Printed in Arabic for the first time
2

Abulcasis (Albucasis, Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi). De Chirurgia. Arabice et latine. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1778. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1778. Folio (260 x 307 mm). XXIX, (1), 642 pp. With numerous woodcut illustrations in the text. Modern full calf with giltstamped red spine label.

EUR 18,000.00

Editio princeps: "the first edition in Arabic, and the first modern edition of the text" (Garrison/M.). The volume comprises the surgical section of Albucasis's "Tasrif li-man 'ajiza 'an al-ta'lif", a medical encyclopedia in 30 treatises. This section has been termed the "first rational, complete and illustrated treatise on surgery and surgical instruments. During the Middle Ages it was the leading textbook on surgery until superseded by Saliceto" (ibid.). Includes a wealth of woodcut illustrations of surgical instruments, including a forceps for extracting a dead fetus - a device of his own invention, still in use in modified form. - Abu al-Qasim, hailed as the "father of modern surgery", specialized in curing disease by cauterization. He designed several devices used during surgery, for purposes such as inspection of the interior of the urethra, applying and removing foreign bodies from the throat, inspection of the ear, etc. In his "Al-Tasrif" he described how to ligature blood vessels almost 600 years before Ambroise Paré. Al-Qasim was also the first to describe a surgical procedure for ligating the temporal artery for migraine, also almost 600 years before Pare recorded that he had ligated his own temporal artery for headache that conforms to current descriptions of migraine. His use of catgut for internal stitching is still practised in modern surgery (catgut apparently being the only natural substance capable of being absorbed by the body). - Very slight browning and brownstaining (more pronounced in first and final leaves); contemp. notes on the author, excerpted from reference, on first blank. Lower and outer edges untrimmed; a large-paper copy.
¶ Schnurrer 398. Wellcome II, 5. Garrison/M. 5550. M. H. Fikri, Treasures from the Arab Scientific Legacy in Europe, no. 4. DSB XIV, 585 ("important edition").

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Al Madkhal
5

Al-Qabisi, Abu Al-Saqr Abd al-Aziz Bin Othman Bin Ali (Alchabitius). [Libellus Isagogicus - Al-madkhal]. Preclarum su[m]mi in astroru[m]... scientia principis Alchabitii opus ad scrutanda stellaru[m] [...]. Venice, Petrus Liechtenstein, 1521. Venice, Petrus Liechtenstein, 1521. 4to. 64 ff. With several diagrams and woodcut initials in the text and the printer's full-page woodcut device on the final page, printed in red and black. Near-contemporary limp vellum with 19th century spine label.

EUR 28,000.00

Early edition of Alchabitius' 'Introduction to the Mystery of Judgments from the Stars', with the 'modern' version by Antonius de Fantis. Sessa issued the same work at the same time, but Liechtenstein's edition is superior and especially esteemed for the fine woodcut in black and red (printer's mark) at the end (Weil). Translated by Joannes Hispalensis (in 1144), with the commentary of Joannes de Saxonia. "Although al-Qabisi's education was primarily in geometry and astronomy, his principal surviving treatise, 'Al-madkhal ila sina'at ahkam al-nujum' ('Introduction into the Art of Astrology') in five sections [...], is on astrology. The book, as the title indicates, is an introductory exposition of some of the fundamental principles of genethlialogy; its present usefulness lies primarily in its quotations from the Sassanian Andarzghar literature and from al-Kindi, the Indians, Ptolemy, Dorotheus of Sidon, Masha'allah, Hermes Trismegistus, and Valens. Although completely lacking in originality, it was highly valued as a textbook [... The] Latin version was commented on by Joannes de Saxonia at Paris in 1331" (DSB). - Some traces of worming throughout, mainly confined to margins and expertly repaired. 17th century ownership "Francois Claret" to title page. Rare; a single copy in auction records since 1975.
¶ Edit 16, CNCE 834. Adams A 24. BM-STC 1. BM I, 307. IA 102.864. Essling 301. Sander 223. Houzeau/Lancaster I, 3848. DSB XI, 226. Weil, Cat. VI, 29. OCLC 46413115. Cf. M. H. Fikri, Treasures from The Arab Scientific Legacy in Europe (Qatar 2009), nos. 9f.

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Afonso de Albuquerque's conquest of the Molucca Islands
11

Argensola, Bartolome Leonardo de. Conquista de las islas Malucas. [Madrid, Alonso Martin, 1609]. [Madrid, Alonso Martin, 1609]. Small folio (222 x 296 mm). (12), 407 (but: 411; 316-319 numbered twice), (1) pp. Engraved figurative title (lower border cropped with loss of imprint, as common). 18th century red gilt morocco, boards with richly gilt floral décor, gilt edges of covers, richly gilt spine in seven compartments with raised bands, black title label, speckled edges. Marbled endpapers. In modern custom-made chemise of auburn cloth and a cloth case with spine in red morocco and five raised bands, title in gold.

EUR 35,000.00

First edition of the author's principal work, very rare, especially with the engraved title. The book mostly discusses the Philippines and the Moluccas, but also deals with China, Java, Sumatra, and Ceylon, with references to "los estrechos Persico y Arabico" (p. 12). The Portuguese naval commander Afonso de Albuquerque had conquered Malacca in the early 16th century, several decades after Arab merchants had introduced Islam to the islands. - "Few narratives are written with so much judgment and elegance [...] One of the most important works for the history of the Philippine islands [...] The book also contains matter relating to Sir Francis Drake and American voyages, and to the history of Spanish and Portuguese exploration in the Indies" (Cox). "Very lucidly and elegantly written" (cf. Ebert). "Copies with the engraved title are rare, and still more difficult to find are copies in which the printer's name and date of printing are preserved at its bottom" (cf. Salvá). "For the compilation of this work, the author had the command of all authentic manuscript relations, which were either in official custody, or in private hands, besides the testimony of such persons then living as had been eyewitnesses to any part of what he delivers" (Griffin). - Boards somewhat worn and rubbed, a few spots, some small cracks in the joints, slight defects at head and foot of spine, but altogether a beautifully preserved copy. Final leaf laid down, some small, inconspicuously repaired wormholes near headlines. Some occasional foxing and browning; pages 65-68 with a remargined flaw at the edge (no loss to text). Provenance: Engraved bookplate of Jeremiah Hill (early 18th century). Later in the famous library of Sir Thomas Phillips (1792-1872, with shelfmark and inscription "MHC" in pencil). Sold at Sotheby's June 23, 1988 for £3,800 (lot 110); latterly in the private collection of the Swedish antiquarian bookdealer Björn Löwendahl (1941-2013).
¶ Palau 16089. Cat. Nederl. Scheepv. Mus. 494. Cox I, 284. Brunet I, 419. Ebert 994. Graesse I, 193. Griffin/Ph. 23. Penney 304. Maggs (Spanish Books) 54a. Pardo de Tavera 121. Reiss & Auvermann 40 (Travel & Exploration) 408. Sabin 1946. Salvá 3349.

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The first printed record of Abu Dhabi and Dubai: a genuine copy, perfectly preserved
14

Balbi, Gasparo. Viaggio dell'Indie Orientali. Venice, Camillo Borgominieri, 1590. Venice, Camillo Borgominieri, 1590. 8vo (100 x 147 mm). (16), 159 (but: 149), (23) ff. With woodcut title device, woodcut foliated initials and woodcut navigational diagram on fol. 144. Contemporary full vellum with handwritten spine title (traces of ties).

