Roman literature. Rare, last copy auctioned in 1954.- A well-preserved copy.
¶ Edit 16, CNCE 47666. BM-STC Italian 594. Schweiger II.2, 859f.

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On the Education of Tudor Women: A Fabled Rarity in its First Edition
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Vives, Juan Luis. De institutione foeminae Christianae [...] libri tres, mira... eruditione, elegantia, brevitate, facilitate, plane aurei, pietateq[ue] & sanctimonia, vere Christiani, Christianae in primis Virgini, deinde maritae, postremo viduae, novo instituendi argumento longe utilissimi. Quid autem singuli libri toto opere contineant, sequenti pagella, videre est. (Antwerp, Michiel Hillen van Hoochstraten for Franz Birckmann, 1524). (Antwerp, Michiel Hillen van Hoochstraten for Franz Birckmann, 1524). 4to (140 x 195 mm). (96) ff, numbered in an early hand (omitting f. 77). Elaborate woodcut border on title-page, featuring elephant and cherubim, and with several large woodcut initials in text. Bound in early limp vellum with manuscript title on spine; edges stained red. 17th century portrait of Vives added to inner cover. Lengthy, exegetical early annotations to the first book 'De Instituenda Virgine' along with readership markings. A very good copy from the Harrach Library (Austria/Madrid), with 19th century stamp on title.

EUR 125,000.00

Very rare first edition of "the first systematic study to address explicitly and exclusively the universal education of women", commissioned by Henry VIII's wife, Catherine of Aragon, who was at the time rearing her own daughter, Mary Tudor. Translated and adapted by numerous followers, Vives' treatise would go on to be read in almost every European vernacular, often by women themselves. The first edition, however, is rare in census and in commerce - and contains passages, particularly on chastity and intellectual capacity, which were entirely re-written in later incarnations. A fundamental document for the role of women in Early Modern society - and particularly in Early Modern England - this copy is especially remarkable for its state of preservation. An early reader of Vives has here added his own comments to the chapters on the seclusion of maidens and examples of feminine virtue. - "De Institutione Foeminae Christianae" consists of 3 books, one for each stage of woman's life: maidenhood, marriage, and widowhood. In his preface to Queen Catherine, Vives quotes Aristotle to the effect that states which do not provide for the education of women deprive themselves of a great source of their prosperity; yet as Charles Fantazzi points out, Vives is in fact here caught in a delicate double bind, "insistent on a subordinate, submissive role for women, the text must take care to expound its message not only without alienating the queen but rather, indeed, with the goal of winning her favour." Despite its dedication and although Vives specifically adapts his prose style for a female readership, the treatise is hardly pro-woman: "the 'Education' is determined to be both a reference book for men on how to control their women, as well as an edifying treatise for women to absorb as a source of proper behaviour" (Kolsky). Nevertheless, Vives' praise of women's intellectual capacity and his advocation of some form of universal learning for females are viewed as landmarks for modern historians of women and gender. - According to Fantazzi, "'De Institutione' enjoyed an enormous popularity and was generally regarded as the most authoritative statement on this subject throughout the sixteenth century, especially in England, where it found favor with Catholics and Protestants alike. There can be no denying that merely by attaching such importance to the education of women, Vives laid the groundwork for the Elizabethan age of the cultured woman." It was rapidly translated into English, enjoying some nine editions in that language during the 16th century alone (cf. Higginbotham, p. 69). According to Pollie Bromilow, the dozens of vernacular translations were partly aimed at women themselves, who had no knowledge of Latin; and thus a large segment of its readership during the 16th century was in fact female. Appearing in an undated edition as early as 1528 or 1529, the English translation is rather an adaptation of Vives' text begun by Thomas More but completed by his household tutor, William Hyrde, who must have used the present edition in its preparation. - In 1538 Vives brought out a revised Latin edition reflecting many changes to the original text. This is the edition most commonly cited by scholars, probably thanks to its greater availability. The sections on maidens and the preservation of maidenhood (in all its meanings), however, were substantially re-written - notably, treating many of the same subjects which interested the annotator of the present copy! Chapter 6, on virginity, for example, "was subjected to a complete revision, so that it bears little resemblance to the first published version. It is obvious that Vives struggled over the proper approach to this topic. In the original version, he suddenly abandons his more discursive style for a rather personal and, one might add, paternalistic tête-á-tête with a young woman" (Fantazzi, p. 18). Vives' views on women's intellectual capacities also develop between the two editions. - At the outbreak of the Reformation Vives was a close friend of Erasmus, who had commissioned him to write a commentary on Augustine's "City of God" in 1521. Perhaps seeking refuge from the political and religious turmoil of Europe, Vives turned his attention to England from this point onward. He dedicated his edition of "De Civitate Dei" to Henry VIII in 1522, and already in May of 1523 was able to present a manuscript of his "De Institutione Foeminae Christianae" to Queen Catherine in person. At Henry's court he grew close to the circle of Thomas More and produced a further educational treatise, "De Ratione Studii Puerilis". Thanks to his growing opposition to Henry VIII's divorce proceedings, however, Vives was placed under house arrest by Cardinal Wolsley from February to April 1528, and upon his release sensibly fled the country - only to return briefly later that year in the role of Catherine's legal adviser. - Provenance: later stamp of the Harrach Library on title-page. The collection originated as the personal library of Graf Ferdinand Bonaventura von Harrach, Austrian envoy to Spain (1637-1707), and explains the characteristically Spanish binding on the present example. Ferdinand's son Aloys followed in his father's footsteps; but after his death in 1742 the collection was transferred back to the remaining Harrach family in Vienna. Finally, the collection wound up in the family castle 'Schloss Bruck an der Leitha', in Lower Austria. We have handled numerous other Harrach copies, which seem to have formed a cohesive 'personal reference library' of 16th and 17th century works for this seventeenth century statesman. - A very good copy. OCLC shows just four copies in American institutions: Harvard, the Massachusetts Center for Renaissance Studies, Yale, and the Huntington.
¶ Nijhoff/Kronenberg 2167. Adams V 951. Brunet V, 1333. Estelrich 136. Cf. also Fantazzi's introduction to a modern translation, The Education of a Christian Woman: A Sixteenth-Century Manual (U Chicago, 2007). Kolsky, Making Examples of Women: Juan Luis Vives' The Education of a Christian Woman. Higginbotham, The Girlhood of Shakespeare's Sisters: Gender, Transgression, Adolescence (U Edinburgh, 2013). Bromilow, "An Emerging Female Readership of Print in Sixteenth-Century France?", French Studies (2013) Vol. 67, pp. 155-169.

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Melanchthon on Marriage
5

Melanchthon, Philipp, humanist and reformer (1497-1560). Autograph letter signed ("Philippus"). [Wittenberg, 19 March] 1530. [Wittenberg, 19 March] 1530. Folio. 1 p. With autogr. address and traces of seal.

EUR 28,000.00

To Johannes Weber, priest in Neustadt an der Orla, praising him for a decision in a matter of matrimony and giving him further advice: the marriage of Georg Jüngkling and Else Moser is declared invalid; Jüngkling must separate from her as long as the fate of her first husband remains uncertain. However, for the time being he must not remarry, and the marriage will become valid if it is proved that the first husband is dead: "S[alutem] D[ico] | Bene facis, quod con[s]tanter attingis controversias matrimoniales. De negocio d. georgii sic sencio[:] Quod illud matrimonium contractum, cum mulier incerta esset de vita, ac voluntate viri prioris, qui ipsa consenciente abiit, sit irritum. Est igitur liber georgius. Sed movet me scandali racio, ne statim concedam ei ducere aliam uxorem. Agendum prius est per magistratus, cum illa muliere, aut per nos cum amicis mulieris, ut res exploretur de vita prioris mariti certo. Si ipsa mulier volet abire ad priorem maritum, non detineas eam, quia hoc secundum coniugium non est iure contractum. Habes meam sentenciam, quam te rogo, ut ita modereris, ne plus offensionum ex hac re oriatur [...] Prohibebis etiam, ne georgius et illa mulier, re inexplorata, redeant ad se mutuo. Sed si consentit virum esse mortuum, scandali caussa, velim georgium hanc mulierem re[tin]ere". - The background is explored in Luthers Briefwechsel, vol. V, note to no. 1494: Else Moser had been married to the gunsmith Hieronymus Malter, who had fought in the service of King Louis of Hungary and had been taken prisoner at the Battle of Mohács in 1526. A letter written by Malter, requesting his wife to visit him in Hungary, where he was being held prisoner of war, arrived only in 1529, shortly after she had remarried. Thus, it had to be determined whether or not the first husband was still alive. - Slightly dust-soiled and some edge damage; slight tears to folds remargined.
¶ Melanchthons Briefwechsel (ed. H. Scheible), vol. IV (Stuttgart 2007), p. 878.

