HRH Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan visits Pakistan
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[Abu Dhabi - State Visits to Pakistan]. Photograph archive and album: "Visit to Lahore of... His Highness Sheikh Zaid bin Sultan Alnahayyani the ruler of AbuDhabi (16th to 28th November, 1967). Pakistan, 1967 and 1970. Pakistan, 1967 and 1970. An archive of 183 photographs: 133 loose b/w photos (ca. 30 x 25 cm), 30 smaller photos (ca. 5 x 6 cm) numbered and mounted together on a single sheet of paper, and 20 photos in the album. Original black half morocco, with green cloth sides with title and emblem of Pakistan's United Bank Limited on upper board. Includes numerous rolls of original medium format negatives.

EUR 125,000.00

A trove of unpublished photographs depicting two official visits to Pakistan by HH Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan. The earlier one, in 1967, is documented by a separate photo album containing images of the visit to Lahore, the second largest city of Pakistan, between 16 and 28 November 1967. (Almost 20 years later, in 1986, Sheikh Zayed would donate a hospital to the city, now the "Shaikh Zayed Medical Complex", which is one of the premier medical institutions in the country.) The album opens with a picture of HH Sheikh Zayed arriving in his car; later pictures show him being honoured and presented with an album very similar to the present one, and in the company of officials representing Pakistan's UBL bank (United Bank Limited). - The 30 small photographs show an audience with Sheikh Zayed as well as a banquet in his honour, attended by various Pakistani dignitaries including Agha Hasan Abedi (1922-95), the illustrious founder of UBL. These photos, apparently clipped from a set of medium format contact prints, are mounted on a sheet of coated black photographic paper. - The largest set in size and number shows the state visit that took place on 20-22 January 1970 at the invitation of President Yahya Khan (1917-80). It provides extensive documentation of how the large Abu Dhabi delegation is formally received by Yahya Khan, who served as president of Pakistan between March 1969 and December 1971. Many show HH Sheikh Zayed shaking hands with and speaking to President Yahya; others show the airport reception, formal dinners, speeches, but also informal conversations, members of the delegation handling falcons, and numerous high-ranking Abu Dhabi retainers. Among the persons depicted is again Agha Hasan Abedi, but there are also several pictures of Butti Bin Bishr, secretary to Sheikh Zayed, and of Ahmed Bin Khalifa Al Suwaidi, the first Minister of Foreign Affairs of the UAE and the Personal Representative of Sheikh Zayed. - President Yahya Khan had been "one of the very first international leaders to reach out to Sheikh Zayed after the UAE had been founded and had, prior to this, in July 1970, been instrumental in creating an agreement to provide technical assistance to the then Trucial States. With the December 1971 union agreement approaching, Pakistan was quick to forge even closer ties, and Khan had been one of the first foreign leaders to offer his congratulations and reiterate his country's support when the UAE was born. Full diplomatic ties were then quickly established, and Pakistan became one of the first to extend recognition to the new country [...] All his life Sheikh Zayed had held a personal affinity for Pakistan. He had hunted there extensively, came to know the people, its culture and lands, and enjoyed close ties with leaders" (Wilson). - Binding of the album slightly rubbed. Some of the loose photographs slightly scuffed along the edges, occasional nicks or slight tears, but on the whole in excellent state of preservation. The majority of the photographs are entirely unmarked, save for the odd Arabic inscription or stamp on the reverse. A fine, unpublished set, entirely unknown and without counterparts in the UAEhistory, Keystone or Hulton/Getty press photo archives. From the estate of Azhar Abbas Hashmi (1940-2016), Pakistani financial manager and eminent literary patron with close ties to Karachi University. Long with UBL, Hashmi would serve as the bank's vice-president before founding several important cultural organisations and becoming known as a man of letters in his own right. It was because of Hashmi’s close connections to the Gulf states that Abu Dhabi provided funds to build the Karachi University’s faculty of Islamic studies, along with Sheikh Zayed Islamic Centre and Jamiya Masjid Ibrahi.
¶ Cf. Graeme H. Wilson: Zayed - Man Who Built a Nation (Dubai 2013), pp. 111f.

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The Arab stud founded in Saint-Cloud by King Louis-Philippe, in 36 splendid coloured plates: the patron's copy
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Adam, Victor. Les chevaux des écuries du Roi. Paris, Tessari & Cie, impression A. Godard, [1843]. Paris, Tessari & Cie, impression A. Godard, [1843]. Folio (425 x 585 mm). 36 hand-coloured lithographic plates in 6 livraisons, each preserving its original printed wrapper. Contemp. black quarter shagreen with decorated flat spine, title stamped in gilt on upper cover with a crowned monogram.

EUR 195,000.00

The only complete copy known of this record of the Arab stud of the French King, consisting of 36 superb horse plates drawn from nature and lithographed by the noted equestrian painter Victor Adam (1801-66), finely enhanced with watercolour and gum arabic by the artist himself. The plates were produced in 1843 with the special permission of the Marquis de Strada, stablemaster to the French King, when Louis-Philippe created a stud in the park of Saint-Cloud for the stallions he had received as gifts from the Viceroy of Egypt and other Middle Eastern princes. A contemporary witness to the event, the conte Camille de Montalivet reflected after the fall of the monarchy in his "Le Roi Louis-Philippe et sa liste civile" (1850): "At the end of the year 1842, Mehmet Ali sent to the King seven of his purest stallions, chosen by himself and coming from the most precious Arab race, the Nedjdi species. From the first months of 1843, Louis-Philippe founded an Arab stud in the park of Saint-Cloud, providing one of the most beautiful equestrian centers ever seen. The first tests soon had the best result, and new stallions arrived from Muscat and Morocco". - Muhammad Ali (1769-1849), generally considered the founder of modern Egypt, was Khedive of Egypt from 1804 to his death. A friend of France and an admirer of Napoleon, he had previously offered to King Louis-Philippe (in 1833) the obelisk which graces the Place de la Concorde in Paris. - The six livraisons of six plates each comprise: "Chevaux andalous du Roi et des Princes" (1); "Haras arabe fondé par le Roi à St Cloud. Chevaux Nedjdi offerts au Roi des Français par le Vice-Roi d'Egypte" (2, 4, 5); "Chevaux du Maroc offerts par l'Empereur Muley-abd-err-Rhamann à sa Majesté le Roi des Français" (3); and "Chevaux Mascate offerts au Roi des Français par l'Imam" (6). In addition to the printed dedication to the marquis de Strada, our copy bears an autograph gift inscription to the King's stablemaster "par son humble et très obeissant serviteur David". The plates in livraisons 3, 4, and 6 belong to the 100 printed "avant la lettre"; livraison 4 includes 4 pp. of explanatory text. - Jean-Victor-Vincent Adam joined art school at the early age of 13 and soon enjoyed high acclaim as a painter of horses and equestrian historical scenes (cf. Thieme/B. I, 69). "Il fut donc un spécialiste dans ce genre et son nom mérite au premier titre de figurer dans uns bibliographie hippique" (Menessier de la Lance I, 6). After several successful exhibitions, he learned lithography in 1824, producing nearly eight thousand different subjects. - Plates professionally cleaned with some traces of foxing. A unique set; unrecorded in trade or auction, no other copy traced in public collections.