EUR 150,000.00

First edition of this travelogue by the Venetian state jeweller and merchant, containing much information useful to the contemporary merchant, including rates of exchange, duties, travel routes and distances as well as a detailed account of the pearling grounds in the Arabian Gulf. As only recent research by B. J. Slot (cf. below) has revealed, Balbi was "the first writer to record the place names between al-Qatif and Oman that are still in use today" (UAE: A New Perspective, 74). Thus, the present volume constitutes the earliest printed source for the history of the UAE, Qatar, and Oman. Balbi's "interest in the area lay in the pearls that came from the oyster beds of which the most extensive are those in the waters around al-Bahrayn, those off the Qatar peninsula and especially those in the western waters of Abu Dhabi. Either taking his information first-hand from a local individual or using a navigator’s list, Balbi recorded place-names along the coast of modern Qatar, the United Arab Emirates and the Sultanate of Oman [...] he is the first to refer to many of these places using the names by which they are known today" (G. King, cf. below). According to Slot, "practically none of the names of places on the coast between Qatar and Ras al Khaima occur in other sources before the end of the eighteenth century" (36). The present work is also of the utmost significance for "includ[ing] the first European record of the Bani Yas tribe" (UAE yearbook 2005, 46) - the first printed mention of the largest and most important tribe of the Arabian Peninsula, from which emerged both the Al Nahyan and the Al Maktoum dynasties, today's ruling families of Abu Dhabi and Dubai. - Rare: the present original edition is recorded in no more than some 20 copies worldwide (only two in the U.S., according to OCLC); most libraries hold only the Rome 1962 reprint or the microfiche edition (New Haven 1974). An Arabic translation was published in 2008 (OCLC 298925737); an English translation has not been prepared to this day. - Contemporary accession number "2953" in ink and 20th century pencil notes on flyleaf. Bookplate of Jean-Paul Morin (b. 1946), former director of the Saatchi & Saatchi and Publicis agencies, grandson of the painter Jean Sala, and himself well known as a traveller.
¶ Edit 16, CNCE 3930. BM-STC Italian 68. Howgego I, B7. Cordier Japonica 112. Brunet I, 618. Graesse I, 279. Goldsmiths' 251. Kress library of economic literature S 276. Ibrahim Al Abed, Peter Hellyer. United Arab Emirates: A New Perspective. London 2001. Slot, B. J. The Arabs of the Gulf, 1602-1784. Leidschendam, published with the support of the Cultural Foundation Abu Dhabi, 1993. Geoffrey King. Delmephialmas and Sircorcor: Gasparo Balbi, Dalmâ, Julfâr and a problem of transliteration. In: Arabian archeology and epigraphy 17 (2006) 248-252. United Arab Emirates yearbook 2005 by Ibrahim Al-Abed, Paula Vine, Peter Hellyer. London 2005. The Heritage Library, Qatar, p. 17. Not in Adams. Carter, Robert A. Sea of Pearls, p. 79.

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Editio princeps of the Gospels in Arabic (Darlow/M.)
20

[Biblia arabica - NT]. Evangelium Sanctum Domini nostri Iesu Christi conscriptum a... quatuor Evangelistis sanctis, id est Matthaeo, Marco, Luca et Iohanne. Rome, typographia Medicea, 1590(-1591). Rome, typographia Medicea, 1590(-1591). Folio. 368 pp. With 149 large woodcuts. Early 19th century auburn morocco with gilt spine, ornamental gilt borders and blindstamped cover ornaments. Marbled endpapers.

EUR 28,000.00

Rare first edition of the Gospels in Arabic; the first work to be issued from the Medicean Press, directed by G. B. Raimondi. Printed in Granjon's famous large fount, generally considered the first satisfactory Arabic printing type and appears here for the first time. Apart from the Latin title and colophon, the book is in Arabic throughout. Also in 1591 an Arabic-Latin edition was issued, more common than the present one and reprinted in 1619 and 1774. Illustrated with 149 large woodcuts from 67 blocks by Leonardo Parasole after Antonio Tempesta. - Some various browning throughout as common; slight waterstaining near end. Old ownership stamps of the "Collegium Missionum Nigritiae" on title page; includes photocopy of ownership transferral by the Biblioteca Seminario Vescovile of Verona. An uncommonly appealingly bound example. The Hauck copy fetched $75,000 at Sotheby's in 2006.
¶ Adams B 1822. Mortimer 64. Darlow/Moule 1636. Fück 54. Schnurrer 318. Smitskamp 374.

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Important and early photobook on the Near East
55

Frith, Francis. Egypt and Palestine. Photographed and described. London, James S. Virtue, [1858-1859]. London, James S. Virtue, [1858-1859]. 2 vols. Folio (328 x 447 mm). (8) pp.; (4) pp. of text; a total of 76 photographs on plates by Francis Frith (sizes ca. 145-165 x 215-230 mm), each with a separate leaf of text. Contemporary red morocco, spines and covers gilt. Marbled endpapers; all edges gilt.

EUR 40,000.00

First edition of this important and early photobook on the Near East. During the years 1856-59, Frith (1822-98) made three visits to Egypt and the Holy Land; this selection of his photographs, from wet-collodion 9 x 7 negatives taken with an 8-by-10 inch camera, was published in 25 fascicles of 3 prints each, a work hailed as "one of the most renowned nineteenth-century photobooks" (The Photobook). Most of these images are dated 1857 either in the plate or the printed caption. They include a portrait of the artist in oriental costume folgen and views of Abu Simbel, Aswan, Baalbek, Bethlehem, Damascus, Giza, Hebron, Jerusalem, Karnak, Luxor, Nazareth, Philae, Tiberias, Wadi Kardassy etc. The preliminaries of vol. 1 include title, introduction, table of contents, and subscribers, those of vol. 2 encompass title and contents. Each plate is accompanied by a full-page letterpress description. "Francis Frith is undoubtetly one of the best-known photographers to work in the Near East. His trips to the Levant were a brilliant commercial success as well as an artistic one" (Perez 163). - Some foxing to blank margins, as well as to a few photographs. Modern bookplate of the German anthropologist Jasper Köcke. Bindings very slightly rubbed, but hinges somewhat brittle; unobtrusive chafe-mark to upper cover of vol. 2. Overall a fine, appealingly bound copy.
¶ The Photobook I, 28. Blackmer 1942. Hannavy 561. Gernsheim, History 286. Perez, Focus East 165. Van Haaften-White XII & XV.

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An unpublished manuscript travelogue to the Middle East, with 29 original drawings
58

Gianni, Vittorio. Notizie, ed aventure veridiche di un viaggio intrapreso... da una persona di condizione privata [...] di Urbino [...], sino a Costantinopoli; e del ritorno suo [...]. Middle East, 1769-1770. Middle East, 1769-1770. Folio (235 x 170 mm). Italian manuscript in two parts with 29 original pen and ink drawings (15 and 14), written in black ink in a neat, legible hand, 28 lines to a page. (1), 95, (1) pp. (including illustrations numbered in pencil, upper right, but recto only). Collation, including illustrations: [1 f., 1 p.], [21 ff., 35 pp.], [6 pp.], [17 ff., 26 pp.], [5 pp.] (several sheets cut so that a tab only remains of the second page, and all illustrations tipped in). Contemp. half vellum over marbled paper boards. Generally written on both recto and verso, except for the two title-pages and the illustrations (recto only); all but first and last page enclosed with a single line border, in pencil for text pages and in ink for illustrations.

EUR 90,000.00

Unpublished manuscript giving a vivid and event-filled first person account of a journey from Urbino to Constantinople, well legible and beautifully presented with 29 equally unique pen-and-ink illustrations. - A unique account of a journey from Urbino to Constantinople and back, in 1769-70, hand-written and accompanied by 29 original drawings, which offer views of islands rarely if ever depicted in contemporary travel accounts or series. No counterpart has been found for the illustrations, which appear to have been prepared from eye-witness records. That the artist may have been the author himself is suggested by the fact that he makes no mention of a separate artist, and by the manner in which he introduces the first illustration: 'Il Paise è piccolo come vedrassi della figura, che di curiosita, ed intelligenza di lettori porro a piedi di questo capitolo' (p. 5v). The story of his adventure is equally idiosyncratic, incorporating both a record of foreign places, people and customs common to other such literature, and also an account of a personal tragedy and a dangerous sea-voyage. The manuscript falls within a tradition of cultural exchange and travel writing between Europeans and the Orient; but unlike Luigi Mayer, for example, employed to make drawings of the historical buildings of Constantinople by the English ambassador Sir Robert Ainslie shortly afterwards, or J. B. Hilair, whose paintings made on a trip throughout the Empire with the French ambassador Count Choiseul-Gouffier in 1776, and engraved and published in Gouffier's "Voyage pittoresque de la Grèce" (1778-82), Gianni appears to be an entirely independent figure. Though the manuscript is set out like a printed book and was presumably destined for wider distribution in that form as a money-making enterprise, Gianni does not seem to have been commissioned, nor to have hoped for patronage. His stated aim is simply to give a true account to his readers, in case they might wish to undertake a similar journey. His route takes him through great cities such as Venice, Athens, Smyrna and Gallipoli, ancient sites such as Troy and Heraklia, through the Peloponnesus and islands such as Mykonos, Corfu, Maitos and Skios, all of which he describes and depicts in detail. Meanwhile, although he says that he is not writing in order to leave "una viva ricordanza di me, come di soggetto qualificato", that is precisely what he does: the second part of the book recounts his search for his son from whom he had heard nothing but that he had married a Greek girl. Reunited with him through a doctor who has been helping the boy through an illness, he tries to persuade the young couple to return with him to Urbino, but this plan is thwarted by the machinations of the doctor. His journey home, alone, is enlivened by an encounter with corsairs, a near shipwreck, a boy falling overboard and a violent storm. The value of this book lies not only in the unique, unpublished text and illustrations, and legible and attractive presentation, but also in the combination of commonly-found themes such as dress and customs, with an entirely personal and richly-told narrative of one man's search for his son. - One illustration (Smirne) has been trimmed along the right edge after having been bound in. Etched armorial bookplate of an unidentified noble bishop on front pastedown.

