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The Hammer of Witches - editio princeps

Institoris, Heinrich. Malleus maleficarum. [Speyer, Peter Drach, before April 1487]. [Speyer, Peter Drach, before April 1487]. Folio (215 x 294 mm). 129 ff. (wants final blank). 48 lines, double-columned, gothic type. Rubricated, with lombardic initials in red and blue, occasional pen flourishes, paragraph marks at beginning of chapter headings, some capital strokes. 19th-c. white paper boards with printed paper spine label. Stored in custom-made full green morocco gilt clamshell box.

EUR 175,000.00

First edition of the notorious "Hammer of Witches", which laid down procedures for finding out and convicting witches. Due to the innovation of the printing press, it contributed significantly to the early modern witch craze. "The most important and most sinister work on demonology ever written. It crystallized into a fiercely stringent code previous folklore about black magic with church dogma on heresy, and, if any one work could, opened the floodgates of the inquisitorial hysteria [... it was] the source, inspiration, and quarry for all subsequent treatises on witchcraft" (Robbins, Encyclopaedia of Witchcraft and Demonology). The book was published and republished in at least 13 editions up to 1520, then revived from the late 16th century, undergoing at least 16 editions between 1574 and 1669, as well as numerous editons in German, French and English. Complete copies of the first edition are rare, and only a few copies are found in American institutions. - Upper cover stained and soiled, first three pages of text with some soiling and staining, neat repair to final printed leaf. All in all, a remarkably fine, clean copy from the famous Donaueschingen library of the princes of Fürstenberg with their printed spine title and shelfmark "298" on the spine label (repeated in pencil on recto of f. 1). {BN#34028}
¶ HC* 9238. Goff I-163. British Library IB.8581 (acquired in 1867 but not recorded in BMC). ISTC ii00163000. Coumont I4.2. Danet 16. Graesse III, 425.

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The first systematic study to address exclusively the education of women: a fabled rarity, the original first edition

Vives, Juan Luis. De institutione foeminae [...] libri tres, mira eruditione,... elegantia, brevitate, facilitate, plane aurei, pietateq[ue] & sanctimonia, vere Christiani, Christianae in primis Virgini, deinde maritae, postremo viduae, novo instituendi argumento longe utilissimi. Quid autem singuli libri toto opere contineant, sequenti pagella, videre est. (Antwerp, Michiel Hillen van Hoochstraten for Franz Birckmann, 1524). (Antwerp, Michiel Hillen van Hoochstraten for Franz Birckmann, 1524). 4to (140 x 195 mm). (96) ff., numbered in an early hand (omitting f. 77). Elaborate woodcut border on title-page, featuring elephant and cherubim, and with several large woodcut initials in text. Bound in early limp vellum with manuscript title on spine; edges stained red. 17th century portrait of Vives added to inner cover. Lengthy, exegetical early annotations to the first book 'De Instituenda Virgine' along with readership markings. A very good copy from the Harrach Library (Austria/Madrid), with 19th century stamp on title.