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This Testament shall be Luther's German Testament: Luther's Definitive Text
6

Luther, Martin. Das Newe Testament Mar. Luthers. Wittenberg, (Hans Lufft), 1530. Wittenberg, (Hans Lufft), 1530. 8vo (130 x 185 mm). (328) ff. (A-Z8, a-s8). With woodcut title border, 36 full-page woodcuts (including 3 repeats) and woodcut initials. Contemporary dark brown full calf, blindstamped with tendril designs framing a crucifix (upper cover) and four rows of tendril rolls (lower cover). Remains of clasps; spine on 3 raised bands, professionally repaired.

EUR 75,000.00

Exceptionally rare impression of Luther's New Testament in German, the original edition of the last text he issued before incorporating it into his first complete German Bible of 1534. Luther's first edition of the German New Testament, famously published in September 1522, had been a single-handed effort, the work of no more than eleven intensely laborious weeks which he had spent in hiding at the Wartburg. An expensive folio production, it nevertheless sold out in less than three months. During the following years Luther had moved on to tackle various books of the Old Testament, for the preparation of which he employed the help and advice of several friends whose knowledge of Hebrew he felt to be superior. In 1529 however, as part of his work towards a complete German Bible, he meticulously revised (with the support of Melanchthon) his earlier version of the New Testament, and the present edition went forth at Frankfurt's 1530 Easter Book Fair. For the first time it appeared in the pocket-size octavo format, containing several new woodcuts by Georg Lemberger which maintained the style of the Lucas Cranach illustrations. Notably, the woodcut of St. Matthew is a portrait of Luther himself. The 25th illustration of the Apocalypse introduces a surprisingly topical slant, picturing Gog and Magog as the Turkish army which had besieged Vienna the previous year: St. Stephen's Cathedral is clearly visible, and the city wall bears the inscription "Wien", lest even the most obtuse of readers miss the point (indeed, a marginal note in the text opposite spells out the identification). As for the edition's textual changes, "the improvements were grammatical, syntactical, and stylistic in nature, but often were also theologically motivated. In particular, the changes to the prefaces are of theological importance: Luther expanded the prologue to the First Epistle to the Corinthians; the Revelation's introduction was expanded eightfold and given a wholly new character, which was now closer to a true commentary - or rather to a polemic which drew its incisiveness from its capacity to bring up to date the interpretation of the Holy Scripture" (cf. Reinitzer, p. 153). Luther's translation "was of vital importance to the progress of the Reformation, giving a new impetus to the study of the scriptures in the vernacular all over Europe. It also was to have as profound an influence on the development of the German language as the King James Bible later had on English" (PMM 51). The verso of the title page bears Luther's sardonic warning to piratical printers and competing translators: "I beg all my friends and foes, my masters, printers, and readers, let this New Testament be mine. If they lack one, let them make one for themselves. I know full well what I am doing, as I am well aware of what others are doing, but this Testament shall be Luther's German Testament; for there is not measure nor end to fault-finding and second-guessing." The demand for the book proved enormous: by the time Luther's German Bible was published in 1534, over 80 editions of his New Testament had appeared, and by the time of his death the reprints numbered at least 330. Even the original 1530 Testament exists in two collations with three different title pages, all equally rare: earlier that the same year, the printer Lufft had produced a 412-leaf Testament with a significantly narrower printed space, which he then reissued with a changed title woodcut. The title page of the present, final variant, re-set with a wider printed space and a title border showing tendril-entwined columns at the sides and medallions at the top and bottom, is the one pictured in Reinitzer (fig. 81). - Insignificant browning and occasional light fingerstaining, with a few 17th or 18th century underlinings in brown crayon and occasional annotations in an early 18th century hand. The first of the final endpapers has writing on both sides, containing diary entries for the years 1731 to 1733. These notes (by one Johann Georg Rüger from Zell near Schweinfurt in Lower Franconia) are not without interest, as they record events such as the writer's unexpected assistance at a birth ("Heut tato den 17 Junii 1731 hab ich in schwein furth Ein Kint müsen heben, Martin Albrecht, ich Johann Georg Rüger"), the burial of the local shepherd (noting the pallbearers by name, as well as the passage from the Epistle to the Romans read at the funeral), or the transferral of the local priest and the arrival of the new one (noting the passage from the Acts of the Apostles read by Pastor Johann Englert at the investiture, as well as the writer's own participation in the ceremony as a trumpeter). A later pencil ownership ("Johann Valentin Hoffman 1779") in an uneducated hand on the verso of the final index leaf opposite. - No copy in auction records since 1950. VD 16 lists only two copies in libraries (Coburg and Wolfenbüttel, to which Pietsch adds a copy in Bamberg, as well as incomplete copies in Berlin and Hamburg.
¶ VD 16 B 4400. Benzing 1530.3. Pietsch 34. Reinitzer, Biblia deutsch, no. 85 (with fig. 81). Panzer 77, 14. Bindseil VI, p. XV, e15. Muther, Bilderbibeln 255; Bücherillustration 1609. OCLC 258150473. Not in Bibelslg. Württemberg (but cf. Abt. 2, vol. 1, E 232). Not in Darlow/Moule. Cf. Ursprung der Biblia Deutsch (Exhibition cat., Stuttgart 1983), IVC 2, no. 6.

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For these Jews are not Jews, but devils incarnate who curse our Lord
7

Luther, Martin, theologian and reformer (1483-1546). Autograph letter signed ("Martinus LütheR D"). [Wittenberg, ca 1 Sept. 1543]. [Wittenberg, ca 1 Sept. 1543]. Folio (200 x 307 mm). 2 pp. German manuscript (brown ink) on paper (watermark: letter F in circle).