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Post-incunable edition of the travels of the Dutch Sir John Mandeville, visiting Egypt and the lands of Prester John
68

Hese, Johannes Witte de. Itinerarius Joannis de Hese presbyteri a Hierusalem describens... dispositiones terrarum insularum montium et aquarum. Ac etiam quedam mirabilia et pericula per diversas partes mundi contingentia lucidissime enarrans. Tractatus de decem nationibus et sectis christianorum. Epistola Joannis soldani ad Pium papam secundum. Epistola responsoria Pii pape ad soldanum. Joannis presbyteri, maximi Indorum et Ethiopum christianorum imperatoris et patriarche, epistola ad Emanuelem, Rome gubernatorem, de ritu et moribus Indorum deque ejus potentia, divitiis et excellentia. Tractatus pulcherrimus de situ et dispositione regionum et insularum totius Indie, necnon de rerum mirabilium ac gentium diversitate. [Deventer, Jacques de Breda, 1504]. [Deventer, Jacques de Breda, 1504]. 4to. (38) pp., final blank leaf. Rubricated in red ink throughout, Modern full calf in period style.

EUR 45,000.00

A scarce and early edition of this important account of travels in the East. A medieval journey narrative comparable to the Travels of John Mandeville, the "Itinerarius" of Johannes Witte de Hese, a priest of Utrecht, is thought to date to c.1389. The text circulated in manuscript in the fifteenth century, with the first printed edition being produced in Cologne ca 1490. This postincunabular edition was printed in 1504 in the Dutch city of Deventer by Jacques de Breda. During his eastward voyage Witte travels beyond Jerusalem, observing flying fish in the Red Sea en route to Egypt, then crosses the Sinai desert to visit St. Catherine's Monastery before returning to the Nile. Sailing from Damietta to the coast of Ethiopia, he is briefly taken captive by brigands before journeying onward to the kingdom of Prester John where he marvels at the extraordinary palace there. He also records a visit to the island housing the shrine of St. Thomas. Before returning to Jerusalem, Witte spends more than a year roaming the remotest parts of the seas. Unicorns, pygmies, Gog and Magog, and a whale the size of an island add to the exotic flavour of this seminal text in the development of European travel literature.
¶ Nijhoff/Kronenberg 1217. Röhricht 1389B. Tobler 43.

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Alhazen’s optics: the exceedingly rare first edition of a milestone in Arabic science
74

Ibn al-Haytham, Abu 'Ali al-Hasan (Alhazen). [Kitab al-Manazir, latine]. Opticae thesaurus. Alhazeni Arabis libri... septem, nunc primum editi. Eiusdem liber de crepusculis & Nubium ascensionibus. Item Vitellonis Thuringopoloni libri X [...]. (Ed. F. Risner). Basel, Eusebius Episcopius & heirs of Nicolaus Episcopius, (August) 1572. Basel, Eusebius Episcopius & heirs of Nicolaus Episcopius, (August) 1572. Folio (248 x 350 mm). 2 parts in 1 vol. 1st blank f., (6), 288 pp. (8), 474, (2) pp. With 2 different woodcut printer's devices on t. p. and colophon, half-page woodcut on reverse of t. p. (repeated on half-title of pt. 2), and numerous diagrams in the text. Near-contemporary full vellum binding with giltstamped red spine label. All edges sprinkled in red.

EUR 125,000.00

First edition of "the most important work of its kind in Arabic literature" (cf. Poggendorf). Ibn al-Haytham (965-c. 1040), known as Alhazen in the Latin tradition, has been hailed as "the greatest Muslim physicist and one of the greatest students of optics of all times [...] The Latin translation [...] exerted a great influence upon Western science. It showed a great progress in experimental method. [Alhazen's book contains] research in catoptrics, [a] study of atmospheric refraction, [a] better description of the eye, and better understanding of vision [as well as an] attempt to explain binocular vision [and the] earliest use of the camera obscura" (Sarton). "This combined edition served as the standard reference work on optics well into the 17th century, influencing scientists such as Brahe, Kepler, Galileo, and Descartes" (Norman). "The Arab physicist Alhazen preserved for us all that was known by the ancients in the field of optics and added some contributions of his own. His book remained a standard authority thru the 1600s. He understood that light emanated spherically from a point and greatly improved on Ptolemy's uncertain rule for refraction which, he showed, held true only for small angles. He covered many cases of reflection and refraction and his explanation of the structure and function of the eye was followed for 600 years" (Dibner). "Ibn al-Haytham's Book of Optics is now a thousand years old. It revolutionized optics and had great impact on science in Europe, being cited by Roger Bacon and Johannes Kepler, among others" (AR, p. 99). "It is remarkable that in the Islamic world the 'Optics' practically disappeared from view soon after its appearance in the 11th century until, in the beginning of the 14th century, the Persian scholar Kamal al-Din composed his great critical commentary on it [...] By this time the 'Optics' had embarked on a new career in the West where it was already widely and avidly studied in a Latin translation of the late 12th or early 13th century, entitled 'Perspectiva' or 'De aspectibus' [...] The Latin translation was published by Frederick Risner at Basel in 1572 in a volume entitled 'Opticae thesaurus', which included Witelo's 'Perspectiva' [...] Risner's Latin edition made [the 'Optics'] available to such mathematicians as Kepler, Snell, Beeckman, Fermat, Harriot, and Descartes, all of whom except the last directly referred to Alhazen", though Descartes "employed [the work] in his successful deduction of the sine law" (DSB, p. 194-197). The 'Liber de crepusculis', the work on dawn and twilight included in Risner's 'Opticae thesaurus' and attributed to Alhazen, is actually the work of his contemporary Abu 'Abdallah Muhammad ibn Mu'adh al-Jayyani (cf. Norman; DSB, p. 208). The optical study by the Polish scholar Witelo, likewise here included, is "a massive work that relies extensively on Alhazen [and] offers an analysis of reflection that was not surpassed until the 17th century" (Norman). - Variously browned due to paper, but altogether quite a crisp, wide-margined copy, with an apparently contemporary handwritten ownership to the title page (deleted some time in the 17th or 18th century), a very few inconspicuous repairs to the edges, a faint waterstain to the lower margin and some slight worming to the lower gutter. Binding tight and well-preserved, with 17th or early 18th century library shelfmarks to front pastedown. An unusually fine specimen of a principal work of Arabic science as received in the West.
¶ VD 16, H 693 (H 692, V 1761). Adams A 745. BM-STC 383. Dibner 138. Norman 1027. Honeyman I, 73. DSB VI, 205. GAL I, 470. Poggendorf I, 31. Duncan 113. Sarton I, 721. Carmody p. 140. Thorndike/Kibre 803, 1208. Vagnetti D62. BNHCat A 241. IA 103.705. Brunet I, 180. Arabick Roots Doha AR79.

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Arabian Nights - the first complete edition in Urdu
91

[Kitab Alf layla wa-layla]. Kitab Alf layla wa-layla (Hindustani). Kanpur (Cawnpore), Mustafai Press, 1263 AH [1847 AD]. Kanpur (Cawnpore), Mustafai Press, 1263 AH [1847 AD]. Large 4to (180 x 274 mm). 4 volumes bound as two. Lithographed throughout, with decorated title pages and a full-page floral illustration to the final page. (4), 276 pp. (duplicate set of pp. 121-124 pp. inserted after p. 20). 284 pp. (p. 126 from book 3, verso blank, bound head-over-heels at the end). 214 pp. 196 pp. (with an index page "69" inserted at the beginning and end of the second volume). Contemporary full red calf with flat spines, painted entirely with floral oriental designs; both covers with inlaid gilt floral stamps.