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An Arabic source for Copernicus: the first use of decimal fractions in Europe
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Al-Zarqali, Abu Ishaq Ibrahim / Bianchini, Giovanni (ed.). Tabulae de motibus planetarum. [Ferrara, ca 1475]. [Ferrara, ca 1475]. Folio (242 x 340 mm). Latin manuscript on paper. 160 leaves (complete including four blank leaves at the beginning and six at the end). Written in brown ink in a neat humanistic hand, double columns, 37 lines to each page, numerous two and three line initials supplied in red or blue. With one large illuminated initial and coat of arms of the Scalamonte family flanked by floral decoration on first leaf, painted in shades of blue, green and lilac and heightened in burnished gold. With altogether 231 full-page tables in red and brown, some marginal or inter-columnar annotations, and one extended annotation on final leaf. Fifteenth century blind stamped goat skin over wooden boards, remains of clasps.

EUR 280,000.00

The so-called Toledan Tables are astronomical tables used to predict the movements of the Sun, Moon and planets relative to the fixed stars. They were completed around the year 1080 at Toledo by a group of Arab astronomers, led by the mathematician and astronomer Al-Zarqali (known to the Western World as Arzachel), and were first updated in the 1270s, afterwards to be referred to as the "Alfonsine Tables of Toledo". Named after their sponsor King Alfonso X, it "is not surprising that" these tables "originated in Castile because Christians in the 13th century had easiest access there to the Arabic scientific material that had reached its highest scientific level in Muslim Spain or al-Andalus in the 11th century" (Goldstein 2003, 1). The Toledan Tables were undoubtedly the most widely used astronomical tables in medieval Latin astronomy, but it was Giovanni Bianchini whose rigorous mathematical approach made them available in a form that could finally be used by early modern astronomy. - Bianchini was in fact "the first mathematician in the West to use purely decimal tables" and decimal fractions (Feingold, 20) by applying with precision the tenth-century discoveries of the Arab mathematician Abu'l-Hasan al-Uqilidisi, which had been further developed in the Islamic world through the writings of Al-Kashi and others (cf. Rashed, 88 and 128ff.). Despite the fact that they had been widely discussed and applied in the Arab world throughout a period of five centuries, decimal fractions had never been used in the West until Bianchini availed himself of them for his trigonometric tables in the "Tabulae de motis planetarum". It is this very work in which he set out to achieve a correction of the Alfonsine Tables by those of Ptolemy. "Thorndike observes that historically, many have erred by neglecting, because of their difficulty, the Alfonsine Tables for longitude and the Ptolemaic for finding the latitude of the planets. Accordingly, in his Tables Bianchini has combined the conclusions, roots and movements of the planets by longitude of the Alfonsine Tables with the Ptolemaic for latitude" (Tomash, 141). - The importance of the present work, today regarded as representative of the scientific revolutions in practical mathematics and astronomy on the eve of the Age of Discovery, is underlined by the fact that it was not merely dedicated but also physically presented by the author to the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II in person on the occasion of Frederick's visit to Ferrara. In return for his "Tabulae", a "book of practical astronomy, containing numbers representing predicted times and positions to be used by the emperor's […] astrologers in managing the future" (Westman, 10ff.), Bianchini was granted a title of nobility by the sovereign. - For Regiomontanus, who studied under Bianchini together with Peurbach, the author of the "Tabulae" counted as the greatest astronomer of all time, and to this day Bianchini's work is considered "the largest set of astronomical tables produced in the West before modern times" (Chabbas 2009, VIII). Even Copernicus, a century later, still depended on the "Tabulae" for planetary latitude (cf. Goldstein 2003, 573), which led to Al-Zarquali's Tables - transmitted in Bianchini's adaption - ultimately playing a part in one of the greatest revolutions in the history of science: the 16th century shift from geocentrism to the heliocentric model. - In the year 1495, some 20 years after our manuscript was written, Bianchini's Tables were printed for the first time, followed by editions in 1526 and 1563. Apart from these printed versions, quite a few manuscript copies of his work are known in western libraries - often comprising only the 231 full-page Tables but omitting the 68-page introductory matter explaining how they were calculated and meant to be used, which is present in our manuscript. Among the known manuscripts in public collections is one copied by Regiomontanus, and another written entirely in Copernicus's hand (underlining the significance of the Tables for the scientific revolution indicated above), but surprisingly not one has survived outside Europe. Indeed, the only U.S. copy recorded by Faye (cf. below) was the present manuscript, then in the collection of Robert Honeyman. There was not then, nor is there now, any copy of this manuscript in an American institution. Together with one other specimen in the Erwin Tomash Library, our manuscript is the only preserved manuscript witness for this "crucial text in the history of science" (Goldstein 2003, publisher's blurb) in private hands. Apart from these two examples, no manuscript version of Bianchini's "Tabulae" has ever shown up in the trade or at auctions (according to a census based on all accessible sources). - Condition: watermarks identifiable as Briquet 3387 (ecclesiastical hat, attested in Florence 1465) and 2667 (Basilisk, attested to Ferrara and Mantua 1447/1450). Early manuscript astronomical table for the year 1490 mounted onto lower pastedown. Minor waterstaining in initial leaves and a little worming at back, but generally clean and in a fine state of preservation. Italian binding sympathetically rebacked, edges of covers worn to wooden boards. A precious manuscript, complete and well preserved in its original, first binding. Provenance: 1) Written ca 1475 by Francesco da Quattro Castella (his entry on fol. 150v) for 2) Marco Antonio Scalamonte from the patrician family of Ancona, who became a senator in Rome in 1502 (his illuminated coat of arms on fol. 1r). 3) Later in an as yet unidentified 19th century collection of apparently considerable size (circular paper label on spine "S. III. NN. Blanchinus. MS.XV. fol. 43150"). 4) Robert Honeyman, Jr. (1928-1987), probably the most prominent U.S. collector of scientific books and manuscripts in the 20th century, who "had a particular interest in astronomy" (S. Horobin, 238), his shelf mark "Astronomy MS 1" on front pastedown. 5) Honeyman Collection of Scientific Books and Manuscripts, Part III, Sotheby's, London, Wed May 2, 1979, lot 1110, sold to 6) Alan Thomas (1911-1992), his catalogue 43.2 (1981), sold to 7) Hans Peter Kraus (1907-1988), sold to 8) UK private collection.
¶ Bernard R. Goldstein & José Chabas, 'Ptolemy, Bianchini and Copernicus: Tables for Planetary Latitudes,' Archive for the History of Exact Sciences, vol. 58, no. 5 (July 2004), pp. 553-573. Bernard R. Goldstein & José Chabas, Alfonsine Tables of Toledo (= Dordrecht-Boston-Londres, Kluwer Academic Publishers ("Archimedes, New Studies in the History and Philosophy of Science and Technology" 8), 2003. José Chabás & Bernard R. Goldstein, The Astronomical Tables of Giovanni Bianchini (Leiden & Boston: Brill, 2009). Thorndike, 'Giovanni Bianchini in Paris Mss,' Scripta Mathematica 16 (1950) 69ff. & his 'Giovanni Bianchini in Italian Mss.,' Scripta Mathematica 19 (1953) 5-17. Rashed, Development of Arabic Mathematics: Between Arithmetic and Algebra. Boston, 2013. Mordechai Feingold & Victor Navarro-Brotons, Universities and Science in the Early Modern Period. Boston 2006. R. Westman, Copernicus and the Astrologers. Smithsonian 2016. M. Williams, The Erwin Tomash Library on the History of Computing, 2008, 141. Simon Horobin & Linne Mooney, English Texts in Transition: A Festschrift Dedicated to Toshiyuki Takamiya on his 70th Birthday. Woodbridge 2014. Silvia Faschi, Prima e dopo la raccolta: diffusione e circolazione delle Satyrae, di Francesco Filelfo. Spunti dall' epistolario edito ed ineditio. In: Medioevo e Rinascimento. XIV, n.s. XI (2000), 147-166 (mentioning a connection between the Italian Humanist and Marco Antonio Scalamonte). C. U. Faye & W. H. Bond, Supplement to the Census of Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts in the United States and Canada (1962), p. 21, no. 12 (this manuscript).