EUR 450,000.00

An extensive, uncommonly well-preserved letter to Georg Buchholzer (1503–66), Provost of St Nikolai in Berlin, regarding the latter’s altercation with the Brandenburgian court preacher Johann Agricola from Eisleben (1492–1566, also known as “Magister Eisleben”) about the treatment of the local Jews. Prince Elector Joachim II, who in 1539 had introduced the Reformation to Brandenburg and whose tolerant politics toward Jews enraged the population, had long desired a reconciliation between Luther and his former disciple Agricola, and he must have suspected that Provost Buchholzer was poisoning Luther’s mind against his court preacher. Buchholzer therefore wrote to Luther requesting an interpretation of some Biblical verses by which Agricola justified his pro-Jewish stance, and in his answer Luther insists that Buchholzer has done well to preach against the Jews and shall continue to do so, ignoring the habitual liar Agricola: “Grace and Peace. My dear Provost! I must be brief with writing, for the sake of my weak head. You are aware that you have no previous association with me, nor I with you, other than that you recently wrote to me asking for an explanation regarding several statements. And even if you were to write me many things about M. Eisleben, how could I believe you alone? For whoever says that you or anyone in Berlin or in all of Brandenburg is inciting me against Eisleben, if he says so unwittingly, may God forgive him, but if he says it knowingly, then he is a roguish liar, as well as M. Eisleben himself has lied frequently, here in Wittenberg. M. Eisleben needs nobody to incite me against him; he himself is much better at that, much better than anyone whom he might suspect of such dealing. He knows that full well. [...] In my opinion, he will give up his life before he gives up his lying. – You have preached against the Jews and fought serious battles over that with the Margrave. [...] And you were quite right to do so. Stand fast and persevere! The words against you which you quoted to me, allegedly protecting the Jews, I will not hope to be true, nor shall I believe that M. Eisleben ever will preach or ever has preached such. I do not yet consider him so deeply fallen. May God prevent him! [...] For then M. Eisleben would not be the Elector’s preacher, but a true devil, letting his sayings be so shamefully misused to the damnation of all those who associate with Jews. For these Jews are not Jews, but devils incarnate who curse our Lord, who abuse His mother as a whore and Him as Hebel Vorik and a bastard, this is known for certain. And anyone who is capable of eating or drinking or associating with such a foul mouth is a Christian as well as the devil is a saint. [...] You may show this letter to whomever you wish. I do not know, nor do I care, who wrote the other three letters from Wittenberg to Berlin. You will undoubtedly confess this to be the first letter you ever received from me. For your name and person were previously unknown to me [...]” (translated). - Luther had apparently forgotten that several years previously, in late 1539, he had answered a letter of Buchholzer’s inquiring about Catholic rites still in use in Reformed Brandenburg. More notably, although Luther is writing to a fellow scholar, this letter is written in German so as that the recipient may show it “to whomever he wishes” – that is to say, to the Elector himself, thus providing Buchholzer with a writ of protection against any suspicion which Joachim may harbour against him. - The Hebrew words “Hebel Vorik” (vanity and emptiness) are taken from Isaiah 30:7. They were part of a Jewish prayer in which Jews thanked God for having made them different from those peoples who worshipped “Hebel Vorik”, though Luther construed the words as a code for Jesus Christ. - Luther’s anti-Judaism had not always been this rabid – as a young man he had spoken out judiciously against the traditional defamation of Jews and against all forms of forcible conversion – but he soon grew increasingly bitter, and by 1543 his attitude was one of undisguised loathing. His most notorious antisemitic pamphlet, “On the Jews and Their Lies”, was published only months before the present letter was written. With the same rhetorical skill with which he had previously ridiculed the papacy he now invoked a grotesque abhorrence of Judaism. As an embodiment of his sentiments in his later years, demonstrating how precisely the antisemitic church politics and discourse of the 1540s matched Luther’s instructions, the letter has been quoted or paraphrased by several important biographies of the Reformer (cf. M. Brecht, Luther, vol. 3 [1987], p. 344; most recently: L. Roper, Luther [2016], p. 532 n. 33). - Less than two years later, in a letter dated March 9, 1545, Luther would write to Elector Joachim II directly, warning him against the “tricks” of the Jews, in whom he is said to have too much confidence, adding that he is “glad that the Provost [Buchholzer] is so severe on those Jews, which is a proof of his loyalty to your Grace; and I encourage him to continue in the path he has chosen”. - Condition report: several corrections in the text by Luther’s own hand. Date of receipt noted by Buchholzer at the foot of the verso page: “Received by me in Berlin on Wednesday after St Egyd [5 September] anno etc. 43.” Slightly browned and brownstained throughout; traces of contemporary folds. Not noticeably wrinkled; no significant edge tears; a beautifully preserved specimen. - Provenance: before 1914 nothing more of the letter was known than the words branding Agricola an incorrigible liar (“will give up his life before he gives up his lying”), which Buchholzer had hurled at his adversary during a disputation as late as 1562, offering to show him the passage in Luther’s letter. In the early 19th century, the editors of Agricola’s writings confessed that such a letter could not be found (cf. B. Kordes, Agricola’s Schriften möglichst vollständig verzeichnet [Altona 1817], p. 393: “To my knowledge, this letter does not exist”). Only in 1914 was it discovered in the collection of Baron Heinrich von Hymmen (1880–1960), and in the same year the theologian G. Kawerau published it in the appendix to volume 15 of Luther’s letters. It was still in the Hymmen collection in 1947 when the critical Weimar edition published it, based on a photograph. The Hymmen family is known to have supported the Protestant cause: during the Nazi era, Heinrich placed his Unterbach castle at the disposal of the illegal Confessing Church; the theologian Johannes Hymmen was Vice President of the “Evangelischer Oberkirchenrat” from 1936. The letter first surfaced in the trade more than three decades ago (Stargardt 630 [1983], lot 1238: DM 172,270 including premium and taxes; remarkably, that same year a four-page Luther manuscript [Z&K 2/II, 1856] commanded no more than DM 10,000). The letter has since rested in the private collection from which we recently acquired it.
¶ Luther, Werke: Kritische Gesamtausgabe, Briefwechsel vol. 10 (Weimar 1947), no. 3909 (pp. 388-391). First published in: Enders-Kawerau XV, no. 3309a (pp. 359-362). In modernized spelling: Kawerau, "Ein Brief Luthers an den Propst von Berlin, Georg Buchholzer", in: Schriften des Vereins für die Geschichte Berlins 50 (1917), pp. 430-436.

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8

Agricola, Johannes, reformer and associate of Martin Luther (1494-1566). Autograph letter signed. N. p. o. d. Oblong 8vo (206 x 107 mm). 1 p.

EUR 12,500.00

To a mayor: "Günstiger her burgermeister schwager, weil canzeley gewonlich jeder zeit copeyschriefften den parten von den ausgebrachten befhelichen, zugestelt werden, nimpt mich wunder, warumb der v. Holzendorff die befheliche zu sehen begheret. Achte demnach man erpiete sich ime wegen des stadtschreibers gebhuer abschriefften darvon zuzustellen, unnd die quittungenn wolle man auch auffsuchen. Etwa nach mittags sollen gezeigt werden, die ich vor meine person darzu berichten wollen, doch auff vorbesserung der anderen gestellet, unnd uberschickt euch des von Holzendorffs selbst ubergebene rechnung auch andere brieffliche urkunden zu derselben sache ergangen, wollen die wol vorwaren lassen. Wunsche euch einen guten morgen [...]". - Browned due to paper. Extremely rare.

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9

Rollenhagen, Georg, poet and educator (1542-1609). Letter signed ("Georg Rollenhagen / der Schulen Rector... / und seyne Collegen"). Magdeburg, 26. II. 1580. Magdeburg, 26. II. 1580. Folio 2 pp. on bifolium. With integral address leaf and papered seal.

EUR 6,500.00

Writing as director of the Cathedral school to the mayor and council of Kitzingen, intervening on behalf of his student Abraham Dinckel, whose scholarship he suggests should be renewed. Dinkel is said to have been attending his school for four years and intends to prolong his studies "if only he could find more convenient access to the necessary clothing and books [...] Whilst said Abraham Dinckel has behaved himself honourably and assiduously throughout his time with us, we therefore do not doubt that he will achieve something useful if he thus continues here, as it becomes us to testify for the truth and look after young students and especially our the young pupils [...]". - Slight tear to central fold. Provenance: Stargardt, 19 Sept. 1992, lot 63.

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10

Fontana, Giovanni (1540-1614) and Maderno, Alessandro, Papal architects. Autograph document signed. [Rome], 15. IV. 1597. [Rome], 15. IV. 1597. 4to (280 x 205 mm). 1 p.

EUR 3,500.00

Maderno confirms having received from Giovanni Reatino the sum of 244 scudi, which he has given his uncle Giovanni Fontana toward the building of the Cava Clementina ("a bon conto de la Cava Clementina"). The receipt is counter-signed by Fontana himself ("io Giovanni Fontana approvo quanto di sopra"). - The "Cava Clementina" was a project to canalize the river Velino near Reate, commissioned by Pope Clement VIII between 1596 and 1602 and undertaken by Maderno and Fontana. - Giovanni Fontana was the elder brother of the architect Domenico Fontana (1543-1607), Alessandro Maderno was their nephew and the brother of the architect Carlo Maderno (1556-1629) and the sculptor Stefano Maderno, as well as the uncle of the architect Francesco Borromini. Apart from Gian Lorenzo Bernini, the Fontana-Maderno-Borromini family of architects, originally hailing from Ticino, were the most important builders of Baroque Rome. They not only worked on St. Peter's Basilica, but also on many other Roman churches and palaces, and their works have shaped the face of the Eternal City. Fontana, known as one of the leading hydraulics engineers of his age, was responsible for a great number of Roman wells and Papal projects in water engineering (river regulation, aqueducts, irrigation of the Vatican gardens). - Creased, with traces of folds; some stains; occasional ink corrosion.

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The first opera in the history of music
11

Rinuccini, Ottavio. La Dafne. Florence, Giorgio Marescotti, 1600. Florence, Giorgio Marescotti, 1600. 4to. (24) pp. With armorial woodcut to title page and printer's device to verso of final leaf. Modern half vellum with handwritten spine title and marbled covers using old material.

EUR 25,000.00

Exceptionally rare first publication of the libretto of the first opera in musical history, also the first opera libretto ever printed. The music by Jules Caccini and Jacopoto Peri, composed for the first performance on the occasion of a carnival soirée at the Palazzo Corsi in Florence in 1598, is lost. Ottavio Rinuccini (1562-1621), who also wrote the textbook for "Euridice", was not an occasional librettist, but a court poet among who also composed sonnets and verse drama (cf. Honolka, Geschichte des Librettos, p. 22). The present libretto was probably published for a later performance at the Corsis' in August 1600 (for the history of genesis and performance history cf. the extensive account in Sonneck I, p. 339-345). Rinuccini's "Dafne" was again performed, with new music by Marco da Gagliano (1582-1643), in 1608: this score is preserved to this day, and the opera has been performed repeatedly on European stages throughout the 20th century. - Marescotti's fine woodcut device on the final page shows a naval emblem with the motto "Et vult et potest". Very occasional slight browning. On leaf C2v the setting error "DEL" has been corrected by "AL" pasted over the erroneous word. A fine copy.
¶ Edit 16, CNCE 29328. BM-STC Italian 556. Sartori 7015. Sonneck 339. Wotquenne 47. Wolffheim II, 1083. Fuld 61.