EUR 125,000.00

Very rare first edition of "the first systematic study to address explicitly and exclusively the universal education of women", commissioned by Henry VIII's wife, Catherine of Aragon, who was at the time rearing her own daughter, Mary Tudor. Translated and adapted by numerous followers, Vives' treatise would go on to be read in almost every European vernacular, often by women themselves. The first edition, however, is rare in census and in commerce - and contains passages, particularly on chastity and intellectual capacity, which were entirely re-written in later incarnations. A fundamental document for the role of women in Early Modern society - and particularly in Early Modern England - this copy is especially remarkable for its state of preservation. An early reader of Vives has here added his own comments to the chapters on the seclusion of maidens and examples of feminine virtue. - "De Institutione Foeminae Christianae" consists of 3 books, one for each stage of woman's life: maidenhood, marriage, and widowhood. In his preface to Queen Catherine, Vives quotes Aristotle to the effect that states which do not provide for the education of women deprive themselves of a great source of their prosperity; yet as Charles Fantazzi points out, Vives is in fact here caught in a delicate double bind, "insistent on a subordinate, submissive role for women, the text must take care to expound its message not only without alienating the queen but rather, indeed, with the goal of winning her favour." Despite its dedication and although Vives specifically adapts his prose style for a female readership, the treatise is hardly pro-woman: "the 'Education' is determined to be both a reference book for men on how to control their women, as well as an edifying treatise for women to absorb as a source of proper behaviour" (Kolsky). Nevertheless, Vives' praise of women's intellectual capacity and his advocation of some form of universal learning for females are viewed as landmarks for modern historians of women and gender. - According to Fantazzi, "'De Institutione' enjoyed an enormous popularity and was generally regarded as the most authoritative statement on this subject throughout the sixteenth century, especially in England, where it found favor with Catholics and Protestants alike. There can be no denying that merely by attaching such importance to the education of women, Vives laid the groundwork for the Elizabethan age of the cultured woman." It was rapidly translated into English, enjoying some nine editions in that language during the 16th century alone (cf. Higginbotham, p. 69). According to Pollie Bromilow, the dozens of vernacular translations were partly aimed at women themselves, who had no knowledge of Latin; and thus a large segment of its readership during the 16th century was in fact female. Appearing in an undated edition as early as 1528 or 1529, the English translation is rather an adaptation of Vives' text begun by Thomas More but completed by his household tutor, William Hyrde, who must have used the present edition in its preparation. - In 1538 Vives brought out a revised Latin edition reflecting many changes to the original text. This is the edition most commonly cited by scholars, probably thanks to its greater availability. The sections on maidens and the preservation of maidenhood (in all its meanings), however, were substantially re-written - notably, treating many of the same subjects which interested the annotator of the present copy! Chapter 6, on virginity, for example, "was subjected to a complete revision, so that it bears little resemblance to the first published version. It is obvious that Vives struggled over the proper approach to this topic. In the original version, he suddenly abandons his more discursive style for a rather personal and, one might add, paternalistic tête-á-tête with a young woman" (Fantazzi, p. 18). Vives' views on women's intellectual capacities also develop between the two editions. - At the outbreak of the Reformation Vives was a close friend of Erasmus, who had commissioned him to write a commentary on Augustine's "City of God" in 1521. Perhaps seeking refuge from the political and religious turmoil of Europe, Vives turned his attention to England from this point onward. He dedicated his edition of "De Civitate Dei" to Henry VIII in 1522, and already in May of 1523 was able to present a manuscript of his "De Institutione Foeminae Christianae" to Queen Catherine in person. At Henry's court he grew close to the circle of Thomas More and produced a further educational treatise, "De Ratione Studii Puerilis". Thanks to his growing opposition to Henry VIII's divorce proceedings, however, Vives was placed under house arrest by Cardinal Wolsley from February to April 1528, and upon his release sensibly fled the country - only to return briefly later that year in the role of Catherine's legal adviser. - Provenance: later stamp of the Harrach Library on title-page. The collection originated as the personal library of Graf Ferdinand Bonaventura von Harrach, Austrian envoy to Spain (1637-1707), and explains the characteristically Spanish binding on the present example. Ferdinand's son Aloys followed in his father's footsteps; but after his death in 1742 the collection was transferred back to the remaining Harrach family in Vienna. Finally, the collection wound up in the family castle 'Schloss Bruck an der Leitha', in Lower Austria. We have handled numerous other Harrach copies, which seem to have formed a cohesive 'personal reference library' of 16th and 17th century works for this seventeenth century statesman. - A very good copy. OCLC shows just four copies in American institutions: Harvard, the Massachusetts Center for Renaissance Studies, Yale, and the Huntington. {BN#45727}
¶ Nijhoff/Kronenberg 2167. Adams V 951. Brunet V, 1333. Estelrich 136. Cf. also Fantazzi's introduction to a modern translation, The Education of a Christian Woman: A Sixteenth-Century Manual (U Chicago, 2007). Kolsky, Making Examples of Women: Juan Luis Vives' The Education of a Christian Woman. Higginbotham, The Girlhood of Shakespeare's Sisters: Gender, Transgression, Adolescence (U Edinburgh, 2013). Bromilow, "An Emerging Female Readership of Print in Sixteenth-Century France?", French Studies (2013) Vol. 67, pp. 155-169.