EUR 35,000.00

Very early and rare Hindustani (Urdu) version of the "Thousand and One Nights", translated by Munshi Adb al-Karîm. This was considered by J. F. Blumhardt, the cataloguer of the Hindustani books in the British Library and consultant to Richard Burton, the first complete version in Urdu, as a previous one, lithographed at Madras in 1836, comprised merely the first 200 "Nights" (Chauvin, however, cites an edition issued in Lucknow in 1828 as the first). Al-Karim's translation was based on Edward Forster's 1802 English version. "After two years' labour [...] the whole work [was completed] in AH 1258 (AD 1842). It was lithographed at the Mustafai Press at Kanpur (Cawnpore) in the year AH 1263 (AD 1847) and published in four vols., in two royal 8vos, lithographed; each containing two Jilds (or parts) [...] This translation is written in an easy, fluent style, omitting all coarseness of expression or objectionable passages, in language easily understood, and at the same time in good and elegant Hindustani. It is therefore extremely popular, and selections from the 4th Jild have been taken as text books for the Indian Civil Service examinations [...] There has been no attempt to divide this tranlation into Nights: there are headings to the several tales and nothing more" (Burton, quoting information supplied by Blumhardt). - Volumes 1 and 4 are dated in Arabic (and vol. 1 also in Latin). A few reinforcements. Some loosening of the sewing in book 2. Some worming, more pronounced in the 2nd volume, but mainly confined to margins. Several pencil annotations by an early 20th century scholar's hand in book 3. An appealingly bound copy.
¶ Chauvin IV, 20Y. Burton XIII, p. xi. Cf. Blumhardt, BM Cat., col. 36 (this edition not in the British Library).

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Including Trew's magnificent white falcon
93

Knorr, Georg Wolfgang. Deliciae naturae selectae oder auserlesenes Naturalien-Cabinet welches aus... den drey Reichen der Natur zeiget, was von curiösen Liebhabern aufbehalten und gesammlet zu werden verdienet [...] fortgesetzt von dessen Erben, beschrieben von Philipp Ludwig Statius Müller und in das Französische übersetzt von Matthäus Verdier de la Blaquiere. Nuremberg, (1754-)1766/67. Nuremberg, (1754-)1766/67. Large folio. 2 vols. in one. (26), VIII, 132 pp. (4), XX, 144 pp. With coloured engr. title page (dated 1754), large engraved vignette by Andreas Hoffer after Gottfried Eichler, and 91 (1 folding) coloured or colour-printed engravings by Knorr, J. A. Eisenmann, A. Hoffer and others. Contemp. calfskin binding gilt.

EUR 45,000.00

First edition of this monumental work of natural history, one of the most splendid zoological works ever produced in Nuremberg. Begun by Knorr as early as 1751, it was continued by his heirs after his death in 1761. The book describes items from the great contemporary natural history collections, including the magnificent white falcon (with hood) from the collection of the famous physician and botanist Christoph Jakob Trew. The illustrations, occasionally printed in colours but mostly hand-coloured in radiant hues, depict birds, exotic mammals, fishes, corals, butterflies and other insects. - Occasional insignificant waterstaining to the wide blank margins of the text; a few plates show unobtrusive fingerstaining. A beautiful, very wide-margined copy in excellent state of preservation, printed on good, strong paper. Plates show clean, distinct colours and superior contrast.
¶ Nissen, ZBI 2227. Horn/Schenkling 12038. Hagen I, 426. Dean I, 696. Graesse IV, 35.

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The Royal Württemberg stud, the first Arabian stud in Europe
94

Kuntz, Rudolf. Abbildungen Königlich Württembergischer Gestütts Pferde von orientalischen Racen.... Stuttgart, [Ebner], 1823-1824. Stuttgart, [Ebner], 1823-1824. Oblong folio (550 x 635 mm). Issues I and II (of 3). With 12 (out of 18) tinted chalk lithographs by L. Ekeman-Allesson after R. Kuntz. Wants text and table of subscribers. Stored loosely in 2 original wrappers with title label and green original half calf portfolio with gilt-lettered title and borders. Traces of ties.

EUR 48,000.00

First and only edition. Commissioned by the Board of the Württemberg Stud, the first Arabian stud in Europe, this almost unobtainable series of large format plates shows the Stud's full-blooded Arabian horses with decorative oriental backgrounds. The plates constitute extremely early examples of chalk lithographs (listed individually by Winkler, Frühzeit der dt. Lithographie, 180, 57). Kuntz (1797-1848) was known for his "excellent depictions of horses" (cf. Thieme/B.); throughout his brief career he studied thoroughbreds in England, Hungary, and Paris as well as in Germany. In 1832 he became Painter to the Court of Karlsruhe, Baden; he suffered a stroke in 1846 and died in the newly-founded Illenau mental hospital. - Very slightly stained in places, three plates slightly browned. Of the utmost rarity. This copy removed from the collection of the House of Hanover, dispersed from 2005 (largely through Sotheby's). Includes a publisher's ad (by L. Harrison, Strand) for "A Series of Lithographic Drawings of Celebrated Horses" after James Ward, dedicated to George IV.
¶ Nissen 2327. Thieme/B. X, 444 & XXII, 116. Winkler, Die Frühzeit der dt. Lithographie 180.57.

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The Royal Württemberg Stud: the first Arabian stud in the West
108

[Marbach Stud]. Hofacker, [Caesar Paul] von. Das Königl[ich] Württemberg[ische] Haupt- und Landgestüt.... Marbach, no printer, 1875. Marbach, no printer, 1875. 24 vintage photographs (albumen prints) by Ch. Schmid, Reutlingen, mounted on cardboard with printed captions (c. 487 x 320 mm; images c. 270 x 210 mm to 190 x 137 mm). With 4 pp of letterpress text (folio, green papered spine). In custom-made green half morocco solander.

EUR 35,000.00

Fine set of original photographs showing the Royal Wuerttemberg Stud in Marbach and its famous horses. Owned by Wilhelm, King of Württemberg, Marbach was the first Arabian stud in Europe. From 1852 to 1871 it was directed by Baron Julius von Hügel, who purchased valuable stock from the Egyptian stud of Abbas Pasha, "thus raising it to the highest standard of excellence" (W. R. Brown, The Horse of the Desert, p. 161/166). Hügel was succeeded by Cäsar Paul von Hofacker (1831-96), who issued the present photo series and also composed the accompanying text: the latter discusses the history of the Stud and its horses, including the stallion Sanspareil, son of the Arabian Bajan and bred in 1816; in 1860 another pure-bred Arabian was acquired from the Wuerttemberg Weil Stud. Among the photoportraits are the pure-bred Arabian Zarif, his daughter Zinka, and the stallion Shah. Well-preserved.

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Photographs taken by the author between 1905 and 1915
117

Moritz, Bernhard. Bilder aus Palästina, Nord-Arabien und dem Sinai. 100... Bilder nach Photographien mit erläuterndem Text. Berlin, Reimer, 1916. Berlin, Reimer, 1916. Oblong folio. 106 illustrations on 50 plates, each with separate title, in various sizes. With text booklet (2 ff., 16 pp.). Original half cloth portfolio.

EUR 40,000.00

Rare photographic work documenting important cities and parts of the countryside in Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Syria, Egypt, and Palestine. Most of the photos were taken by the author during his travels between 1905 and 1915. The images of northern Hejaz, Mecca, and Medina, which Moritz was unable to visit, were taken by Turkish friends. The images also show the construction of the Hejaz Railway between Damascus and the holy sites of Mecca and Medina, as well as views of Medina, Mecca, Jeddah, Petra, and Jerusalem. - Plates and text are well preserved; portfolio shows slight traces of repairs.

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Order written by Napoléon on Saint Helena
120

Napoléon, Emperor of the French (1769-1821). Autograph manuscript (6½ lines). Saint Helena, 1815. Saint Helena, 1815. 102 x 103 mm. Mounted on a single page (8vo) together with a contemporary handwritten transcription.