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The first printed record of Abu Dhabi and Dubai
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Balbi, Gasparo. Viaggio dell'Indie Orientali. Venice, Camillo Borgominieri, 1590. Venice, Camillo Borgominieri, 1590. 8vo. (16), 149 ff. (misnumbered as 159), (1) p., (23) ff., with woodcut diagram (f. 144), woodcut headpieces and initials. Bound in 19th c. polished tan calf, gilt spine, gilt borders to covers, gilt turn-ins, marbled pastedowns, red edges, silk ribbon bookmark, stamped by binder "Dupré" on front flyleaf.

EUR 150,000.00

First edition of this important travelogue by the Venetian state jeweller and gem merchant Gasparo Balbi, detailing his nine-year voyage from Venice to the Far East between 1579 and 1588, and a work of special historical interest for its eyewitness information about the Arabian Peninsula in this early period. In this book, Balbi was "the first writer to record the place names between al-Qatif and Oman that are still in use today" (G. R. King, p. 74). His "interest in the area lay in the pearls that came from the oyster beds of which the most extensive are those in the waters around al-Bahrayn, those off the Qatar peninsula and especially those in the western waters of Abu Dhabi. Either taking his information first-hand from a local individual or using a navigator's list, Balbi recorded place-names along the coast of modern Qatar, the United Arab Emirates and the Sultanate of Oman" (G. King, p. 248). According to Slot, "practically none of the names of places on the coast between Qatar and Ras al Khaima occur in other sources before the end of the eighteenth century" (p. 36). The present work is also of the highest significance for including "the first European record of the Bani Yas tribe" (UAE Yearbook 2006, p. 20), the largest and most important tribe of the Arabian Peninsula, from which emerged both the Al Nahyan and the Al Maktoum dynasties, today's ruling families of Abu Dhabi and Dubai. Balbi travelled extensively in the Arabian Peninsula in search of precious stones. He knew "the waters off the Abu Dhabi coast as the Sea of Qatar and mentions the following places now in UAE territory: Daas (Das), Emegorcenon (Qarnein), Anzevi (Azanah), Zerecho (Zirkuh), Delmephialmas (Dalma), Sirbeniast (Sir Bani Yas), Aldane (Dhanna), Cherizan (identified as Khor Qirqishan, just off Abu Dhabi island), Dibei (Dubai), Sarba (Sharjah), Agiman (Ajman), Emelgovien (Umm al-Quwain), Rasa-elchime (Ras al Khaimah), Sircorcor (Khor al-Khuwair), Debe (Dibba), Chorf (Khor Fakkan) and Chelb (Kalba)" (G. R. King, UAE: A New Perspective, 74). From Venice Balbi sailed for Aleppo, proceeding to Bir and from there overland to Baghdad, descending the Tigris to Basra, where he embarked for India. The "Viaggio dell'Indie Orientali" proved to be the most widely read source of information about India throughout the next century. In the tradition of mercantile guidebooks, such as the 14th century "Practica della mercatura" compiled by Pegolotti, this is one of the few secular travelogues to the Orient published in the 16th century. And in addition to providing the kind of practical information required by merchants trading in precious stones among other wares, Balbi, with a jeweler's eye for rarities, allows himself considerable license in recording his personal observations at exotic sights (e.g., the cave Temples of Elephanta and his enthusiasm for elephant tusks f. 100v) or in mentioning incidental occurrences along the way, such as his chance meeting in Goa with the famous embassy of Japanese legates on their way home. Balbi dates his stays to particular places in a precise manner, always gives a careful explanation of the local system of exchange (coins, weights, and measures), describes commercial routes in India in detail and even includes a monsoon calendar. Balbi also discusses Goa, Negapatam, and Pegu (Burma), the latter a source of great fascination owing to its sensational wealth and the section most frequently anthologized in travel collections. The "Viaggio dell'Indie Orientali" was reprinted in 1600 (also rare). The account was translated into Latin and equipped with illustrations in the 1606 'India' volume of the De Bry series, and a partial English translation (above all, the section on Pegu) subsequently appeared in Purchas. An Arabic translation was published in 2008, but a full English translation never appeared. - Minor rubbing and edge wear to spine and boards. Narrow upper margin, mend at f. 25, otherwise remarkably well preserved.
¶ BM-STC Italian 68. Howgego I, B7. Cordier Japonica 112. Brunet I, 618. Graesse I, 279. Kress Library of Economic Literature S 276. B. J. Slot, The Arabs of the Gulf, 1602-1784. G. King, "Delmephialmas and Sircorcor: Gasparo Balbi, Dalmâ, Julfâr and a Problem of Transliteration," Arabian Archeology and Epigraphy, vol. 17 (2006), pp. 248-252. UAE Yearbook 2006, p. 20. G. R. King, "The Coming of Islam and the Islamic Period in the UAE," in UAE: A New Perspective, I. Al-Abed & P. Hellyer (eds.), pp. 68-97. W. M. Floor, The Persian Gulf: A Political and Economic History of Five Port Cities, 1500-1730. Lach, Asia in the Making of Europe, I.1, 473-475. Penrose, Travel and Discovery, 198. Placido Zurla, Di Marco Polo e degli altri viaggiatori veneziani piu illustri, II, 258-265. J. Charpentier, "Cesare di Fedrici and Gasparo Balbi," Indian Antiquary LIII (1924), pp. 51-54.

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The ruling family of Dubai visits Pakistan
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[Dubai - Royal Family]. Photograph album. Pakistan, early 1970s. Pakistan, early 1970s. 40 photographs (29 in colour and 11 black-and-white). Various sizes (300 x 207 mm to 125 x 125 mm). Stored in large, six-leaf self-adhesive tan leather album (oblong folio, 43 x 34 cm). Includes 51 original colour slides.