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A Complicated Incunable for a Bohemian Witch-Hunter

Institoris, Heinrich (Heinrich Kramer). Sancte Roma[n]e eccl[esi]e fidei defe[n]sio[n]is p[ro]pungnaculu[m] [!] Adversus... walde[n]sium seu Pickardorum heresim Certas germanie Bohemieq[ue] naciones in odium cleri ac enervacione[m] ecclesiastice potestatis virnlenta [!] co[n]tagio[n]e sparsi[m] inficientis [...]. Olmütz, Conrad Baumgarten, 20. IV. 1501. Olmütz, Conrad Baumgarten, 20. IV. 1501. Folio (220 x 315 mm). 128 ff. (a-b8, c-d6, e4, f6, g4, h-p6, q4, r-x6, y4; page count: [t.p.], iii, v, iiii, v-ix, v, xiii, xii, [2 ff.], xiiii, xvi-xliii, xlvii, xlv-cvii, cix-cxxviii), complete thus. With half-page title woodcut, full-page woodcut on verso, large woodcut initial, and printer's device at the end (all with contemporary touches of red ink), as well as numerous fleuronee and lombardic initials in red and green, including five figurated initials. Rubricated throughout. Contemp. blindstamped gothic binding: dark brown calf over wooden boards, remains of engraved brass clasps.

EUR 85,000.00

First edition of this polemic against the Bohemian Brethren, written by the author of the notorious "Malleus Maleficarum": a "Bulwark of Faith of the Holy Roman Church Against the Heresy of the Waldensians and Picards". Extremely rare: the present copy represents the hitherto unknown first impression of the first edition, still bearing a slightly different title; all other known copies printed that same year (three via OCLC, one in the Scientific Library of Olomouc, one in the Bavarian State Library), as well as the 1502 second edition, are entitled "Sancte Romane ecclesie fidei defensionis clippeum adversus waldensium seu pickardorum heresim, certas Germanie Bohemieque nationes in odium cleri ac enervatioe ecclesiatice potestatis virulenta contagione sparsim inficientes" (changing the - misspelled - "bulwark" into a "shield"). Quire signatures and pagination depart from those stated by OCLC in several details. In particular, the head-over-heels "u" in "virulenta" (here printed as "virnlenta", corrected in other editions), identifies the present variant as the earliest one. - In the year 1500, 15 years after he first published his "Malleus Maleficarum", Institoris had been installed by Pope Alexander VI as inquisitor to Bohemia and Moravia, where he was to take action agains heretics, sorcerers, and witches (cf. Tschacher). In the present work, his last to see publication, "he once more invokes his 'Malleus' and his earlier sermons against witchery and its doubters. The Bohemian Waldenses, he argues, had not only perpetrated numerous heresies, but also questioned the legitimacy of the witch trials. It is telling that Kramer, in his final polemic, would interpret the heresies of the Waldenses and witches as conjoined harbingers of the approaching apocalypse" (ibid.). The inquisitor who prided himself on having sent no fewer than 200 witches to the stake discusses other heresies as well: fol. 86ff. contains an entire chapter "De origine legis machometice". - One of the most extensive and technically ambitious works to leave the press of the itinerant German printer Konrad Baumgarten, active in Danzig, Olomouc, Breslau, and Frankfurt/Oder between 1498 and 1509. The page count is exceedingly confused, as in all copies. Indeed, only a single leaf in the entire "a" gathering bears a signature: the second, counted as "a iii" in error; thus agreeing with all copies available for comparison. The count of the first four leaves in our copy has therefore been corrected to "a i-iv" in red ink by a contemporary hand. - From the library of the disputatious Bohemian Franciscan friar John Aquensis, who in 1502 was to publish his own polemic against the "Picards", with his marginalia and his autograph ownership on the title page. "Although Johannes Aquensis, Jan Vodnansky in Czech, was one of the most active Catholic writers at the turn of the Middle Ages to the Age of Reformation, he has been largely ignored by scholarship so far. Born in Vodhany (some 30 kilometers to the north-west of Budweis and considered Utraquist) around 1460, he attended the school of St. Henry's in Prague since 1473, later studying Divinity at the University there. After obtaining his Bachelor's degree in 1480, he joined the Observant Franciscans and soon became one of the most vocal antagonists of the Utraquists, Begards, Waldensians, Bohemian Brethren, and other heretics. He disappears after 1534 [...] Most of his works, almost entirely ignored by scholarship but apparently marked by a curious mixture of erudition, bellicose dialectics, vivid imagination, and credulity, are known in manuscripts only; a very few were printed, and some must be presumed lost or awaiting discovery" (cf. Dietrich Kurze, Märkische Waldenser und Böhmische Brüder. Zur brandenburgischen Ketzergeschichte und ihrer Nachwirkung im 15. und 16. Jh., in: H. Beumann [ed.], Festschrift für Walter Schlesinger II [Cologne 1974], p. 456-502, at: 480). Some staining to first and last leaf; occasional insignificant waterstaining, otherwise very clean, showing very little browning. Altogether an excellent copy in its contemporary, original binding. The individual blindstamps could not be traced in the Kyriss or Schunke collections; the clasp hitches are engraved with an invocation of the Virgin ("MARIA AVE"). Text carefully rubricated throughout; the inhabited initials depict dragons and other mythical creatures, as well as the bearded head of an old man. - Of the utmost rarity: this present first edition is not listed in German or international auction records. The last copy of any edition in the trade was that formerly in the Broxbourne collection (1502 second ed.: Sotheby's, 8 May 1978, lot 408, to Breslauer). {BN#30213}
¶ Not in VD 16 or ISTC. Cf. Panzer VII, 486, 1. Cf. OCLC 22369397. Zibrt III, 5181. Isaac 14475. Werner Tschacher, "Kramer, Heinrich (Henricus Institoris)", in: Lex. zur Geschichte der Hexenverfolgung, ed. G. Gersmann, K. Moeller & J.-M. Schmidt (historicum.net, <http://www.historicum.net/no_cache/persistent/artikel/5935>).