EUR 25,000.00

Notes on the Battle of Voltri (1796): "Rampon et la Harpe [-] par le Gal en chef lui meme la deroute fut complette tout le corps d'Argenteau fut ecrase dans le tem[p]s queu Beaulieu descendait a Voltri ou il ne trouvait plus personne" (transl.: "Rampon and la Harpe - by the commanding General himself - defeat was complete - all of d'Argenteau's corps was erased while Beaulieu descended to Voltri, where he found nobody left"). - With a certification of authenticity at the bottom: "corrections de la campagne d'Italie écrit par Napoleon à Briars, isle Ste helene en 1815 / Cte. de Las Cases". Emmanuel, comte de Las Cases and his son accompanied the former emperor to Saint Helena. There, he acted informally but very assiduously as his secretary, taking down numerous notes of his conversations which thereafter took form in the famous "Mémorial de Sainte-Hélène".

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The first two Arabic books ever printed: an Arabic dictionary containing 30,000 entries, accompanied by a grammar
128

Pedro de Alcala. Arte para ligeramente saber la lengua araviga, emendada... y anadida y segundamente imprimida. (And:) Vocabulista aravigo en letra castellana. (Granada, Juan Varela de Salamanca, 1505). (Granada, Juan Varela de Salamanca, 1505). 4to. Two parts in one volume. (48) ff. (270) ff. Each part with separate woodcut title page, full-page woodcut on verso, and full-page woodcut on final page as well as a woodcut table of Arabic letters (a4v) and numerous initials throughout. Final quire of first part printed in red and black. 19th-century dark brown morocco with giltstamped spine title; leading edges gilt; ornate gilt dentelles. Marbled endpapers. All edges gilt.

EUR 250,000.00

A fine copy, with notable provenance, of what is undoubtedly one of the rarest and most important books related to the Arab world: the first published grammar and the first vocabulary of Arabic (2nd edition of the former, 1st edition of the latter), issued as two separate works but usually encountered together (cf. Schnurrer, p. 16). The author, publisher and date are all stated only in the colophon at the end of the "Vocabulista". Geoffrey Roper has characterised this Arabic primer, written by the Spanish monk Pedro de Alcalá, as the first "serious attempt to spread knowledge of the language [...] Entitled 'Arte para ligeramente saber la lengua araviga', it, like the accompanying 'Vocabulista aravigo', renders the Arabic words entirely in romanisation [...] There is, however, on f. c4, a table of the Arabic alphabet with romanised names of the letters, executed in woodcut like that of Reuwich for Breydenbach. But the shapes of the letters are Maghribi [...], as one would expect in Spain at that time, and a number of initial and medial forms are given: the total number of characters is 58, as compared with 31 in Breydenbach. The work was written and published to aid Catholic attempts to convert the Muslim inhabitants of southern Spain, which had come entirely under Christian rule only 13 years previously" (Roper, p. 130f.). "In 1492, the last Muslim kingdom of Andalusia fell to the Spanish Catholic sovereigns Ferdinand and Isabella [...] Anxious to bring the Andalusians back to Christianity, the Spanish rulers ordered missionaries to evangelize the country again. It soon became apparent that this goal could not be attained without using the Arabic language. In 1505, Archbishop Fernando de Talavera [...] had two Arabic textbooks printed for use by missionaries who could not speak that language: ['The art of learning the rudiments of the Arabic language' and 'Arab glossary in Castilian characters'. Their author, the scholar Pedro de Alcala, a native of the prestigious university city of Alcala de Henares near Madrid, wrote them in Latin script, The typeface is Gothic. The first 21 pages of the 'Arte' are given over to grammar, and the next 27 consist of Catholic prayers in Arabic, instructions for confession in Spanish and in Arabic, the ordinary of the mass, and instruction for votive masses, all in Arabic. By way of introduction to the vocabulary, a short three-page note explains the author's method of transcription: the vocabulary is in alphabetical order, but under each letter three separate categories contain first verbs, then nouns and lastly adverbs, conjunctions and prepositions. The verbs are given in three forms: present, perfect and imperative; nouns are given in both the singular and the plural. This work, which is a curiosity in the history of both linguistics and typography, is also the first and perhaps the most practical of all attempts to transcribe Arabic into Latin characters. The alphabet [...] is in north African script, and the language taught in both of Pedro de Alcala's works is the vernacular, which the Spanish missionaries needed to communicate with the converted Moors. In a few places, the author indicates differences between this and the written language" (C. Aboussouan, First impressions: Arabic early printed texts, in: UNESCO Courier 1988). - Occasional slight browning; first t. p. duststained; a few edge defects inconspicuously repaired. The name of the author has been added in ink on the t. p. by a 17th century owner. A fine, clean copy with wide margins. OCLC lists only six complete copies in institutional collections, no copy traceable on the market for nearly two decades. - Provenance: 1. José Antonio Conde, Spanish orientalist (1766-1820). Sold for £10 at Conde's 1824 sale (by Evans of London, lot 1191: "very rare"). 2. Sir Richard Ford, bibliophile (his signed armorial bookplate with the motto "Que sera sera" on front pastedown), who purchased the book from "Mr. Rich, who brought Conde's library to England" (his autogr. note on flyleaf). 3. William Tyssen-Amherst, 1st Baron Amherst of Hackney (1835-1909), M.P. and collector of books and Egyptian artefacts (his armorial bookplate with motto "Victoria concordia crescit" below Ford's). Amherst's library was dispersed in 1908. 4. Quaritch catalogue, November 1917 (lot 406, clipped description pasted on flyleaf).
¶ BM-STC Spanish 68. Adams P 548-549. Palau 5697. Schnurrer 37. Panzer VII, 64, 1. Salva (Cat. de la bibliotheca) II, 2190-2191. Norton 16 & 163, 349. G. Roper, Early Arabic Printing in Europe, in: Middle Eastern Languages and the Print Revolution. A Cross-Cultural Encounter (Westhofen 2002), pp. 129-150, at 130f., and p. 480, with fig. 65. Vater/Jülg 26. Zaunmüller 18 ("Important source"). Ebert 16078 ("Extremely rare").

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The earliest photographic documents of the city of Mecca, its dignitaries and its pilgrims
149

Snouck Hurgronje, Christian. Mekka. (And:) Bilder-Atlas zu Mekka. Haag, Nijhoff, 1888-1889. Haag, Nijhoff, 1888-1889. 2 vols. of text (4to) and one volume of plates (folio, 284 x 378 mm). Text: XXIII, (1), 228, (2) pp. With 3 genealogical tables and 2 folding maps. XVIII, 397, (1) pp. Contemp. half cloth with gilt spine title. Atlas: 4 chromolithogr. plates (conjoined as 2), 6 (1 double-sized) toned lithogr. plates, and 65 mounted photographs on a total of 40 plates; 1 letterpress leaf of contents. Contemp. half cloth portfolio with cover title.

EUR 48,000.00

Remarkable set, rarely encountered complete with the plate volume. The Dutch orientalist Snouck spent a year in Mecca and Jeddah during 1884/85 and was married to a Mecca woman. He was the first non-Muslim to visit the city outside the annual pilgrimage. The photographs, taken by himself and an Arabic physician, are among the earliest to show Mecca and its pilgrims. - First and last leaves of text volumes somewhat browned due to wood pulp stock of pastedowns; contemporary ink ownership and remains of a label to title pages; some underlinings and marginal annotations. Upper hinge of vol. 2 reinforced, spine of vol. 1 professionally rebacked. Plate portfolio has stamp of the "Indische genootschap" (Indies Society of the Netherlands) on index leaf and upper cover; an edge tear to the mount of plate XXXVI. The vintage photographs, much sought as the earliest photographic documents of the city, its dignitaries and its pilgrims, are preserved in perfect condition.
¶ Macro 1239 (omitting mention of the Atlas). Henze V, 177. Dinse 443.

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Extremely rare: 20 original photographs of Mekka by the "earliest Arabian photographer"
150

Snouck Hurgronje, Christian. Bilder aus Mekka. Leiden, E. J. Brill, 1889. Leiden, E. J. Brill, 1889. Folio (282 x 372 mm). 20 collotype prints mounted on 18 sheets loose in red gilt cloth portfolio as issued, complete with the oft-lacking half-title, list of plates, title and preface.