EUR 35,000.00

A privately assembled photo album showing the ruling family of Dubai during a state visit to Pakistan, apparently in the early 1970s. Pakistan was the first country to accord formal recognition to the United Arab Emirates after the state's emergence in 1971. - Nearly half of the images show HH Sheikh Rashid bin Saeed Al Maktoum (1912-90), the father of the modern Emirate of Dubai, in conversation, at dinners, and relaxing in the garden. Other photos show his sons, the crown prince and later ruler HH Sheikh Maktoum bin Rashid Al Maktoum (1943-2006), the present ruler HH Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum, and HH Sheikh Ahmed bin Rashid Al Maktoum. The collection was assembled by Azhar Abbas Hashmi, a high-ranking officer of the Pakistani UBL bank (United Bank Limited), founded in 1959 by Agha Hasan Abedi (1922-95), who is seen in seven photographs with HH Sheikh Rashid as well as with his two older sons. While several pictures show the members of the royal family in negotiations with the Karachi banking officials, there are also fascinating images of a falconry tour to the Pakistani countryside (including a fine portrait of HH Sheikh Ahmed with a falcon perched on his arm). The more than fifty original colour slides show other scenes of the same visit; only four of the images are among the prints included in the album. - Some occasional creases and even the odd tear, but in general finely preserved. Three photos printed by Karachi's "Eveready Studio", some inscribed in ballpoint with identification on the reverse ("Mr. S. L. Anwar, HH, Mr. Masood Naqvi, Mr. Iqbal Khateeb / Mr. Hashmi showing the prospect drawings"), one in Arabic, another with ownership stamp: "Azhar Abbas Hashmi, Vice President Gulf Operations, International Division, UBL, HO, Karachi". An unpublished set, entirely unknown and without counterparts in the online Keystone or Hulton/Getty press photo archives, from the estate of Azhar Abbas Hashmi (1940-2016), Pakistani financial manager and eminent literary patron with close ties to Karachi University. Long with UBL, Hashmi would serve as the bank's vice-president before founding several important cultural organisations and becoming known as a man of letters in his own right. It was because of Hashmi’s close connections to the Gulf states that Abu Dhabi provided funds to build the Karachi University’s faculty of Islamic studies, along with Sheikh Zayed Islamic Centre and Jamiya Masjid Ibrahi.

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Alhazen’s optics: the exceedingly rare first edition of a milestone in Arabic science
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Ibn al-Haytham, Abu 'Ali al-Hasan (Alhazen). [Kitab al-Manazir, latine]. Opticae thesaurus. Alhazeni Arabis libri... septem, nunc primum editi. Eiusdem liber de crepusculis & Nubium ascensionibus. Item Vitellonis Thuringopoloni libri X [...]. (Ed. F. Risner). Basel, Eusebius Episcopius & heirs of Nicolaus Episcopius, (August) 1572. Basel, Eusebius Episcopius & heirs of Nicolaus Episcopius, (August) 1572. Folio (248 x 350 mm). 2 parts in 1 vol. 1st blank f., (6), 288 pp. (8), 474, (2) pp. With 2 different woodcut printer's devices on t. p. and colophon, half-page woodcut on reverse of t. p. (repeated on half-title of pt. 2), and numerous diagrams in the text. Near-contemporary full vellum binding with giltstamped red spine label. All edges sprinkled in red.

EUR 125,000.00

First edition of "the most important work of its kind in Arabic literature" (cf. Poggendorf). Ibn al-Haytham (965-c. 1040), known as Alhazen in the Latin tradition, has been hailed as "the greatest Muslim physicist and one of the greatest students of optics of all times [...] The Latin translation [...] exerted a great influence upon Western science. It showed a great progress in experimental method. [Alhazen's book contains] research in catoptrics, [a] study of atmospheric refraction, [a] better description of the eye, and better understanding of vision [as well as an] attempt to explain binocular vision [and the] earliest use of the camera obscura" (Sarton). "This combined edition served as the standard reference work on optics well into the 17th century, influencing scientists such as Brahe, Kepler, Galileo, and Descartes" (Norman). "The Arab physicist Alhazen preserved for us all that was known by the ancients in the field of optics and added some contributions of his own. His book remained a standard authority thru the 1600s. He understood that light emanated spherically from a point and greatly improved on Ptolemy's uncertain rule for refraction which, he showed, held true only for small angles. He covered many cases of reflection and refraction and his explanation of the structure and function of the eye was followed for 600 years" (Dibner). "Ibn al-Haytham's Book of Optics is now a thousand years old. It revolutionized optics and had great impact on science in Europe, being cited by Roger Bacon and Johannes Kepler, among others" (AR, p. 99). "It is remarkable that in the Islamic world the 'Optics' practically disappeared from view soon after its appearance in the 11th century until, in the beginning of the 14th century, the Persian scholar Kamal al-Din composed his great critical commentary on it [...] By this time the 'Optics' had embarked on a new career in the West where it was already widely and avidly studied in a Latin translation of the late 12th or early 13th century, entitled 'Perspectiva' or 'De aspectibus' [...] The Latin translation was published by Frederick Risner at Basel in 1572 in a volume entitled 'Opticae thesaurus', which included Witelo's 'Perspectiva' [...] Risner's Latin edition made [the 'Optics'] available to such mathematicians as Kepler, Snell, Beeckman, Fermat, Harriot, and Descartes, all of whom except the last directly referred to Alhazen", though Descartes "employed [the work] in his successful deduction of the sine law" (DSB, p. 194-197). The 'Liber de crepusculis', the work on dawn and twilight included in Risner's 'Opticae thesaurus' and attributed to Alhazen, is actually the work of his contemporary Abu 'Abdallah Muhammad ibn Mu'adh al-Jayyani (cf. Norman; DSB, p. 208). The optical study by the Polish scholar Witelo, likewise here included, is "a massive work that relies extensively on Alhazen [and] offers an analysis of reflection that was not surpassed until the 17th century" (Norman). - Variously browned due to paper, but altogether quite a crisp, wide-margined copy, with an apparently contemporary handwritten ownership to the title page (deleted some time in the 17th or 18th century), a very few inconspicuous repairs to the edges, a faint waterstain to the lower margin and some slight worming to the lower gutter. Binding tight and well-preserved, with 17th or early 18th century library shelfmarks to front pastedown. An unusually fine specimen of a principal work of Arabic science as received in the West.
¶ VD 16, H 693 (H 692, V 1761). Adams A 745. BM-STC 383. Dibner 138. Norman 1027. Honeyman I, 73. DSB VI, 205. GAL I, 470. Poggendorf I, 31. Duncan 113. Sarton I, 721. Carmody p. 140. Thorndike/Kibre 803, 1208. Vagnetti D62. BNHCat A 241. IA 103.705. Brunet I, 180. Arabick Roots Doha AR79.