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First illustrated edition of the only architectural treatise to survive from classical antiquity

Vitruvius Pollio, Marcus. [De architectura libri decem]. (Venice, Giovanni Tacuino, 22 May 1511). (Venice, Giovanni Tacuino, 22 May 1511). Folio (232 x 323 mm). (4), 110, (9) ff., final blank. Four-piece woodcut title-border with dolphins and 136 woodcut illustrations and diagrams most within a double frame. Outline initials within a double frame; woodcut orb and cross device on final page. Modern full vellum.

EUR 75,000.00

The first illustrated edition of the only architectural treatise to survive from classical antiquity, considered the supreme authority by Italian Renaissance architects: the single most influential work for the later development of European architecture. The previous three editions contain diagrams only, making this the first to include non-schematic illustrations. The woodcuts depict ornaments, plans, elevations, proportions of the human body, heating systems, machinery, a ship with an odometer and siege machines, among other subjects. The title border with dolphins is itself "one of the most influential pieces of ornamentation of the sixteenth century" (Mortimer). The 1511 edition is also the first to be edited by Fra Giovanni Giocondo (1433-1515), a working architect, as well as an editor for the Aldine Press and an authority on classical inscriptions. During the last year of his life he collaborated with Raphael and Sangallo on St. Peter's Basilica after Bramante's death in 1514. - Title page remargined along gutter and fore-edge (no loss to text, but possibly supplied from another copy); some browning and faint waterstaining. Leaves G8 and K1 torn and repaired, B1-8 bound out of sequence. Still a good copy of a rare and important edition. {BN#46765}
¶ Adams V 902. Fowler 393. Kat. der Ornamentstichslg. Berlin 1798. Sander 7694. Millard Italian 156. Mortimer Italian 543. Essling 1702. Norman 2157. Sander 7694. Cicognara 696. RIBA 3491. Cf. PMM 26.