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Arabic Christian physicians, martyred and canonized
12

Treccio, Domenico. Vita, martirio, morte, et miracoli de' Santi Leontio,... e Carpoforo, dell' antica, e nobile famiglia Araba Vicentina [...], & della glor. verg. Eufemia, & Innocentia, loro sorelle. Vicenza, Domenico Amadio, (1613). Vicenza, Domenico Amadio, (1613). 8vo. 144 (but: 150) pp. With a full-page woodcut (crucifixion) after the preface. Contemp. limp paper boards.

EUR 3,500.00

Only edition of this life of the Saints Leontius and Carpophorus, Christians martyred under the Diocletianic Persecution early in the 4th century. Their relics where brought from Rome to Vicenza, where both are still revered. According to tradition, they were physicians of Arab extraction, their father having hailed from Syria. This account of their martyrdom and miracles also includes a life of their sisters Euphemia and Innocentia. - Some browning and waterstaining throughout. First quire loosened and reinforced in the gutter; several erroneous page numbers corrected by a contemporary hand. A hole in the upper board cover. Very rare: only two copies known in libraries (Montecassino and Bertoliana Vicenza).
¶ ICCU VIAE02487.

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13

[Venice]. Capitolare della Procuratia Citra. Venice, mainly drawn up before & in 1641, with additions to 1729. Venice, mainly drawn up before & in 1641, with additions to 1729. Italian and Latin manuscript on vellum. 2 blank leaves, 8, (9-12) ff. of index, blank leaf, (2) ff., 289 (but: 288) pp. of text, 8 blank leaves ruled on both sides, final blank leaf. Written in red and black ink throughout, 23 lines to a page, with an ornamental scrollwork border in colours, two pages with ornamental gilt borders showing red highlights and text in blue and gilt, two ornamental gilt initials on coloured backgrounds, and numerous blue and red Lombardic initials. Original red morocco over wooden boards with bevelled edges, richly gilt on spine and both covers with dentelle borders and title as quoted above. 2 metal clasps. Marbled pastedowns. All edges goffered and gilt. Large quarto (185 x 268 mm).

EUR 25,000.00

Elaborately calligraphed and sumptuously bound Venetian manuscript from one of the highest levels of the Most Serene Republic's public administration: an official collection of the laws, ordinances and instructions for the procurators of San Marco de Citra, the chairs of the commissions which dispensed charity and attended to wills and legacies in the three "citra" districts of Venice (San Marco, Castello, and Cannaregio). As every new procurator was required to take an oath on these statutes, collections such as the present one are also known as "Giuramenti di procuratori", and appropriately, the text begins with the formula of the oath (as used from 1319 onwards) within a finely gold-bordered double-page spread: "Iuramentum clarissimorum dominorum procuratorum Sancti Marci de citra Canale. Iro ad Evangelia Sancta Dei Ego N. q. Magnifici Domini N. Procurator Sancti Marci constitutus super commissariis de citra canale [...]". Up to pp. 144/145 the text is written in a fine Humanist minuscule as typical of the later 16th century, then is continued in an Italic hand, while several additions of the later 17th and early 18th century in the margins and at the end are in the individual hands of the various Ducal notaries. Similar manuscripts are known in Venetian collections, notably the Biblioteca del Museo Correr, Venice. - The office of Procurator was the highest dignity after that of the Doge that the Republic of Venice could bestow. Apart from those of the Doge and of the Grand Chancellor, it was the only office with a life appointment. The first procurator was appointed by the Doge around the year 829, and as early as 1266 they numbered four, two to administer the ducal church ("de supra") and two for municipal administration. In 1319, three sections with two procurators each were formed: "de supra", administering St. Mark's Basilica, and "de citra" and "de ultra", in charge of treating "commissions", the execution of last wills and pious legacies entrusted to them by the testator, on the two banks of the canal. The number of procurators was increased to nine in 1443. While the procurators' office was prestigious and influential, its specific function was rather marginal to political life: however, it included early forms of a treasury and of an archive of public and private documents; later, it also comprised guardianships of orphans as well as of the infirm and administered vast sums. - Later 17th century notes on the first two blank leaves (vellum endleaves following a paper one). Insignificant worming to margins of final blanks and interior of lower cover. Occasional offsetting of red initials on opposite pages. Some thumbstaining as commensurate with use throughout many decades. A charming survival.
¶ Cf. Da Mosto, L'Archivio di Stato di Venezia (1937), p. 27.

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14

[Papal Conclave]. Conclave dell'Anno 1644 fatto per la morte di... Vrbano VIII. dove fu creato Papa Innocenzo X. [Rome, c. 1650]. [Rome, c. 1650]. Folio (ca. 210 x 290 mm). Italian ms. on paper. (1), 277 ff. Contemporary Italian plain limp boards with ms. spine title.

EUR 1,500.00

Fine Italian cursive in a single hand, probably (as noted in pencil on the flyleaf) a copy of Codex Vat. lat. 8781. Other mansucripts of this conclave are known in the Ottoboniana and in the French National Library. While a codicological investigation would have to establish whether the present volume in fact constitutes a copy of one of these manuscripts, the paleographic evidence suggests that it was penned very close to the event and can hardly have been composed much later than its counterparts in Rome and Paris. - After the death of Pope Urban VIII (Maffeo Barberini) the College of Cardinals was divided by disagreement, as indeed were the Barberini cardinals. It was only after a long and stormy conclave that Giovanni Battista Pamphili (who was supported by Spain) prevailed against Cardinal Mazarin, the French candidate. - Some spine flaws; binding loosened and first two leaves loose. Some browning and occasional staining and worming. - Includes 13 leaves of a German translation, mainly typed, but some parts handwritten.

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15

Fredro, Andrzej Maksymilian. Scriptorum seu togae & belli notationum fragmenta. Accesserunt... peristromata regum symbolis expressa. Danzig, Georg Förster, 1660. Danzig, Georg Förster, 1660. 12mo. (4), 381, (1) pp. With engr. title page and 20 near-page-sized emblematic engravings in the text. (Bound with) II: The same. Monita politico-moralia et icon ingeniorum. Ibid., 1664. (4), 171, (1) pp. With engr. title page and woodcut vignette at the end. Contemporary blindstamped brown calf with ms. spine title. Edges sprinkled in red.

EUR 3,500.00

First editions. Bound first is a rare book of emblems showing "symbolic tapestries": "20 numbered 'peristromata' each with a motto, as of page 308; they are within baroque borders, very likely after emblems in Saavedra's book" (Landwehr). Fredro (c. 1620-79) was a Polish historian and palatine of Podolia (cf. Jöcher II, 735). "His works [...] are full of interesting details both on war and politics; while the vigour and conciseness of his style have procured for him the name of the 'Polish Tacitus'" (Enc. Britannica, 8th ed.). - Occasional browning and slight waterstains; binding rubbed with insignificant worming. Old handwritten ownership at beginning of preface.
¶ I: VD 17, 1:068380E. Praz 341. Landwehr-German 293. Estreicher XVI, 312. - II: VD 17, 23:285229B. Estreicher XVI, 308f.

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Rare Persian grammar by a 17th century Italian missionary
16

Ignatius a Jesus. Grammatica linguae persicae. Auctore patre fratre Ignatio à... Jesu carmelita discalcato missionario, & vicario residentiae Tripolis, & Montis Libani. Rome, typis Sacrae Congregationis de Propaganda Fide, 1661. Rome, typis Sacrae Congregationis de Propaganda Fide, 1661. Large 4to. (2), 60 pp., final blank leaf. Near-contemporary blue wrappers.

EUR 8,500.00

Extremely rare first edition of this valuable Persian grammar printed in Rome on the presses of the "Propaganda Fide". The third work of this kind, preceded only by those of Louis de Dieu (Leiden 1639) and of Greaves (London 1649). Willems notes that G. B. Raimondi, as early as 1614, produced a grammar in Rome for the use of missionaries which remained virtually unknown in the west, but this existed only in manuscript. The grammars of Greaves and of the present author were both "largely based on De Dieu" (Smitskamp). - Ignazio di Gesù (Carlo Leonelli) was a 17th century Italian missionary. He "belonged to the Order of Discalced Carmelites, and preached the Gospel in Turkey, Asia Minor, Armenia, and Persia, where he stayed over a long period. He especially tried to convert to the Catholic faith the so-called sectarians of Saint John (in eastern Mendaï). He returned to Rome in 1650" (cf. Hoefer). An account of his travels was included in the collection of Thevenot. His present small work, though not the work of an orientalist nor indeed a scholar, is still a true grammar based on elements collected during the author's journeys. - Some browning as common, otherwise a very good, untrimmed, wide-margined copy as issued.
¶ Brunet III, 405. Schwab 863. Smitskamp 310 c.

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17

Leeuwenhoek, Antoni van, naturalist, pioneer of microscopy (1632-1723). Autograph letter fragment. [Probably Delft, ca 1683?]. [Probably Delft, ca 1683?]. Ca. 184 x 58 mm, mounted on backing paper with note by a later collector (ca. 222 x 138 mm).