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Unrecorded account of an encounter with Sheikh Zayed the Great (1835-1909) of Abu Dhabi
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[Logbook of HMS Perseus]. Stephen B. Church, signalman aboard HMS Perseus. Unpublished manuscript logbook of a British expedition to... the Gulf, containing a hitherto unrecorded account of a meeting with Sheikh Zayed bin Khalifa Al Nahyan, "the Great" (1835-1909), grandfather and namesake of the founder of the UAE, Sheikh Zayed. Middle East, mainly Arabian Gulf, Oman, Kuwait, and Somaliland, 1901-1904. Middle East, mainly Arabian Gulf, Oman, Kuwait, and Somaliland, 1901-1904. 4to. English manuscript in black ink on paper. Approximately 260 pp. With 7 mounted albumen prints (3 depicting the aftermath of the bombing of "a pirate fort at Balhaf Arabia [...] July 19th 1902"). Original boards covered in loose cloth. Includes another volume recording Church's tours (ca. 1896-98) on the ships HMS Magnifence and HMS Barracouta, mostly in the Mediterranean and South America, with a series of approx. 32 albumen print photographs. Stored in custom-made giltstamped morocco case.

A unique primary source, without doubt one of the earliest and most valuable Western documents on the region still in private hands: a richly detailed, entirely unpublished manuscript account of a British naval signalman's tour of the coastal areas along the Arabian Gulf aboard HMS "Perseus", a then quite new Royal Navy protected cruiser launched only in 1897 and equipped with modern quick-firing naval guns. Intriguingly, the diary covers several meetings with the Sheikhs of the Trucial Coast, but also military engagements with Somali pirates and Ottoman troops, and describes providing support to British interests in international campaigns. Perhaps most interestingly, between Friday, 17th, and Sunday, 19th of April 1903, the Perseus successively called at Sharjah, Dubai, and Abu Dhabi, where the ruling Sheikhs were individually received on board and presented with gifts, visits that are recounted in detail in Church's journal. At 2.30 p.m. on Friday, the cruiser "arrived and anchored at Sharjai. The Sheikh [Saqr bin Khalid Al Qasimi] came off to see the Political Resident [Sir Charles Arnold Kemball] and with his chiefs were shown over the ship and were much interested with the working of the guns. A target was laid out and a small belt of .45 containing 134 rounds was expended and the Sheikh himself was permitted to fire about half of this. He was very pleased at the result and said he would like to get one himself. He also exploded a mine consisting of 2¼ lbs guncotton with the result that the barrel & flag were blown high in the air and loads of large fish with it". Sheikh Saqr was then presented by Sir Charles with gifts including "silk embroidered and jewels for the [he]ir", as well as with "a modern pistol and some ammunition". The following day, the Perseus left Sharjah at 1.45 and "arrived at Habai [Dubai] 12 miles distant at 3.5 p.m." Upon his visit to the ship, Sheikh Maktoum bin Hasher Al Maktoum is similarly given the privilege of firing the Maxim Gun; he, too, explodes the mine and is presented with lavish gifts. Church describes Dubai as "built around a large fresh water lake"; "mixed with hundreds of palm trees", it "looks an ideal town". After giving Sheikh Maktoum a three-gun salute, the Perseus departs for Abu Dhabi at 7 p.m., arriving the following morning at 8 o'clock. The British sailors find their ship has already aroused the interest of Sheikh Zayed bin Khalifa Al Nahyan, who at first suspected it might be French or Russian, due to the Perseus being painted in French Grey. "The Sheikh now came off to the ship preceded by his son [possibly Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan]. They were shown round the ship, and a belt of 134 rounds was expended from a Maxim gun and he also exploded a mine of guncotton, which throwed target and a large volume of water in the air and greatly amused them. The Sheik was then presented with costly presents brough[t] especially for him. As he was leaving the ship to go ashore, the Muscat Ensign was hoisted and a salute of 5 guns given him which was two more than the others had [...] There are many palm trees and the country [...] is fertile". Fearing that other European powers might wish to establish a military presence in the Gulf, it is little surprise that the British were anxious to court the rulers of the emirates: only half a year later, Lord Curzon, the Viceroy of India, would make a personal tour of the Gulf in a follow-up visit to the one detailed here. - Another prominent Arab visitor to be received was Mubarak Al-Sabah, "the Great", the founder of modern-day Kuwait who ruled the country from 1896 till 1915. Of Al Jahra, Church writes that "very little could be seen here but the Desert and thousands of camels [...] Party returned onboard with Sheikh and his staff [...] they seemed very much interested in the electric lights. The Sheikh has a very antiquated sword with him which looked a formidable weapon" (12 Sept. 1901). Bahrain is described as "belong[ing] to Muscat [and having] a ruling Sheikh [Isa ibn Ali Al Khalifa] and a British Consul". Muscat, too, is frequently mentioned: in April 1901 the ship, for the first of many occasions, "saluted the Sultan of Muskat with 21 Guns which was returned from the old fort". In October "H.R.M. the Sultan of Muscat honoured us with a visit of an hours duration [...] he was very elegantly dressed in the style of this country and very much interested in the guns". On a future visit the Sultan's army of 300 men were aboard, "all fully armed with rifles of the most antiquated patterns, blunderbusses some of which were 6 feet in length [...] the ages of the troops varied in appearance from 10 years to 90". Arriving from Kuwait at Muscat on 13 November "the Zanzibar ensign was flying onshore from every possible place to welcome home their Sultan". At Jehara, Persia, "Arabs [were] onboard training in the use of 7 Pounds Field Guns" (14 Jan. 1902), while at Hobya ["Obbia", Somalia] the local Sultan "bought us 3 buckshee sheep for the officers. The Sultan was not very gorgeously attired [...] all he wore was a suit of bathing drawers and hair about 6 inches standing up on end and making him look a most weird object". Church later (30 Dec. 1902) records that this Sultan was discovered to have been in "daily communication with the Mad Mullah [Mohammed Abdullah Hassan, leader of the Somali Dervish rebellion]". - The constant threat of real violence, against the background of trading in weapons and political dialogue with local leaders, punctuates the narrative. At Kuwait, on 13 August 1901, "the signalmen were detailed to closely watch for a large army of Turkish soldier marching into Kuwait [... some rumours] estimated the number of Turkish soldiers expected [...] to be 50,000", and on 24 August "a suspicious craft" was seen coming down from the Euphrates which later proved to be a Turkish "Man a'Fight", after which ensued a 24 hour stand-off during which "we quite expected a sharp engagement and visions of medals and decorations" before the Turkish ship withdrew. On 19 July 1902 the author provides a harrowing description (accompanied by three photographs) of the bombardment with lyddite shells of a pirate fortress at Balhaf, Yemen, "on account of the Arabs presenting themselves with loaded rifles [...] in less than an ½ an hour the fort was a heap of ruins". A "wild cat" brought on board after the shelling surprisingly survived for a month, "as nothing living is supposed to survive the fumes of these deadly shells". During another bombardment along the Yemen coast at Ash Shihr "the principal buildings to be destroyed were Dar Nasar & Hasu-saidth together with the Sultans palace" (16 July 1902). Piracy was deemed a constant threat also along the coast, Church noting that "the natives here were armed with spears and seemed very hostile" (May 1902). On one occasion, HMS Perseus confronted Arab smugglers, "killing the captain of the dhow leaving only his head and legs intact. Another man was shockingly mutilated", and capturing a cache of French-made weapons which had been "bound for Makullah where the gear was to be shipped in large dhows for the use of the Mad Mullah's party in Somaliland" (2 June 1902). - Among the more pleasant missions of the Perseus must have been carrying the geological surveying team from Karachi to Muscat and transporting "Indian princes returning to India after the coronation of their Emperor" at Aden. Church also describes observing "about 500 men engaged in Pearl fishing [...] at Sheikh Island", as well as swimming in Muscat harbour "free from sharks [...] the water literally swarmed with fish of all sizes. Photographs include the ship's crew at work, the Perseus moored "at Madras, October 15th 1903", "Aden natives 1902", and "the landing of the Duke and Duchess of Connaught at Aden, Sunday, December 21st 1902". - Stephen Bennett Church was born in Kent in 1876. He worked as a gardener before going to sea and served in various capacities on a large number of ships between 1892 and 1919, when he transferred to the coast guard. - Some dampstaining near the beginning; a few edge flaws to pages, but in general an extremely well preserved, well legible survival.