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This Testament shall be Luther's German Testament: Luther's Definitive Text

[Biblia germanica - NT]. Luther, Martin. Das Newe Testament Mar. Luthers. Wittenberg, (Hans Lufft), 1530. Wittenberg, (Hans Lufft), 1530. 8vo (130 x 185 mm). (328) ff. (A-Z8, a-s8). With woodcut title border, 36 full-page woodcuts (including 3 repeats) and woodcut initials. Contemporary dark brown full calf, blindstamped with tendril designs framing a crucifix (upper cover) and four rows of tendril rolls (lower cover). Remains of clasps; spine on 3 raised bands, professionally repaired.

EUR 75,000.00

Exceptionally rare impression of Luther's New Testament in German, the original edition of the last text he issued before incorporating it into his first complete German Bible of 1534. Luther's first edition of the German New Testament, famously published in September 1522, had been a single-handed effort, the work of no more than eleven intensely laborious weeks which he had spent in hiding at the Wartburg. An expensive folio production, it nevertheless sold out in less than three months. During the following years Luther had moved on to tackle various books of the Old Testament, for the preparation of which he employed the help and advice of several friends whose knowledge of Hebrew he felt to be superior. In 1529 however, as part of his work towards a complete German Bible, he meticulously revised (with the support of Melanchthon) his earlier version of the New Testament, and the present edition went forth at Frankfurt's 1530 Easter Book Fair. For the first time it appeared in the pocket-size octavo format, containing several new woodcuts by Georg Lemberger which maintained the style of the Lucas Cranach illustrations. Notably, the woodcut of St. Matthew is a portrait of Luther himself. The 25th illustration of the Apocalypse introduces a surprisingly topical slant, picturing Gog and Magog as the Turkish army which had besieged Vienna the previous year: St. Stephen's Cathedral is clearly visible, and the city wall bears the inscription "Wien", lest even the most obtuse of readers miss the point (indeed, a marginal note in the text opposite spells out the identification). As for the edition's textual changes, "the improvements were grammatical, syntactical, and stylistic in nature, but often were also theologically motivated. In particular, the changes to the prefaces are of theological importance: Luther expanded the prologue to the First Epistle to the Corinthians; the Revelation's introduction was expanded eightfold and given a wholly new character, which was now closer to a true commentary - or rather to a polemic which drew its incisiveness from its capacity to bring up to date the interpretation of the Holy Scripture" (cf. Reinitzer, p. 153). Luther's translation "was of vital importance to the progress of the Reformation, giving a new impetus to the study of the scriptures in the vernacular all over Europe. It also was to have as profound an influence on the development of the German language as the King James Bible later had on English" (PMM 51). The verso of the title page bears Luther's sardonic warning to piratical printers and competing translators: "I beg all my friends and foes, my masters, printers, and readers, let this New Testament be mine. If they lack one, let them make one for themselves. I know full well what I am doing, as I am well aware of what others are doing, but this Testament shall be Luther's German Testament; for there is not measure nor end to fault-finding and second-guessing." The demand for the book proved enormous: by the time Luther's German Bible was published in 1534, over 80 editions of his New Testament had appeared, and by the time of his death the reprints numbered at least 330. Even the original 1530 Testament exists in two collations with three different title pages, all equally rare: earlier that the same year, the printer Lufft had produced a 412-leaf Testament with a significantly narrower printed space, which he then reissued with a changed title woodcut. The title page of the present, final variant, re-set with a wider printed space and a title border showing tendril-entwined columns at the sides and medallions at the top and bottom, is the one pictured in Reinitzer (fig. 81). - Insignificant browning and occasional light fingerstaining, with a few 17th or 18th century underlinings in brown crayon and occasional annotations in an early 18th century hand. The first of the final endpapers has writing on both sides, containing diary entries for the years 1731 to 1733. These notes (by one Johann Georg Rüger from Zell near Schweinfurt in Lower Franconia) are not without interest, as they record events such as the writer's unexpected assistance at a birth ("Heut tato den 17 Junii 1731 hab ich in schwein furth Ein Kint müsen heben, Martin Albrecht, ich Johann Georg Rüger"), the burial of the local shepherd (noting the pallbearers by name, as well as the passage from the Epistle to the Romans read at the funeral), or the transferral of the local priest and the arrival of the new one (noting the passage from the Acts of the Apostles read by Pastor Johann Englert at the investiture, as well as the writer's own participation in the ceremony as a trumpeter). A later pencil ownership ("Johann Valentin Hoffman 1779") in an uneducated hand on the verso of the final index leaf opposite. - No copy in auction records since 1950. VD 16 lists only two copies in libraries (Coburg and Wolfenbüttel), to which Pietsch adds a copy in Bamberg, as well as incomplete copies in Berlin and Hamburg. {BN#46796}
¶ VD 16 B 4400. Benzing 1530.3. Pietsch 34. Reinitzer, Biblia deutsch, no. 85 (with fig. 81). Panzer 77, 14. Bindseil VI, p. XV, e15. Muther, Bilderbibeln 255; Bücherillustration 1609. OCLC 258150473. Not in Bibelslg. Württemberg (but cf. Abt. 2, vol. 1, E 232). Not in Darlow/Moule. Cf. Ursprung der Biblia Deutsch (Exhibition cat., Stuttgart 1983), IVC 2, no. 6.