EUR 25,000.00

The beginning of an unpublished letter to an unidentified recipient. It often happens to him, writes van Leeuwenhoek, that he finds himself working on matters the full import of which he does not grasp, and so he would be glad to learn the opinions of Mr. Tevenot (i.e., the French scholar Melchisédech Thévenot, 1620-92): "Myn Heer. Gelijk ik veeltijts verschijde saaken bij de Hant neem omme die haer wesen te ontdecken, daer ik niet kan door komen, soo sal het mij niet onaengenaem sijn, dat de Heer Tevenot mij eenige voorstellen dede waar sijn speculatien mogten komen te vallen, omme alsdan daer op te antwoorden". - In 1683 van Leeuwenhoek wrote to Heinsius: "I have heard Mr. H. van Bleyswyk's high praise of Mons. Thevenot, and I am anxious to hear what that learned and curious gentleman will say about my statements" (Leeuwenhoek, Alle de brieven IV, no. 78). In 1688 he wrote to Thévenot directly: "A few years ago I took the liberty to send you a few of my modest ideas and observations, to which Your Honour replied in courteous terms. Now it so happens that, among several observations, I have discovered the circulation of the blood [...]" (ibid., vol. VIII, no. 111). The present fragment would seem to belong to the context of the former letter. - Identified by a slightly later hand on the leaf itself ("Dit is van Leeuwenhoek"); the backing paper has a note by a German 19th century collector. - The Delft entrepreneur van Leeuwenhoek is one of the most notable representatives of the golden age of Dutch science and technology. A draper by trade and a largely self-taught amateur scientist, he pioneered the field of microscopy and is hailed as the "Father of Microbiology". His instruments, built by a secret and carefully guarded method, achieved magnification of up to 275 times and more - a resolution not reproduced until more than two centuries after his death. "[O]ne can say with truth that [...] protozoology, bacteriology and microbiology begin with Leeuwenhoek" (PMM 166). Autographs by Leeuwenhoek are of the utmost rarity; not a single specimen has been traced in trade records.

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meanwhile, no-one will be hurt by learning a little more precisely about the opinions of these people, against whom Christendom has so long struggled
18

[Pritius, Johann Georg]. Constantinopolitan- oder Türkischer Kirchen-Staat, in welchem die vornemste[n]... Glaubens-Puncten des Alcorans, wie nicht weniger der gantze Mahometanische Gottesdienst nebst des falschen Propheteu [!] Mahomets Leben, in einer kurtz-gefaßeten doch gewissen und deutlichen Erzehlung vorgestellet wird. Leipzig, Friedrich Groschuff, 1699. Leipzig, Friedrich Groschuff, 1699. 12mo. (20), 168 pp., including a folding genealogy of Mohammed as *10, bound here before *2. With a woodcut vignette of the Blue Mosque (?) on title-page as well as an engraved frontispiece of Mohammed presenting the Qur'an to the world, along with Zulfiqar (his legendary double-bladed sword), and a dove on his shoulder. Bound with (II): Orientalischer Kirchen-Staat. Gotha, Jakob Mevius, 1699. (2), 155, (1) pp. (and 2 other works). Contemp. vellum.

EUR 4,500.00

Very rare sole edition of this detailed exposition of the Qur'an for German readers, replete with a frontispiece depicting Mohammed giving the 'Alcoran' to the world as well as a folding genealogy of the Prophet. The preface discusses the threat which Islam poses to the West; and yet Pritius remarks that "meanwhile no-one will be hurt by learning a little more precisely about the opinions of these people, against whom Christendom has so long struggled" (*2v). - Chapter I covers the tenets of Islamic faith, rituals, customs, and pilgrimage. This includes numerous excerpts from the Qur'an and a lengthy discussion of the entire process of the Hajj, as well as the rituals the pilgrims take part in once they arrive in Mecca (pp. 89-113). Chapter II concerns the role of "muftis, priests, monks, and hermits" in Islam; and Chapter III recounts the life and death of Mohammed, taken from the usual European sources. - The inner workings of Islam had long fascinated the German Protestants, who saw an ally in their struggle against the common enemy of the Habsburgs / Roman Catholic Church. The present work is exceptionally detailed, however, and offers far more than the usual brief discussions of Mohammed's life; indeed, it is evident that Pritius had access to one of the Qur'an translations available in Europe at the time. - Extremely rare: OCLC shows no copies in American or UK libraries; VD 17 shows holdings in six German libraries. - Bound at the end of the volume is a manual of the various faiths of the orient, which includes a chapter on Islam and a discussion of the schism between Sunni and Shiite Muslims. Two other theological works bound first: (III) Spener, Philipp Jakob. Die Seligkeit der Kinder Gottes [...]. Frankfurt, Johann David Zunner, 1692. (138), 427, (25) pp. - (IV) Schmidt, Sebastian. Regenten-Predigten, welche zu gewissen Zeiten des Jahrs der christlichen Gemeine in Straßburg aus dem Alten Testament erkläret und vorgetragen worden. Braunschweig, Caspar Gruber, 1694. (2), 308 pp. - Some browning and occasional waterstaining throughout; binding darkened. Some edge chipping to the genealogical plate.
¶ VD 17, 39:144883H. Chauvin XI, p. 186, no. 667. Imaginationen des Islam: Bildliche Darstellungen des Propheten Mohammed, no. 20. Cf. also Fischer, Bildung durch Reisen? Deutsche Aufklärung und Islam II, p. 85 (note); on Pritius cf. ADB XXVI, 602ff. - (II): VD 17, 39:144877G. BL (German books) O224.

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19

Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm, philosopher and mathematician (1646-1716). Autogr. document. No place or date. 1 p. Ca. 110 x 30 mm.

EUR 6,500.00

Fragment of a bibliographic note about a mathematical work by the astronomer Henry Gellibrand: "and logarithms. With the application thereof to Questions of Astronomie and Navigation. By H. Gellibrand, Prof. of Astronomie in Gresham Colledge. II. Edition corrected and enlarged. London MDCLII." The work in question is the second edition of Gresham's "An institution trigonometricall, wherein demonstratively and perspicuously is exhibited the doctrine of the dimension of plain and spherical triangles, after the most exact and compendious way, by tables both of sines, tangents, secants, and logarithms". - Early 19th century certification of authenticity by the educator Peter Heinrich Holthaus (1759-1831) on the reserve: "Nach Kästner's Zeugniß in einem (nicht zu theilenden) Briefe an den vormahligen Prediger Müller in Schwelm [the theologian, mathematician and astronomer Friedrich Christoph Müller, 1751-1808] ist diese Handschrift von Leibnitz. - P. H. Holthaus". The Göttingen mathematician and writer of epigrams Abraham Gotthelf Kästner (1719-1800) had studied Leibniz's manuscript papers at the Royal Library in Hanover and composed the preface for the posthumous first edition of the "Nouveaux essais sur l'entendement humain", aimed at John Locke (in the "Oeuvres philosophiques latines & françoises de feu Mr. de Leibnitz", edited by R. E. Raspe in 1764). The verso also shows a probably slightly earlier note "Leibnitz" in a different hand.

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20

Goethe, Johann Caspar. Dissertatio inauguralis, electa de aditione hereditatis ex iure... rom. et patrio [...]. Gießen, E. H. Lammers, 1738. Gießen, E. H. Lammers, 1738. 4to. (10), 178 pp. With several woodcut vignettes. Later boards with giltstamped spine label. Stored in a somewhat foxed slipcase.

EUR 3,500.00

Rare dissertation by Goethe's father, a legal treatise on the law inheritance according to Roman and German law. The poet Johann Wolfgang Goethe was very proud of his father's thesis and praises it in his autobiography. Johann Caspar Goethe had studied law in Gießen for four years before continuing his education in Leipzig, then serving at the Wetzlar superior court and earning his doctorate in Gießen with the present dissertation. The poet Goethe would later follow in his father's footsteps and closely repeat his education. - Some browning near the beginning, otherwise a very clean and crisp copy of this very rare work. Provenance: from the estate of the Frankfurt lawyer Wilhelm A. Schaaf (1929-2015).
¶ Kippenberg I, 3404.

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The history and descent of the Körmendys - for which the writer may have served 24 years in prison
21

Körmendy, István László, Hungarian jurist (1700-1804?). Status iurium, et totalis modernae constitutionis familiae Körmendianae... à Martino Literato de Körmend in suis ramis ab anno 1550 condescendentis et propagatae, in haereditate sua Egbell, in comitatu Nitriensi sita et habita. [Gbely?, ca. 1740, with additions to 1762]. [Gbely?, ca. 1740, with additions to 1762]. Folio (235 x 360 mm). (248) pp., 53 blank ff. (35) pp., 13 blank ff. Latin, German and Hungarian ink manuscript on paper, with a double-page illustration of a family tree. Contemporary full calf, spine elaborately gilt with two red spine labels "Status Familiae Kormendianae, Cum Deductione Universali" and "Opera Spectabilis Dni. Stepha Ladislai De Körmend"; covers in two shades of brown leather with two giltstamped borders and elaborate ornamentation. Leading edges gilt; marbled endpapers. Edges goffered and gilt with red marbled middle sections.