EUR 125,000.00

One of the earliest photographic documents of Mecca and the Hajj, preceded only by the photographs of Muhammed Sadiq Bey published in 1881 (Sotheby's, 4 June 1998: £1,250,000). Much rarer than the author's similarly titled "Bilder-Atlas zu Mekka", a portfolio of lithographs to accompany the "Mekka" books which Snouck had published after his return from the Arabian Peninsula. "Following the publication of 'Bilder-Atlas zu Mekka', Hurgronje received a letter from his doctor in Makkah, whom he had taught the art of photography. The letter contained new photographs of the hajj which were of such great interest that he decided in 1889 to publish his 'Bilder aus Mekka' [...] The photographs provide an insight into the world of Makkah's inhabitants, pilgrims from all over the Islamic world, in addition to the sharif of Makkah, the Turkish governor, and various religious and secular figures" (Badr el-Hage, p. 46f.). "In 1981 F. H. S. Allen and C. Gavin first identified the earliest Arabian photographer by deciphering his elaborately calligraphed signatures, which without exception had been erased from the plates reproduced by Snouck Hurgronje: 'Futugrafiyat al-Sayyid 'Abd al-Ghaffar, tabib Makka' (The Photography of the Sayyid Abd al-Ghaffar, physican of Mecca). This princely eye surgeon had been host to the young Snouck in Mecca immediately after the Dutchman's conversion to Islam. Snouck claimed to have taught his host how to use a camera and attributes to him (without ever mentioning his name) the pictures reproduced in 'Bilder aus Mekka'". - Some chipping to edges and corners of title and mounts professionally repaired. Prints in excellent condition, only very slightly toned. Cloth portfolio a little faded; spine repaired, with 1914 De Belder bookplate on pastedown. Very rare: only two copies at auctions internationally during the past decades (the last, at Sotheby's in 2006, was incomplete, lacking all the text leaves).
¶ Macro 1233. Badr el-Hage. Saudi Arabia Caught in Time. Reading, 1997. F. E. Peters. The Muslim Pilgrimage to Mecca and the Holy Place. Princeton University Press 1996.

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The first Book about America by a Muslim
155

Tarikh al-Hindi al-Gharbi. Tarikh al-Hind al-Garbi al-müsemma bi-Hadis-i nev [A History... of the Western Indies]. Qustantaniyah (Istanbul), Ibrahim Müteferrika, mid-Ramazan 1142 AH [= 1730 AD]. Qustantaniyah (Istanbul), Ibrahim Müteferrika, mid-Ramazan 1142 AH [= 1730 AD]. 4to (168 x 217 mm). (3), 91 ff. All pages ruled, border coloured in gilt. With an illuminated golden headpiece (serlevha), 4 double-page engraved plates in contemporary colour (celestial chart, diagram with table, 2 world maps), and 13 woodcut illustrations in the text, all coloured by a contemporary hand and partially heightened with gum arabic. Slightly later (c. 1840) half calf, with gilt ornament and the name of the previous owner in Arabic lettering gilt to spine. Marbled endpapers.

EUR 250,000.00

A unique copy, with notable provenance, of the first book published with Arabic lettering to contain illustrations, the earliest book about the New World published in the Islamic world, and one of the first titles printed by a Muslim in Turkey. Formerly in the possession of Ahmed Cevdet Pasha (1822-95), one of the most pre-eminent scholars of his time and a prominent figure in the Tanzimat reforms of the Ottoman empire, the present copy is ruled in gold throughout, printed on a variety of burnished papers (a total of 30 leaves dyed in yellow, green, and brown in addition to the standard white), and coloured throughout. It is especially the contemporary colouring of the woodcuts, which depict curious oddities, fantastic creatures and the native people of the New World, that lends the present specimen a visual appearance completely different from that of the rather plain copies in which this book is usually known (14 copies recorded by OCLC). The only similarly embellished copy of the Hindi al-Gharbi we could trace is the one held by the Lilly Library. - "Despite the title, this is not a history of the West Indies. It opens with a general geographical and cosmological discussion, and follows with an account of the discovery of the New World, with considerable fantastic elaboration in the spirit of the more fabulous passages of Abu Hamid and Qazwini. Among the illustrations are depictions of trees whose fruits are in human form, long-snouted horses, mermen at battle with land-dwellers, and other men and beasts of nightmarish aspect" (Watson). The present work, which survives in a number of mss. (though in less complete variants than this printed edition), was composed in Istanbul around 1580 by an unidentified author. After a synthesis of Islamic geographical and cosmographical writings, notably drawing from al-Mas'udi, who is the most frequently cited source, and Ibn al-Wardi, mentioned almost 20 times, the book relates the discovery of the New World. In this Chapter 3, which comprises the final two thirds of the text, the author describes the explorations and discoveries by Columbus, Balboa, Magellan, Cortés and Pizarro. As Goodrich's study of the book's sources shows, this section is derived directly from Italian editions of 16th-century texts - particularly works by López de Gómara, Peter Martyr, Agustín de Zárate, and Oviedo - which the author excerpted, rearranged, and translated into Turkish. The history of their discoveries is enlivened with fantastic elaboration, some of which is visible in the woodcuts. The two world maps derive from those in Mercator-Hondius "Atlas minor" and reappear in Katib Celebi's "Cihânnümâ" atlas, printed by Müteferrika two years later, with California represented as an island. Complete examples are rare: the book was printed in an edition of only 500 copies, many of which were subsequently defaced or destroyed for contravening the Islamic teachings against the representation of living things. Toderini appears to call for an astronomical chart in addition to the 4 plates, but Watson describes an astronomical chart and 3 plates. Sabin calls for 3 plates only, as does the John Carter Brown library catalogue. The Bibliothèque nationale copy, sent from Constantinople by the press's patron, Sad Aga, contains 4 plates, as does the present copy, including the Ptolemaic astronomical chart. - Old annotations in Arabic script to front flyleaf. Three leaves remargined. Celestial map with closed tears and 2.5 cm loss to upper right corner (though slightly less near center) and minor loss to the cartouche at lower right corner; the other plates including the two coloured world maps in excellent condition, as most of the printed pages.
¶ John Carter Brown 463. Toderini III, 41. Karatay 250. Sabin 94396. William J. Watson, "Ibrahim Müteferrika and Turkish Incunabula," in: Journal of the American Oriental Society 88, no. 3 (1968), pp. 435-441, no. 4. OCLC 416474553. Cf. T. D. Goodrich, The Ottoman Turks and the New World (Wiesbaden 1990).

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The Portuguese break the 1546 Muslim siege of Diu in Gujarat
156

Teive, Diogo de (Jacobo Tevio). Com[m]entarius de rebus in India apud Dium gestis... anno salutis nostrae M. D. XLVI. Coimbra, (colophon: produced by João de Barreira and João Álvares, printers to the King), 1548. Coimbra, (colophon: produced by João de Barreira and João Álvares, printers to the King), 1548. Small 4to (185 x 135 mm). [8], 92 pp. With woodcut arms of King João III of Portugal on title-page and 2 woodcut decorated initials (2 series). 19th-century gold-tooled red sheepskin (incorporating materials from an 18th-century binding), marbled endpapers.

EUR 45,000.00

First edition, in Latin, of a report on the Portuguese in India and especially on their defeat of the Muslim Gujarat Sultanate at the second siege of Diu in 1546, written by the Portuguese humanist Diogo de Teive (ca. 1514-ca. 1570). The Portuguese reached India in 1498 (and regarded it as their property under the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas concluded with Spain) but in the early years they met stiff resistance from the Gujarats, supported at various times by the Mamluks and the Ottoman Empire. Although they never penetrated far inland, the Portuguese gradually came to dominate the coastal areas, in particular expanding their territory and power in northwest India from 1509 to 1546. In 1546 the Gujarats under Khoja (or Khwaja) Sofar tried to retake Diu, lost in 1509, but after a 7-month siege they were routed by the Portuguese fleet under João de Castro. As a consequence, Diu's role as a market place declined. Before the Portuguese, the port was dominated by Turks, who called there to exchange goods from the Middle East and Europe. After the capture of Diu, the Muslims left and Hindu merchants took their place. - Trimmed, shaving an accent on the title-page and the running head on a few pages, but otherwise in good condition, with a minor water stain at the head and a couple small marginal worm holes in a corner of the first and last leaves, not approaching the text. The binding has several worm holes and the spine is damaged and partly restored. A contemporary account of the Portuguese defeat of the Muslim forces in Gujarat in 1546.
¶ Palau 328839. USTC 343307.