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A truly outstanding Cedid: the only one in its original binding and with verified Western provenance ever offered
8

Mahmoud Ra'if. Cedid Atlas Tercümesi [= New Atlas, Translated]. Üsküdar/Istanbul, Tab'hane-yi Hümayunda / Mühenduishâne Press, 1218 H (April 1803-March 1804). Üsküdar/Istanbul, Tab'hane-yi Hümayunda / Mühenduishâne Press, 1218 H (April 1803-March 1804). Folio (538 x 363 mm). Engraved, illustrated title-page, 79 pp. and 25 engraved maps (2 on 2 sheets joined), after William Faden, in contemporary hand colour. Contemporary blindstamped limp morocco, richly gilt. Stored in custom-made half morocco case.

EUR 250,000.00

The first European-style atlas printed in the Islamic world: an exceedingly rare, handsome, and complete example in its original first binding of "the rare Cedid Atlas, the first world atlas printed by Muslims, of which only fifty copies were printed" (Library of Congress, An illustrated guide ). Several copies were reserved for high ranking officials and important institutions. The remainder was partially destroyed in a warehouse fire during the Janissary Revolt of 1808. "Based on several estimates and accounting for the single maps (torn-out from bound volumes of the atlas) sold or being offered worldwide, it is believed that a maximum of 20 complete examples could be present in libraries or in private collections, whereas some sources suggest that there exist only 10 complete and intact copies in the world. As such, it's one of the rarest printed atlases of historical value" (Wikipedia, s. v.). - This work, a prestigious project for the Ottoman Palace with the seal of approval of the Sultan Selim III, was one of the avantgardistic enterprises promoted by Mahmoud Ra'if to introduce Western technical and scientific knowledge to the Ottoman state. Composed of 25 maps based upon William Faden's 'General Atlas', it is the first Muslim-published world atlas to make use of European geographic knowledge. On each of the maps the place-names are transliterated in Arabic. The Atlas includes Raif's 79-page geographical treatise "Ucalet ül-Cografiye" and the, usually missing folding celestial map on blue paper. - An excellent copy, only a few minor stains, some offsetting of a sea chart onto verso of map of England, the beautiful binding expertly rebacked. A severely defective copy recently commanded an auction price of USD 118,750 (Swann Galleries NY, 26 May 2016, lot 199). - Provenance: 1) Hussein Dey, 1765-1838, the last Ottoman ruler of the Regency of Algiers, who governed from 1818 until the French takeover in 1830; 2) Zisska & Kistner sale 8 (Munich, 24 Oct. 1986), lot 3325; sold to 3) Michael S. Hollander, California, from whom we were able to acquire the present volume in 2019.
¶ OCLC 54966656. Not in Philipps/Le Gear. Not in Atabey or Blackmer collections.

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Translated from Arabic, uniting the Judaic and Islamic astrological traditions
9

Mascha'allah Ibn-Atari / Al-Kindi, Abu Yusuf Ya Qub ibn Ishaq / et al. Liber novem iudicum in iudiciis astrorum. Mesehella, Aomar,... Alkindus, Zael (etc.). Venice, Petrus Liechtenstein, (4 Jan.) 1509. Venice, Petrus Liechtenstein, (4 Jan.) 1509. 4to. (6), 96 ff. With a woodcut initial coloured in red and green and several diagrams. Rubricated throughout. - (Bound after) II: Aristotle. Meteorologia. (Nuremberg, Friedrich Peypus, 11 Nov. 1512). 94, (6) ff. (final blank). With 8 large woodcuts in the text, some with touches of contemporary colour. Rubricated throughout. - (Bound with) III: Abraham ben 'Ezra (Aben Ezra, Avenares). In re iudiciali opera. (Venice, Petrus Liechtenstein, 1507). 96 ff. (f. 92 blank). Rubricated throughout, some initials coloured green. Contemporary wooden boards on three raised double bands with leather spine. Two brass clasps (repaired).