EUR 8,500.00

A vast, hitherto untapped collection of document copies spanning some two centuries of the history of the Körmendy family, edited by a descendant as a keepsake and portable archive for his heirs. Important not only for the history of this branch of the Körmendys, but also as evidence of the proliferation of nobility in early modern Europe, especially in Hungary, and of the legal ramifications within the realms of public law (governing the acquisition of noble status and the family's position within the state), civil law (lawsuits fought among noble families), and house law (the self-posited internal rules governing the family's dynastic succession and inheritance). - The manuscript begins with an autobiographical account of the writer, Stephan Ladislaus de Körmend, born on the 25th of July 1700 in Egbell in the Hungarian county of Neutra (today, Gbely in the Trnava Region of Slovakia), to parents Franciscus de Körmend and Zuzanna Zaffiry. It goes on to include an extensive array of copied documents which demonstrate the family's descent and legally tangled history from the mid-16th century onwards, when Martinus "Literatus" de Körmend was granted a title of nobility by King Ferdinand I for gallant military service under Peter Bakics (cf. Siebmacher 33.2, p. 135). A fine, double-page spread illustration shows the family tree growing from Martin Literatus at the bottom. At the end of the volume, a separate section in German provides communications from Imperial commanders in the Austro-Turkish War of 1737-39 that illustrate military operations of the year 1738, in which the writer appears to have been involved in a legal capacity. - Körmendy served as head notary of Bács-Bodrog County near the Serbian border from 1734 to 1739, but the upheavals of the war seem to have necessitated his return to his native northern Hungary. Other than that, he was previously known to Hungarian historians only as a diarist: a journal he kept in 1736 is mentioned in Gyula Dudás's work on the noble families of Bács (cf. below), and Péter László's Encyclopedia of Hungarian Literature published in 1994 records his professional work in Bács-Bodrog as well as his diary. - Hungarian genealogy knows of numerous families named Körmendy, and it is not clear whether or how they are related to each other: Béla Kempelen's dictionary of Hungarian noble families lists no fewer than ten (the present branch being the first), while that of Nagy has a nearly page-long entry on the various families, specifically citing one hailing from Trencsén county (now Trencín in Slovakia, neighbouring Trnava). Indeed, not every family named Körmendy was necessarily a noble one: the name is derived from the city of Körmend in Vas county, and the -y (or -i) at the end of the name (rendered in Latin as the preposition "de") primarily denotes origin and need not be an indication of nobility. It is important to note that the socially highly differentiated Hungarian nobility comprised close to five percent of the total population - some 75,000 families in 1787, compared to a mere 26,000 in France in 1789 - and thus was one of the largest noble classes in Europe both by percentage and in absolute numbers (cf. B. Király, Hungary in the Late 18th Century [1969], p. 38). While many members of the lesser gentry lived in conditions bordering on destitution, they were nonetheless fiercely proud of their aristocratic birth (which in 18th century Hungary still entailed exemption from taxation) and resisted every Habsburgian effort to modernise the country as an intolerable break with tradition. - A different, more sensational perspective on this painstaking collection of documents, possibly not reliable in all respects, is presented by the Viennese-born political journalist Anton Gross-Hoffinger (1808-73): in his popular account of Hungary, "Ungarn, das Reich, Land, und Volk wie es ist" (published under his pseudonym "Hanns Normann" in 1833), he states that Körmendy was an 18th-century Hungarian lawyer who exploited his country's proliferation of nobility and the chaotic legal situation surrounding it by forging not only his own family's title, but also those of many other ambitious, well-to-do individuals. According to Gross-Hoffinger (p. 141-143), he was ultimately taken to court when sixty years of age and, having managed to draw out the investigation for two decades, was sentenced to life imprisonment at the age of eighty (for no death penalty was pronounced on octogenarians), ultimately dying incarcerated at the age of 104. - Several stamps of the Körmendy family archive, Budapest ("A Körmendy nemzet seg családi levéltára Budapest") in green ink. Some annotations and markings in pencil or red crayon by later hands. A mended tear to the title page, and slight worming to the upper cover near the top edge, otherwise a very well preserved manuscript, elaborately bound as an heirloom.
¶ Cf. Péter László, Magyar irodalmi lexikon II, 314. Gyula Dudás, A bácskai nemes családok : adalékul Bács-Bodrogh vármegye történetéhez (Zombor 1893). Siebmacher 33 (Die Wappen des Adels in Ungarn: Bd. IV, 15. Abt., 2. Teil), p. 135 with plate 98. Béla Kempelen, Magyar nemes családok VI (Bp. 1913), p. 246. Iván Nagy, Magyarország családai czimerekkel és nemzékrendi táblákkal VI (Pest 1860), p. 448f.

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22

[Charles VII]. Vollständiges Diarium von den merckwürdigsten Begebenheiten, die sich... vor, in und nach der höchst-beglückten Wahl und Crönung des Allerdurchlauchtigsten, Großmächtigsten und Unüberwindlichsten Fürsten und Herrn, Herrn Carls des VII. Erwehlten Römischen Kaysers, [...] im gantzen Heil. Röm. Reich, und sonderlich in dieser Freyen Reychs- und Wahl- Stadt Franckfurt am Mayn zugetragen [...]. Frankfurt, Johann David Jung, 1742-1743. Frankfurt, Johann David Jung, 1742-1743. Folio (230 x 360 mm). 3 parts in one vol. (100), 306, 80, (2), 38, (4), 96, (10), 28 pp. (20), 128, 52, (2), 26, (2), 34, (2), 30 pp. (4), 20, 8, (2), 10, (2), 26, (48) pp. All 3 titel pages printed in red and black. With an engraved frontispiece, 19 engr. portraits, 18 engraved plates (some folding), 2 engr. plans and 17 headpieces (8 woodcuts, 9 engraved). Contemporary vellum with giltstamped spine title. Wants ties.

EUR 6,500.00

A complete copy of the most sumptuous of all imperial coronation diaries ever produced: the splendidly illustrated account of the coronation of Elector Charles Albert of Bavaria as Roman Emperor Charles VII on 12 February 1742, and of his wife Maria Amalia of Austria as Empress. Notably, Charles was the only person not born of the House of Habsburg to become emperor in over three centuries; it was only his early death in 1745 that once more cleared the way for Franz Stephan of Lorraine and the Habsburg succession through his wife Maria Theresa. - The large folding plates (after Lentzner, Funck, Lippold, Diehl and others) depict the coronation ceremony, entrances, the banquet, other celebrations on the square before the Römer, soldiers, wagons, structures erected for the pageant, the illumination etc., as well as the portraits of the Imperial couple and of the prince-electors. The notice to the bookbinder with the list of plates at the end of vol. 3 comprises only the plates in parts 2 and 3. - An extensive and important source, not least by virtue of its numerous supplements such as the long lists of guests to be entertained, providing hundreds of names, offices of the various retainers and large entourage, even giving the names of the cooks, bakers, and cellarers. "In questo assai grosso volume di circa mille pagine sono compresi tutti gli atti pubblici precedenti e susseguenti l'Incoronazione e l'Elezione. Cominciano le tavole col frontespizio, seguono 15 ritratti, e 18 grandi tavole intagliate [...] con molta e dispendiosa cura" (Cicognara). - From the collection of Karl Bacher with his fine, coloured bookplate on the pastedown. 1832 ownership of "Johannes Lang" on the verso of the frontispiece. Binding rubbed; some warping to vellum edges. Some light fingerstaining but largely unbrowned; upper corner of the flyleaf clipped. - Very rarely encountered complete as thus. Provenance: from the estate of the Frankfurt lawyer Wilhelm A. Schaaf (1929-2015), a specialist in economic, commercial and insolvency law.
¶ Lipperheide Sba 28. Kat. der Ornamentstichslg. Berlin 2898. Cicognara 1510. Kat. Sauer 259. Not in Ruggieri.

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Maria Theresa's daughters in an album from the collection of Folliot de Crenneville-Poutet
23

Marie Antoinette, Queen of France, Archduchess of Austria (1755-1793). Devotional miniature with autogr. inscription signed on verso,... with eight additional devotional miniatures, all inscribed and signed on verso by other Archduchesses, mostly by daughters of Empress Maria Theresa. No place, 1743-1770. No place, 1743-1770. 8vo. 9 ff., each measuring c. 120 x 90 mm, carefully mounted under mattes bound in calf the late 19th century (with a description of the contents added at the end). In slipcase.