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The first systematic study to address exclusively the education of women: a fabled rarity, the original first edition
164

Vives, Juan Luis. De institutione foeminae [...] libri tres, mira eruditione,... elegantia, brevitate, facilitate, plane aurei, pietateq[ue] & sanctimonia, vere Christiani, Christianae in primis Virgini, deinde maritae, postremo viduae, novo instituendi argumento longe utilissimi. Quid autem singuli libri toto opere contineant, sequenti pagella, videre est. (Antwerp, Michiel Hillen van Hoochstraten for Franz Birckmann, 1524). (Antwerp, Michiel Hillen van Hoochstraten for Franz Birckmann, 1524). 4to (140 x 195 mm). (96) ff., numbered in an early hand (omitting f. 77). Elaborate woodcut border on title-page, featuring elephant and cherubim, and with several large woodcut initials in text. Bound in early limp vellum with manuscript title on spine; edges stained red. 17th century portrait of Vives added to inner cover. Lengthy, exegetical early annotations to the first book 'De Instituenda Virgine' along with readership markings. A very good copy from the Harrach Library (Austria/Madrid), with 19th century stamp on title.

EUR 125,000.00

Very rare first edition of "the first systematic study to address explicitly and exclusively the universal education of women", commissioned by Henry VIII's wife, Catherine of Aragon, who was at the time rearing her own daughter, Mary Tudor. Translated and adapted by numerous followers, Vives' treatise would go on to be read in almost every European vernacular, often by women themselves. The first edition, however, is rare in census and in commerce - and contains passages, particularly on chastity and intellectual capacity, which were entirely re-written in later incarnations. A fundamental document for the role of women in Early Modern society - and particularly in Early Modern England - this copy is especially remarkable for its state of preservation. An early reader of Vives has here added his own comments to the chapters on the seclusion of maidens and examples of feminine virtue. - "De Institutione Foeminae Christianae" consists of 3 books, one for each stage of woman's life: maidenhood, marriage, and widowhood. In his preface to Queen Catherine, Vives quotes Aristotle to the effect that states which do not provide for the education of women deprive themselves of a great source of their prosperity; yet as Charles Fantazzi points out, Vives is in fact here caught in a delicate double bind, "insistent on a subordinate, submissive role for women, the text must take care to expound its message not only without alienating the queen but rather, indeed, with the goal of winning her favour." Despite its dedication and although Vives specifically adapts his prose style for a female readership, the treatise is hardly pro-woman: "the 'Education' is determined to be both a reference book for men on how to control their women, as well as an edifying treatise for women to absorb as a source of proper behaviour" (Kolsky). Nevertheless, Vives' praise of women's intellectual capacity and his advocation of some form of universal learning for females are viewed as landmarks for modern historians of women and gender. - According to Fantazzi, "'De Institutione' enjoyed an enormous popularity and was generally regarded as the most authoritative statement on this subject throughout the sixteenth century, especially in England, where it found favor with Catholics and Protestants alike. There can be no denying that merely by attaching such importance to the education of women, Vives laid the groundwork for the Elizabethan age of the cultured woman." It was rapidly translated into English, enjoying some nine editions in that language during the 16th century alone (cf. Higginbotham, p. 69). According to Pollie Bromilow, the dozens of vernacular translations were partly aimed at women themselves, who had no knowledge of Latin; and thus a large segment of its readership during the 16th century was in fact female. Appearing in an undated edition as early as 1528 or 1529, the English translation is rather an adaptation of Vives' text begun by Thomas More but completed by his household tutor, William Hyrde, who must have used the present edition in its preparation. - In 1538 Vives brought out a revised Latin edition reflecting many changes to the original text. This is the edition most commonly cited by scholars, probably thanks to its greater availability. The sections on maidens and the preservation of maidenhood (in all its meanings), however, were substantially re-written - notably, treating many of the same subjects which interested the annotator of the present copy! Chapter 6, on virginity, for example, "was subjected to a complete revision, so that it bears little resemblance to the first published version. It is obvious that Vives struggled over the proper approach to this topic. In the original version, he suddenly abandons his more discursive style for a rather personal and, one might add, paternalistic tête-á-tête with a young woman" (Fantazzi, p. 18). Vives' views on women's intellectual capacities also develop between the two editions. - At the outbreak of the Reformation Vives was a close friend of Erasmus, who had commissioned him to write a commentary on Augustine's "City of God" in 1521. Perhaps seeking refuge from the political and religious turmoil of Europe, Vives turned his attention to England from this point onward. He dedicated his edition of "De Civitate Dei" to Henry VIII in 1522, and already in May of 1523 was able to present a manuscript of his "De Institutione Foeminae Christianae" to Queen Catherine in person. At Henry's court he grew close to the circle of Thomas More and produced a further educational treatise, "De Ratione Studii Puerilis". Thanks to his growing opposition to Henry VIII's divorce proceedings, however, Vives was placed under house arrest by Cardinal Wolsley from February to April 1528, and upon his release sensibly fled the country - only to return briefly later that year in the role of Catherine's legal adviser. - Provenance: later stamp of the Harrach Library on title-page. The collection originated as the personal library of Graf Ferdinand Bonaventura von Harrach, Austrian envoy to Spain (1637-1707), and explains the characteristically Spanish binding on the present example. Ferdinand's son Aloys followed in his father's footsteps; but after his death in 1742 the collection was transferred back to the remaining Harrach family in Vienna. Finally, the collection wound up in the family castle 'Schloss Bruck an der Leitha', in Lower Austria. We have handled numerous other Harrach copies, which seem to have formed a cohesive 'personal reference library' of 16th and 17th century works for this seventeenth century statesman. - A very good copy. OCLC shows just four copies in American institutions: Harvard, the Massachusetts Center for Renaissance Studies, Yale, and the Huntington.
¶ Nijhoff/Kronenberg 2167. Adams V 951. Brunet V, 1333. Estelrich 136. Cf. also Fantazzi's introduction to a modern translation, The Education of a Christian Woman: A Sixteenth-Century Manual (U Chicago, 2007). Kolsky, Making Examples of Women: Juan Luis Vives' The Education of a Christian Woman. Higginbotham, The Girlhood of Shakespeare's Sisters: Gender, Transgression, Adolescence (U Edinburgh, 2013). Bromilow, "An Emerging Female Readership of Print in Sixteenth-Century France?", French Studies (2013) Vol. 67, pp. 155-169.

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A letter to his student
201

Beethoven, Ludwig van, composer (1770-1827). Autograph letter signed ("Beethoven"). [Vienna, August/September 1804]. [Vienna, August/September 1804]. 4to. 1 p., mounted on backing paper. In German.

EUR 175,000.00

Probably to Ferdinand Ries, requesting him to proof-read a piano concerto published at the Kunst- und Industrie-Comptoir - very likely op. 37, the Piano Concerto No. 3 in C minor: "Would you have the kindness to look at the parts for me, as far as I see not all parts have been engraved entirely, you will have to see Sonnleitner about that; - but make haste now - I will once more examine the piano part myself [...]." - Joseph Sonnleithner (1766-1835) was a partner in the Vienna "Kunst- und Industriecomptoir", publisher of op. 37. The composer and pianist Ries (1784-1838), student, secretary, and friend of Beethoven's, frequently assisted his teacher with such proofreading tasks during his first stay at Vienna during the years 1801-05. "If Ries is indeed the addressee, then this letter must refer to the first proofreading of the original edition of op. 37 [...] The engraving of this original edition of op. 37 was probably not begun until after the performance by Ries, on July 19 or 26, 1804, after the definitive text of the concerto and, in particular, the solo voice had been prepared [...] It could not have appeared before the second half of September 1804" (cf. Beethoven, Briefwechsel GA). On July 19 or 26 Ried made his piano début in the Vienna Augarten, performing the Piano Concerto op. 37, Beethoven's only piano concerto in a minor key. - Slight edge defects, some brownstaining; torn off closely on the left edge (barely touching the writing). Includes old collection folder and an old typed transcription (carbon copy). Provenance: in the collection of Miss Emilie Schaup (d. 1942) in 1927.
¶ Beethoven, Briefwechsel GA I, p. 222, no. 190 ("lost"). First printing: Führer durch die Beethoven-Zentenarausstellung der Stadt Wien (Vienna 1927), p. 201, no. 873.