EUR 85,000.00

I: Editio princeps of this "work composed in Arabic probably exactly in the form in which it is preserved in Latin, typical of the encyclopaedic period but limited [...] to certain early sources" (Carmody), uniting the Judaic and Islamic astrological traditions. The form, arranged in twelve parts according to each house, is based on the doctrines of Sahl al-Tustari. The various tracts are constructed from chapters compiled systematically from such writers as Mâshâ'allâh (including the first printing of 'De electionibus') and al-Kindi. The crucial factor that they were translated intact in their present form from Arabic "is apparent in the unified Latin style and terminology" (ibid.). The collection includes a number of quotations attributed to Ptolemy; the rare mention of "Abuali" refers perhaps to Abu 'Ali al-Khayyâj. - "Masha'allah, [a Jew from Basra,] was one of those early 'Abbasid astrologers who introduced the Sassanian version of the predictive art to the Arabs; he was particularly indebted to the Pahlavi translation of Dorotheus of Sidon and to the 'Zik i Shahriyaran', or Royal Astronomical Tables, issued under the patronage of Khusrau Anushirwan in 556. He was also acquainted with some Greek material (perhaps through Arabic versions of Syriac texts) and would have acquired some knowledge of Indian science, both through the Pahlavi texts that he read and through such Indian scientists as the teacher of al-Fazari and Kanaka, who visited the courts of al-Mansur and Harun al-Rashid. It is during al-Mansur's reign that Masha'allah's name first appears: he participated in the astrological deliberations that led to the decision to found Bagdad [...] Masha'allah wrote on virtually every aspect of astrology [...] ['De electionibus'], which quotes Dorotheus, is ascribed to Masha'allah and Ptolemy but is probably by neither" (DSB IX, 159 ff.). - Extremely rare. A very clean copy with only an insignificant inkstain in the lower margin of ff. 12v and 13r and tiny traces of worming in the upper margin of the final two leaves. A few contemporary handwritten marginalia; f. 80v has a contemporary handwritten ownership of Wigand, Baron Redwitz (1476-56), bishop of Bamberg, who as a young man had travelled to Palestine and is remembered as a conservative but not fanatical Catholic cleric during the tumultuous years of the Reformation. - Bound with this work in the same appealing Renaissance volume are two other rare, thematically related contemporary treatises. - II: Aristotle's "Meteorology", long known in the West only through a Latin translation based on the Arabic version "al-'Athar al-`Ulwiyyah". This is the very rare illustrated first edition of Faber's expanded translation, including an extensive commentary by Johannes Cochlaeus, who also mentions the recently-discovered American continent ("Nova illa Americi terra", f. 62v). Comprising the first three of Aristotle's four books (on the heavens, water, and wind), it also constitutes "one of the main sources of medieval geology" (Stillwell, Awakening 577). "Cochlaeus's discussion of the relationship between motion and heat appears quite modern" (cf. Spahn). The woodcuts, coloured in earth tones or simply accented by the rubricator, show spheres as well as light and cloud phenomena; a large woodcut (f. 60v) shows the climate zones of the ancient world. - A single, tiny wormhole in the blank lower margin throughout; another small wormhole in the first two leaves (repaired in A1, insignificant loss to a few letters in A2). A clean and wide-margined copy. - III: The first collected edition of ten astrological treatises by the 12th-century Jewish mathematician and astronomer Ibn Ezra from Tudela in Spain. During his lifetime the town was under the Muslim rule of the emirs of Zaragoza; later he lived in Muslim Andalusia. "Ibn Ezra disseminated rationalistic and scientific Arabic learning in France, England and ltaly [... He] wrote a number of astrological works that were very popular [...] all of them appeared in Latin in 1507. They are rich in original ideas and in the history of scientific subjects" (DSB). - Contemporary marginalia in red, green, and brown ink throughout. Some insignificant browning. The well-preserved binding shows a hunting scene blindstamped into the leather. A fine assembly of important natural scientific works: published by Christian editors and printers in the early Renaissance, they bring together the Muslim and Jewish traditions that were the driving forces behind mediaeval science.
¶ I: Edit 16, CNCE 63196. BM-STC ltalian 424. Houzeau/Lancaster 751 ("volume tres rare"). DSB IX, 162. Carmody p. 112. Not in Adams, Mortimer, Essling, Stillwell, Honeyman. - II: VD 16, L 959. Cranz/Schmitt 13. Hoffmann I, 321. Schweiger I, 60. IA 107.806. Alden/Landwehr 512/1. Zinner 953. Brüggemann/Brunken 29. Spahn, Cochläus, p. 16. - III: Edit 16, CNCE 35576. IA 100.150. Adams A 38. Proctor-Is. 12998. Stillwell, Awakening 2. Houzeau/Lancaster 3927 ("rare"). Thorndike II, 917 & 927. DSB IV, 502.

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Only surviving fragment of one of the earliest Qurans, produced about a century after the death of the Prophet in 11 AH (632 CE)
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[Qur'an - Manuscript]. [Quran]. [Syria or Iraq, ca. 95-125 AH (ca. 715-740 CE)]. [Syria or Iraq, ca. 95-125 AH (ca. 715-740 CE)]. [2] pp. (1 leaf, written on both sides). Oblong (13 x 20 cm). A single leaf from a Quran, containing surah 8, verses 72-75 and surah 9, verses 1-11, written in dark brown and red ink on parchment, in an early upright kufic hand with higazi influences, with 17 lines per page, with the title to surah 9 and the (possibly later) vowel points in red.

EUR 250,000.00

The only surviving fragment of one of the earliest known Qurans, probably from the Umayyad Caliphate: a single leaf containing on the recto surah 8:72-75 and surah 9:1-3, and on the verso surah 9:4-11, with the heading for surah 9 written in red ink, and with red dots as vowel points. The Corpus coranicum includes it among the forty or so earliest surviving Quran fragments and classifies its Arabic manuscript hand as kufic, a style that originated in what are now Iraq and Syria toward the end of the first century AH (in the late 600s CE), but it shows influences from the higazi or hijazi hand used in Mecca and Medina in the 600s CE and possibly even from serto Syriac hands. The script is fully upright with a strong horizontal line but very little contrast between thick and thin. - Islamic tradition indicates that the Archangel Jibril (Gabriel) began revealing the Quran to Muhammad in 610 and completed it before he returned to Mecca in 628 CE. Before his death in 632 CE (11 AH) it was always transmitted orally, but parts were written down soon after his death and the whole Quran was codified around 650 CE (around 30 AH). No complete Quran is known to survive until 393 AH (1002/03 CE) and the earlier fragments are nearly all undated: only one dated fragment is known from the first century AH (622-719 CE) and only two from the second (719-816 CE). The extremely rare early fragments have therefore generally been dated by comparing their writing with dated papyri containing other Arabic texts, sometimes supported by radiocarbon dating. But the dating is also subject to political, religious and scholarly controversy. There are thought to be surviving fragments of about 35 Qurans from the first century AH in about 25 collections around the world, about half in Europe, but few of them include the present verses. The Corpus coranicum and Islamic-awareness.org record only five other early manuscripts containing the present verses, all in higazi hands: British Library, London: Ms. Or. 2165; Bibiliotheque Nationale, Paris: Ms. Arab. 330g; Russian National Library, St Petersburg: Marcel 18; Museum of Turkish and Islamic Art, Istanbul; and Al-Maktaba al-Sharqiyya, Sana, Yemen: codex Sana I (for some of these, parts of the same manuscript are in other collections). - The present fragment has been radiocarbon dated, but the results give a rather broad range of possible dates: 690-877 CE (70-264 AH) for a 95% probability. But the strongest peak falls around 730 CE putting the most likely date in the period around 715-740 CE (96-123 AH). The fact that its manuscript hand still shows influences from the higazi hand of the late 600s CE supports this early date. Although we have found no manuscript whose hand closely resembles the present one, the best matches also seem to support an early date, such as a series of Egyptian papyri from 91 AH (710 CE) in the Egyptian National Library, Cairo: inv. nos. 333-336. The present fragment therefore seems likely to date from the first quarter of the second century AH, but could possibly date from the last quarter of the first century AH or later in the second century AH. It is in any case one of the earliest surviving Quran fragments. Moreover, as the only surviving leaf of an early Quran it is of the greatest importance for both Quranic textual studies and studies of the development of Arabic manuscript hands. Comparable Quran fragments almost never come on the market. - From the collection of Mark Mersiowsky in Stuttgart. With the upper outside corner lost, affecting the ends of the first five lines on the recto and the beginnings of the first five lines on the verso, a chip at the foot affecting a few words in the last line, and some much smaller gaps or breaks slightly affecting an occasional word. An extraordinary ornament to any collection of Islamitica.
¶ Corpus coranicum manuscript 526 (corpuscoranicum.de/handschriften/index/sure/8/vers/72/handschrift/526 & ...sure/9/vers/4/handschrift/526); Tobias J. Jocham, "Ergebnisse der C14-Probe Privatsammlung Mark Mersiowsky" (report dated 19 March 2015); for 1st century AH quran fragments and links to many illustrations, see also: www.islamic-awareness.org/Quran/Text/Mss/hijazi.html.