EUR 45,000.00

A collection of devotional miniatures of outstanding quality, with dedications to countess Maria Anna von Callenberg, née countess Thurn-Valsassina (1721-86), first lady-in-waiting to Empress Elizabeth Christina, mother of Maria Theresa and since 1757 married to general Karl Kurt Reinicke, count Callenberg. Five of the nine miniatures are by daughters of Maria Theresa and Emperor Francis I (thus uniting five out of eight princesses that survived infancy), one by a sister of Maria Theresa, another by the youngest sister of Francis I, yet another by the Imperial couble's daughter-in-law, and one by an unidentified writer. A scholarly study of the album, published in 1999 (cf. the sources below), praises the "outstanding graphic quality" of the miniatures, arguing that they must have been created by "professionally trained artists" (cf. Feldhaus, p. 19). - All inscriptions are in French or German; they include: 1) St. Cajetan (S. Cajetanus Thieneus), 3-line inscription signed by Archduchess Maria Amalia, Duchess of Parma (1746-1804), dated 1769. - 2) Charles Borromeo (S. Carolus Borromaeus), 6-line inscription signed by Archduchess Maria Anna (1718-1744), sister of Maria Theresa, dated 1743. - 3) St. Jerome (S. Hieronimus), 6-line inscription signed by Archduchess Maria Josepha (1751-67), dated 1767. - 4) Mother of Sorrows (Mater Dolorosa), 4-line inscription signed by Princess Anne Charlotte of Lorraine (1714-73), youngest sister of Emperor Francis I; undated. - 5) The Virgin and Child ("Du Königin des guten Raths bitt für uns"), 5-line inscription signed by Maria Theresa's eldest daughter, Archduchess Maria Anna (1738-89), dated 1757. - 6) King Stephen I of Hungary (S. Stephanus Rex Hung.), 5-line inscription signed by Maria Luisa of Spain (1745-1792), Grand Duchess of Tuscany and later Empress as the spouse of Leopold II; dated 1770. - 7) St. Expeditus (S. Expeditus), signed by Archduchess Maria Elisabeth (1743-1808), undated. - 8) St. Aloysius Gonzaga (S. Aloysius Gonzaga S. I.), 3-line inscription signed by Archduchess Marie Antoinette ("Auspice Deo. En regardant cette image souvenez vous toujours chère Callenberg de Votre très affectioner Antoine Archiduchesse"), dated 29 March 1770, but a month before her fateful departure for France. - 9) Man of Sorrows (Wahre Abbildung des schmerzhaften Heilands auf dem S. Stephansfriedhof), 2-line inscription, undated and unsigned, ascribed to Charlotte von Reischach, lady-in-waiting, by the included index (4to, 4 pp.). - Provenance: count Carl Callenberg (d. 1820), son of the recipient of these dedications; by descent to her daughter Henriette, the last countess of Callenberg (1764-1835), married in 1787 to count Johann Mittrowsky (1757-99), army surgeon to count Lássy's Infantry Regiment; by descent to the counts Mittrowsky; later in the library of the Austrian collector and Keeper of the Purse, count Franz Folliot de Crenneville-Poutet (1815-88), with his collection stamp on fol. 1; sold through the Vienna art trade to a Rhenish private collection in 1969.
¶ Irmgard Feldhaus, Gemalte Andachtsbilder aus dem Österreichischen Kaiserhaus aus den Jahren 1743-1770, in: Arbeitskreis Bild, Druck, Papier: Tagungsband Kassel 1998. Ed. by Christa Pieske et al. (Münster, Waxmann, 1999), pp. 13-28.

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A book, a friend, a glass, a comely woman
24

[Album amicorum]. Friendship album of Conrad Friedrich Daumiller (Daumüller) from... Nuremberg. Nuremberg, Altdorf, Jena and other places, 1753-1756. Nuremberg, Altdorf, Jena and other places, 1753-1756. Oblong 8vo. Title page, 9 pp. of index, and 290 entires on a total of 155 ff. Contemporary red-dyed vellum, covers and spine elaborately gilt.

EUR 5,000.00

A southern German student's curious and substantial friendship album, containing numerous entries and poems in German, Latin, and French, many with salacious or erotic content: "Ein Buch, ein Freund, ein Glas, ein wol gebiltes Weib / Sind der Galanten Welt vergnügter Zeitvertreib." - "Vivent les filles de quatre etages, / Jeunes, Belles, Riches, et Sages". - "Fällt un-gesundes Wetter ein, / So lachen die Doctores. / In Jena sollen Jungfern sein? / O tempora o mores!" - "In Jena giebts keine Jungfer mehr, / Es sey denn eine Fremde." - "Der Priester Fluch, / Der Juristen Buch / Und das Ding unter dem Schürztuch: / Diese drey Geschirr / Machen die ganze Welt irr". - "Ein Mädgen Zehn Tausend reich, / An Thalern, nicht an Flöhen; / Soll diese Viertelstunde gleich / Mit mir zu Bette gehen." - "Ein Mädgen und ein Orgelwerk, / So fern ich dieses recht bemerck, / Vergleichen sich in Vielem: / Denn Beide muß man mit Bedacht, / Sowohl bei Tag als wie bei Nacht, / befingern und bespielen." Among such risqué contributions are the usual pious sayings, as well as quotations from the classics and by contemporary poets such as Gellert and Lessing. - Conrad Friedrich Daumiller (Daumüller) hailed from Nuremberg, studied theology in Altdorf and Jena, and died in 1761, still a young man, as a candidate for a preacher's office at the Carmelites' monastery in Nuremberg. Another friendship album of Daumiller's is known in the Anna Amalia library in Weimar, covering a similar period of time but comprising no more than 28 entries (Stb 318; acquired from a Nuremberg auction in 1811; cf. K. Goldmann, Nürnberger und Altdorfer Stammbücher aus vier Jahrhunderten, Nuremberg 1981, no. 376). - A few leaves have been removed, apparently by a (near) contemporary owner. Well preserved; binding somewhat faded; gilt decoration oxydized; slight defect to lower spine-end.

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25

[Album amicorum] Friendship album of the travelling student Mihály Pap,... containing entries by Johann II. Bernoulli and Daniel Bernoulli, Johann Jakob Breitinger, Mattli Conradi, Petrus Curtenius, Johann Jakob Gessner and Johann Rudolph Stähelin. Various places, 1765-1769. Various places, 1765-1769. Oblong 8vo. 85 ff. (partly written on both sides). No binding.

EUR 9,500.00

This friendship album kept by the travelling student Mihály Pap contains mainly Latin, Greek, Hebrew, and German entries, beginning in 1765 with numerous contributions from Swiss cities (Bern, Lausanne, Zurich); in the later 1760s, he collects entries mainly from German cities (Worms, Regensburg, Nuremberg, Marburg, Duisburg, etc.) as well as from London and Oxford. Somewhat curiously, although the album contains several entries from Göttingen, there is no contribution by the historian August Ludwig von Schlözer, the unrivalled star teacher for the many Hungarian exiles educated at the Georg August University. - Somewhat browned and wrinkled; some pages with slight edge defects. Wants binding. Detailed description upon request.

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26

[Bach, Johann Sebastian]. - Doles, Johann Friedrich, composer and Cantor at St. Thomas (1715-1797). Johann Sebastian Bachs vierstimmige Choral-Gesänge gesammlet von Carl... Philipp Emanuel Bach 1765. Contemporary manuscript copy of chorales by Bach and others. [Probably Leipzig, 1765-1775]. [Probably Leipzig, 1765-1775]. Oblong folio (340 x 202 mm). 272 written pages with a total of 252 numbered chorales (and 4 pages of empty pen-staves). Contemporary half calf over mottled boards with manuscript title label to upper cover. All edges sprinkled in red.