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Coloured copy of Blaeu's atlas of China, in richly gold-tooled contemporary vellum
202

[Blaeu, Joan]. Martini, Martino. Novus atlas Sinensis a Martino Martinio [...] [Nieuwe... atlas van het groote rijck Sina, …]. Including: Golius, Jacob. [Drop-title:] Byvoeghsel van 't Koninckryck Catay. [Amsterdam, Joan Blaeu, 1655]. [Amsterdam, Joan Blaeu, 1655]. Super royal folio (340 x 510 mm). 210, (20), XVIII, (40), (4) pp. With engraved title-page (lacking the letterpress title-label: "Nieuwe atlas van het groote rijck Sina") and 17 double-page engraved maps, all coloured by a contemporary hand. The maps include 16 maps of China and 1 general map of Japan, with richly decorated cartouches often showing several Chinese in traditional garb. The preliminaries bound at the end. Contemporary richly gold-tooled, slightly overlapping vellum, remains of ties, gilt edges.

EUR 48,000.00

Separately published edition, with the text in Dutch, of Blaeu's atlas of China, the first atlas and geography of China to be published in Europe. "The seventeen maps are noteworthy not only for their accuracy, remarkable for the time, but also for their highly decorative cartouches featuring vignettes depicting regional Chinese dress, activities, and animals [...] In addition, it is one of the first true Sino-European publications, based on Chinese land surveys but presenting geographic data in a highly visual European cartographic format" (Reed & Demattè). The first map is a general map of China (including Japan and parts of Korea), followed by 15 maps of the provinces of China and a general map of Japan. - The maps are based on Chinese cartographic sources collected by the Jesuit missionary Martinus Martini's (1614-61), among them a copy of the manuscript atlas by Zhu Siben (compiled 1311/12) with revisions from the printed atlas by Lo Hongxian. Martini compiled the maps himself and convinced Blaeu to postpone the work on other volumes and publish the present atlas of China. It was published in 1655, in five different language editions, as a separate atlas and as the sixth volume of Blaeu's celebrated Atlas Maior (only differing in the engraved title-page). Martini also added a lengthy preface with an account of the compilation process, geographical descriptions of the provinces of China and Japan, a list of towns with their geographical co-ordinates and a history of the Manchurian war, earlier published as De bello Tartarico historia (1654). - Golius, as a result of his fruitful contact with Martini, wrote his Byvoeghsel van 't Koninckryck Catay, on the Chinese reign, which is published here for the first time as a supplement to the atlas, containing numerous woodcut Arabic and Chinese characters. In it Golius "identified the names of the "Catayan" duodenary cycles as Chinese. These names were first published [...] in Arabic letters [...] This resulted in the first printing if Chinese characters (from wood) in Holland, and of the first properly formed characters in Europe" (Smitskamp). - Lacking the letterpress title-label on the engraved title-page, two tears in the outer margin of pp. 193f. and 211f. and small corner off p. XI torn off; a very good copy. Binding also in very good condition, with only the spine slightly soiled and the tooling on spine slightly faded at a few points.
¶ V. d. Krogt, Koeman's Atlantes Neerlandici II, 2:521A. Reed & Demattè 25. For Golius's supplement: Smitskamp, Philologia Orientalis 313c.

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180 hand-coloured lithographs of China
211

Malpiere, D. Bazin de. La Chine, moeurs, usages, costumes, arts et métiers,... peines civiles et militaires, cérémonies religieuses, monuments et paysages, d'après les dessins originaux du père Castiglione, du peintre chinois Pu-Qua, du W. Alexandre, Chambers, Dadley, etc. Paris, De Malpiere, Goujon & Formentin, and Firmin Didot, 1825-1827. Paris, De Malpiere, Goujon & Formentin, and Firmin Didot, 1825-1827. 2 volumes. Large 4to (34 x 25.5 cm). With 180 lithographed plates in publisher's handcolouring (including a frontispiece to both volumes and 1 plan of Beijing), 4 engraved plates (the first with hand-coloured illustration and the other three with musical scores). Lacking 1 plate and its accompanying letterpress description ("Porte-enseigne du corps des archers"), facsimile included. Contemporary half tanned goatskin, gold-tooled spine.

EUR 45,000.00

First edition of "a huge collection of attractively lithographed copies of scenes from Chinese life of the mid-Ch'ing period" (Lust). The illustrations show scenes of everyday life, ships, views, interiors, (military) costumes and much more, each with one leaf of descriptive text. The plates were issued from 1825 to 1827 in 30 instalments, each consisting of 6 hand-coloured plates, and are seldom found complete. This copy lacks only one plate and description. All the illustrations are lithographed copies of earlier prints, including Alexander's "Picturesque representations of the dress and manners of the Chinese" (1814), Chamber's "Designs of Chinese buildings" (1757), Mason's "The costume of China" (1800) and "The punishments of China" (1804), the works of Castiglione, and others. A description of Beijing is included in the second volume illustrated with a plan. A second edition appeared in 1848. - With the bookplate of Louis Becker, Paris. Binding rubbed along the extremities, but otherwise good. Lacking one plate and text leaf, as noted, foxing throughout, and some occasional browning; a good copy.
¶ Brunet III, pp. 1346-1347; Colas 1957; Cordier, Sinica, col. 69; Lipperheide 1531; Löwendahl 845; Lust 60.

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The VOC in 17th-century China, with ca. 150 illustrations coloured by a contemporary hand
215

Nieuhof, Johannes. Die Gesantschaft der Ost-Indischen Geselschaft in den Vereinigten... Niederländern, an den Tartarischen Cham, und nunmehr auch Sinischen Keyser, verrichtet durch die Herren P. de Gojern und J. Keisern. Darinnen begriffen die aller märckwürdigste Sachen, welche ihnen, auf währender reyse vom 1655. Jahre bis in das 1657. aufgestoßen [...] Itzund zum zweiten mahle hier und dar verbessert, und um ein guhtes theil vermehret, heraus gegeben. Amsterdam, Jacob van Meurs, 1669. Amsterdam, Jacob van Meurs, 1669. Folio (300 x 190 mm). Title printed in red and black. With the same engravings of the first Dutch edition of 1665: coloured engraved title page with the Chinese Emperor seated on a throne, his left arm resting on a globe and a convicted criminal at his feet, full-page coloured engraved portrait of Nieuhof with engraved poem by Jan Vos below, large folding map of China, 34 double-page engraved plates and views of Batavia, Canton, Macao, Nankan, Nankin, Beijing, etc., and 110 half-page engraved views and plates of ceremonies, costumes, animals, fishes and plants in the text all in contemporary colour. Contemporary blindstamped pigskin over wooden boards.

EUR 85,000.00

German edition. Very scarce coloured copy of the most important embassy to China in the 17th century. Nieuhof's celebrated account of the first trade mission undertaken by the Dutch East India Company (VOC) to the Imperial Court and the Emperor of China is one of the very few non-Jesuit sources of the period. First published in Dutch by Jac. van Meurs at Amsterdam in 1665, it soon became highly popular and was translated not only into German, but also into French, English and Latin. Today, it is regarded as the definitive account of the Dutch Embassy to Peking. - Johannes Nieuhof entered the service of the VOC after having travelled in the service of the Dutch West India Company through the West Indies and Brazil from 1640 to 1649. After two years of travels through the East Indies as a steward of the VOC, he was sent on this Dutch embassy to the Chinese Imperial Court, probably also because he was known to be an accomplished draughtsman. The embassy, together with embassies from the Mogols, the Tibetans and the South Tartars, was received in Beijing after a five-month journey from Canton. The object of the embassy was to obtain free trade throughout China. As common, it also served as a research expedition, and several scientists were members. They studied, described and drew from nature everything interesting they passed en route. Thus, the present account is not only written in a lively manner, but also richly illustrated with large views of all ports and places visited, starting with Batavia, whence the expedition sailed, and containing numerous text-engravings illustrating in detail 17th-century Chinese life and customs, including a beautiful series of engravings of the flora and fauna, all after Nieuhof's drawings. Also included is the famous double-page engraving of the Porcelain Tower, a 15th-century pagoda of nine storeys demolished in 1856 during the Taiping Rebellion, but soon to be rebuilt with the help of a billion-yuan donation by the Chinese businessman Wang Jianlin in 2010.
¶ VD 17, 3:606778R. Tiele 801. Graesse IV, 675. Cordier 2346. Cox I, 325, L. Blussé & R. Falkenburg, Johan Nieuhof beelden van een China-reis 1655-1657 (1987).

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