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From the library of the Dukes of Bavaria at Tegernsee castle
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Sanquirico, Alessandro. Raccolta di varie decorazioni sceniche inventate e dipinte... per l'I. R. Teatro alla Scala. [Milan, no printer, 1818-1829]. [Milan, no printer, 1818-1829]. Oblong folio (485 x 405 mm). T. p. and 62 engr., hand-coloured etchings by A. Sanquirico (all on paper with watermark "J. Whatman, Turkey Mill"); tissue guards (watermark "FB") preserved throughout. Contemp. green boards with elaborate gilt neo-classical decoration. In same-coloured original slipcase.

EUR 85,000.00

First edition of Sanquirico's synoptic collection of his work, complete in 62 plates, never sold in the regular book trade and presented by the artist only to the highest dignitaries. "La grandiosa collezione del Sanquirico, in fogli di grande formato, stampati e colorati con estrema cura, era evidentemente destinata a clienti 'facoltosi'" (Ferrero). In 1818 Sanquirico set out to publish all the theatre decorations he had executed. The inked and coloured series of etchings was completed in 1829. Sanquirico is considered the best stage designer of his time. From 1817 to 1832 he was "scenografico unico" at the Milano "Scala", where he was much admired for his inexhaustible production of new creations. "He is a master of perspective, and a painter of the finest taste; capable of creating magical effects through colour and light. Every one of his decorations is possessed of a unique magic and rich versatility of invention. There was not an opera in which Sanquirico, apart from the celebrated singers, did not also celebrate his triumph" (Nagler). "La sua attività coincise con uno dei periodi più interessante della lirica italiana, quando ai nomi ormai famosi di Mayr, Mozart e Meyerbeer si alternavano quelli di Rossini, Bellini, Donizetti e Pacini, e il balletto italiano trovava la sua nova espressione nelle pantomime eroiche" (Enc. dello Spettacolo). For this present album, Sanquirico used the best paper available, the strong velin made by the Turkey Mill on which James Audubon also printed his 'Birds of America' (cf. Bannon/Clark, Handbook of Audubon Prints, 35). The colouring is masterfully executed, showing exceptional brilliance. Hundreds of fine hues - in the tropical flora, in the precious costumes of the exotic peoples, in the luminescent pink clouds over the evening landscapes - lend these scenes a unique beauty and atmospheric splendour. - Immaculate, entirely spotless copy in the original boards as issued. Merely the matching slipcase shows traces of restoration, otherwise entirely untouched. - Removed from the library of the Dukes of Bavaria at Tegernsee castle.
¶ Wurzbach XXVIII, 196. Nagler XVI, 135. Enc. dello Spettacolo VIII, 1483. M. V. Ferrero, La Scenografia della Scala nell'età neoclassica, Milan 1983, 91-140.

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The first Book about America by a Muslim
12

Tarikh al-Hind al-Gharbi. Tarikh al-Hind al-Garbi al-müsemma bi-Hadis-i nev [A History... of the Western Indies]. Qustantaniyah (Istanbul), Ibrahim Müteferrika, mid-Ramazan 1142 AH [= 1730 AD]. Qustantaniyah (Istanbul), Ibrahim Müteferrika, mid-Ramazan 1142 AH [= 1730 AD]. 4to (168 x 217 mm). (3), 91 ff. All pages ruled, border coloured in gilt. With an illuminated golden headpiece (serlevha), 4 double-page engraved plates in contemporary colour (celestial chart, diagram with table, 2 world maps), and 13 woodcut illustrations in the text, all coloured by a contemporary hand and partially heightened with gum arabic. Slightly later (c. 1840) half calf, with gilt ornament and the name of the previous owner in Arabic lettering gilt to spine. Marbled endpapers.

A unique copy, with notable provenance, of the first book published with Arabic lettering to contain illustrations, the earliest book about the New World published in the Islamic world, and one of the first titles printed by a Muslim in Turkey. Formerly in the possession of Ahmed Cevdet Pasha (1822-95), one of the most pre-eminent scholars of his time and a prominent figure in the Tanzimat reforms of the Ottoman empire, the present copy is ruled in gold throughout, printed on a variety of burnished papers (a total of 30 leaves dyed in yellow, green, and brown in addition to the standard white), and coloured throughout. It is especially the contemporary colouring of the woodcuts, which depict curious oddities, fantastic creatures and the native people of the New World, that lends the present specimen a visual appearance completely different from that of the rather plain copies in which this book is usually known (14 copies recorded by OCLC). The only similarly embellished copy of the Hind al-Gharbi we could trace is the one held by the Lilly Library. - "Despite the title, this is not a history of the West Indies. It opens with a general geographical and cosmological discussion, and follows with an account of the discovery of the New World, with considerable fantastic elaboration in the spirit of the more fabulous passages of Abu Hamid and Qazwini. Among the illustrations are depictions of trees whose fruits are in human form, long-snouted horses, mermen at battle with land-dwellers, and other men and beasts of nightmarish aspect" (Watson). The present work, which survives in a number of mss. (though in less complete variants than this printed edition), was composed in Istanbul around 1580 by an unidentified author. After a synthesis of Islamic geographical and cosmographical writings, notably drawing from al-Mas'udi, who is the most frequently cited source, and Ibn al-Wardi, mentioned almost 20 times, the book relates the discovery of the New World. In this Chapter 3, which comprises the final two thirds of the text, the author describes the explorations and discoveries by Columbus, Balboa, Magellan, Cortés and Pizarro. As Goodrich's study of the book's sources shows, this section is derived directly from Italian editions of 16th-century texts - particularly works by López de Gómara, Peter Martyr, Agustín de Zárate, and Oviedo - which the author excerpted, rearranged, and translated into Turkish. The history of their discoveries is enlivened with fantastic elaboration, some of which is visible in the woodcuts. The two world maps derive from those in Mercator-Hondius "Atlas minor" and reappear in Katib Celebi's "Cihânnümâ" atlas, printed by Müteferrika two years later, with California represented as an island. Complete examples are rare: the book was printed in an edition of only 500 copies, many of which were subsequently defaced or destroyed for contravening the Islamic teachings against the representation of living things. Toderini appears to call for an astronomical chart in addition to the 4 plates, but Watson describes an astronomical chart and 3 plates. Sabin calls for 3 plates only, as does the John Carter Brown library catalogue. The Bibliothèque nationale copy, sent from Constantinople by the press's patron, Sad Aga, contains 4 plates, as does the present copy, including the Ptolemaic astronomical chart. - Old annotations in Arabic script to front flyleaf. Three leaves remargined. Celestial map with closed tears and 2.5 cm loss to upper right corner (though slightly less near center) and minor loss to the cartouche at lower right corner; the other plates including the two coloured world maps in excellent condition, as most of the printed pages.
¶ John Carter Brown 463. Toderini III, 41. Karatay 250. Sabin 94396. William J. Watson, "Ibrahim Müteferrika and Turkish Incunabula," in: Journal of the American Oriental Society 88, no. 3 (1968), pp. 435-441, no. 4. OCLC 416474553. Cf. T. D. Goodrich, The Ottoman Turks and the New World (Wiesbaden 1990).

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