EUR 25,000.00

Highly interesting collection of Bach chorales, very likely assembled from 1765 onwards at St. Thomas School, Leipzig under the direction of Johann Friedrich Doles, the student of and successor to Johann Sebastian Bach, who sought to make his master's works more widely known. According to an expert opinion included with the volume (ca. 1940), the late head of the Peters Music Library, Kurt Taut (1888-1939), had surmised that the book was "written in Doles's own hand". This assumption is sustained by the apparently autograph entry "di Doles" at the beginning of the Doles chorales which entirely resembles the writing of the remainder of the manuscript. - The volume comprises a total of 252 chorales in a clean, contemporary copy by a single hand, numbered in red ink and (by a later editor) in pencil. Numbers 1 through 200 broadly agree with the two-part printed edition of Bach's chorales issued by Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach (Berlin/Leipzig 1765 & 1769), while numbers 231-251 represent the melodies for Gellert's "Geistliche Oden und Lieder" which Doles published in 1758, but in a revised order. As far as they could be identified, the final piece as well as the thirty pieces between the (real or ascribed) Bach music and Doles's settings consist of works by various composers of the 16th through 18th centuries, including Doles. - Provenance: In 1882 the book was in the library of the Leipzig-based cultural anthropologist and Bach collector Albrecht Kurzwelly (1868-1917), as shown by his label on the pastedown and his ownership on the flyleaf. After his death, it passed into the possession of the Zwenkau music publisher and collector Walter Höckner (cf. his stamp and the end). - Extremeties slightly bumped; a few spine defects have been professionally repaired. Signed expertise (1878) by the Leipzig choirmaster and Bach scholar Wilhelm Rust (1822-92); another opinion (1918) by Rust's successor Bernhard Friedrich Richter (1850-1931) is pasted between the upper cover and the flyleaf.

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Er aber, sags ihm, er kann mich im Arsch lecken.
27

Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von. Götz von Berlichingen mit der eisernen Hand. Ein... Schauspiel. [Darmstadt, G H. Eylausche Erben (J. G. Wittich) für Merck im Selbstverlag], 1773. [Darmstadt, G H. Eylausche Erben (J. G. Wittich) für Merck im Selbstverlag], 1773. Small 8vo. 206 pp. Contemporary half calf, with two labels to spine, stored in a two-piece leather slipcase.

EUR 28,000.00

Rare first edition, self-published by Goethe and Merck in a very small press run. This first impression of the play about the maverick adventurer-poet Götz von Berlichingen contains the hero's famously profane "Swabian salute" unexpurged (p. 133); it was truncated in later editions. In spite of sluggish initial sales, the play enjoyed a sensational success, making the author instantly famous and calling forth severe criticism as well as praise. - Some brownstaining and fingerstaining. Provenance: handwritten ownership "Louis Prèschamps" (ca. 1880) on title page; an old annotation on the final leaf has been removed. Acquired from the estate of the Frankfurt lawyer Wilhelm A. Schaaf (1929-2015), a specialist in economic, commercial and insolvency law.
¶ Hagen 46. WG² 6. Goedeke IV, 3, 143, 2. Kippenberg I, 348. Brieger 682. Hirzel A 33. Speck 712. Goethe-Bibliothek Meyer 23.

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Greek description of Palestine, from the library of George III
28

Chrysanthos, Metropolitan of Durazzo, Brusa, and Smyrna. [Proskynetarion tes hagias poleos Hierousalem kai pases Palaistines]. Vienna, Johanna Schrämbl, 1807. Vienna, Johanna Schrämbl, 1807. Folio (215 x 328 mm). (4), 104 pp. With engraved frontispiece and 51 leaves of plates (8 double-page-sized or folded). Near-contemporary red half morocco with gilt rules and marbled covers, spine richly gilt (loss of label). Marbled endpapers. All edges gilt.

EUR 9,500.00

Rare description of the Holy City of Jerusalem and of the whole of Palestine; a reissue (with changed title) of the edition published by Josef Baumeister in Vienna in 1787. Previous editions had appeared in Venice in 1728, then in 1749 and 1781, while the 1787 edition boasted "a new text and different iconography" (Staikos). This latter edition is here reproduced largely unchanged save for bringing the name of the Patriarch of Jerusalem up to date (from Abraham to Anthimus), as well as that of the editor, Apostolas Boras, on the title page. "The engraving of the Patriarch on his throne is unchanged except for the name; it is signed (in Greek): 'engraved by Schindelmayer in Vienna' [...] A large-sized, impressive book" (Staikos). "A portrait of the Patriarch [Anthimus] forms the frontispiece; also, there is an illustration of the Palace of David, and a plan of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, though the view of its cross-section is quite haphazard [...] The author expands on Jerusalem, Bethlehem, Hebron, and the sacred sites of Galilee. The text is apparently more or less that of the Venice 1728 edition; apart from that, it is generously interspersed with highly appealing illustrations in the true taste of modern Greece" (cf. Tobler 135). The Viennese publisher and printer Franz Anton Schrämbl, whose company was continued by his widow Johanna after his death in 1804, specialised in reprints (often of large sets), maps, and books in Greek. Their production was one of the strongest in Vienna (cf. Frank/Frimmel, Buchwesen in Wien, p. 175f.). - Extremeties bumped; spine-ends chipped. Still a beautiful volume from the library of King George III of the United Kingdom (1738-1820) with his royal cypher on the spine.
¶ Staikos no. 28 (note p. 94). OCLC 41651327. Cf. Röhricht 1362, 1515. Tobler 124f., 135. Legrand (XVIII) 1208.

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The introduction of electricity to the Islamic world: the earliest surviving manuscript
29

Yahya Naci Efendi. [Introducing electricity through experiments]. Constantinople, 1227 AH (= 1812 AD). Constantinople, 1227 AH (= 1812 AD). 8vo (222 x 150 mm). 16 ff., mostly with 24 text lines to each page (text area 155 x 70 mm). Written in excellent Naskh script with black ink on waxed paper. Headings and highlighted words in red. Two (folded) plates on velin paper (watermark: A. Stace 1802). With carefully executed pen-and-ink drawings with notes in red (167 x 194 mm each). Contemp. red half leather. Covered with Ebru paper, with leather edges and marbled endpapers.

EUR 48,000.00

The original Ottoman Turkish manuscript of one of the most important texts in the history of electrical engineering and science: the complete treatise on electrical fluid, as drafted by the Turkish engineer Yahya Naci the same year. "In the early 19th century, the teaching of science at the Imperial Engineering School in Istanbul was mostly based on the material translated from textbooks compiled for the French 'grandes écoles'. Translations and compilations were generally made by the professors of the school. Yahya Naci Efendi (d. 1824), a lecturer in French language and sciences, compiled in 1812 a treatise introducing the properties of electricity through experiments. His aim was also to show that the lightning flash and the thunderbolt were electrical phenomenons. Yahya Naci's main source was the chapter on electricity of Mathurin-Jacques Brisson's (d. 1795) 'Traité Elémentaire de Physique', a popular book of physics in French colleges. This translation is important because Yahya Naci endeavoured to create Ottoman terms from Arabic regarding electricity and because it points to the initiatives in introducing experimentation in the teaching in the Imperial Engineering School" (Günergün, cf. below). The colophon states the name of the scribe as "Yahya Naqi" and the date "Zilqa'da 1227 H.", proving that the present volume contains the author's long-lost original manuscript. - In very fine condition; only a few insignificant spots.
¶ Feza Günergün, Deneylerle elektrigi tanitan bir Türkçe eser: Yahya Naci Efendi'nin Risale-i Seyyale-i Berkiyye'si. In: Osmanli Bilimi Arastirmalari IX/1-2 (2007-2008), pp. 19-50.

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Inscribed by the composer
30

Beethoven, Ludwig van, composer (1770-1827). Fidelio. Eine Grosse Oper in 2 Aufzügen. Vienna, Artaria, [1814]. Vienna, Artaria, [1814]. Oblong folio. Engraved piano score with the text. Untrimmed.

EUR 280,000.00

First printing of the first edition of Beethoven's only opera; of the utmost rarity. Inscribed on the title page, in Beethoven's own hand, to his benefactor Pasqualati (1777-1830), in whose house the composer then lodged: "Seinem werthen Freunde Baron von Pasqualati vom Verfasser" ("To his dear friend Baron Pasqualati, from the author"). No more than three copies of this first edition bearing Beethoven's autograph inscription are known; the present one is described by Kinsky/Halm as follows: "This copy from the collection of the Society of Friends of the Music in Vienna (cf. no. 893 in the guide-book to the Centenary Exhibition, Vienna 1927) was presented to the conductor Arturo Toscanini by the Austrian Government on 1 November 1934 on the occasion of a performance of Verdi's 'Requiem', directed by him, as a gift of honour (cf. 'Philobiblon' VIII, 6)." - Professionally cleaned with repairs to gutter. Collection stamp of the Society of Friends of the Music in Vienna on title page and verso of final leaf. Beethoven's autograph inscription pencilled across the blank margin of the title page. - The present dedication copy was not publicly shown since the great 1927 exhibition in honour of the centennial of Beethoven's death; it was latterly considered lost (as are the other two dedication copies of "Fidelio" described in the catalogue of Beethoven's works). We acquired it directly from Toscanini's estate in spring 2016.
¶ Literature (all referencing this copy): Beethoven und die Wiener Kultur seiner Zeit (= Führer durch die Beethoven-Zentenarausstellung der Stadt), Wien 1927, 893. Philobiblon VIII (1935), 6. Kinsky/ Halm, Werkverzeichnis Beethoven, 184.

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