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The first world chronicle to include bio-bibliographies of Arab scholars

Foresti de Bergamo, Jacobus Philippus. Supplementum chronicarum. (With additions by Barillas Bergomas). Brescia, Boninus de Boninis, 1. XII. 1485. Brescia, Boninus de Boninis, 1. XII. 1485. Small folio (209 x 311 mm). (23), 358, (1) ff. (fols. aa1 & b10 blank). 49 lines and headlines. Tables in 2 columns, quire register at end (T8r) in 4 columns, printed marginalia. Capital spaces. Double rules along inner margins of text and between table columns. Lombardic initials supplied in red, capital strokes and paragraph marks. Contemporary alum-tawed blindstamped pigskin over wooden boards, sewn on four double and 2 single cords, bound in the monastic shop of the Würzburg Benedictines (Kyriss 37 / Schwenke-Schunke II, 317 / EBDB w000063), covers panelled with six vertical triple fillets including outer borders and four horizontal triple fillets, decorated with several stamps from that shop (cf. below). Trace of a parchment title label on upper cover, nail holes and discoloration from 10 now-lost metal corner- and centrepieces, pair of chased brass and leather fore-edge clasps. Later shelfmark no. 126 in red ink on plain spine, small 20th c. paper label; 15th c. manuscript waste quire liners.

EUR 65,000.00

Second edition of a popular world chronicle by an Augustinian cleric, a fine copy in a monastic binding. In his chronicle Foresti proposed to bring together the most important historical facts from each year, starting with Genesis. Although he often placed legend and myth on the same plane as documented history, Foresti's chronicle was the first world history to include short bio-bibliographies of Arab scholars. These were not taken over from any of the principal sources cited by the author (Vincent of Beauvais, Boccaccio, Platina, and St Anthony of Florence), attesting to the breadth of his scholarship (cf. Hasse, Success and Suppression: Arabic Sciences and Philosophy in the Renaissance [2016], p. 32). Six editions of Foresti's chronicle are recorded from 1483 to 1491, the last an Italian translation, all but the present edition printed in Venice. The author continued to revise and expand on the work: for the 1503 edition he would add an extra book bringing the account up to the present. - Bonino de Boninis de Ragusia, a Dalmatian cleric, had worked in Venice in 1479 before setting up a press in Verona (with Venetian types), then moving to Brescia. His productions were "dominated throughout by Venetian models and methods" (Scholderer, BMC). Beautifully printed, this edition contains numerous aids to the reader, presumably at least in part as instructed by the author. Two tables in quire aa comprise an alphabetical index of passages mentioning famous women (Foresti essentially plagiarized Boccaccio in his own work on the same subject, published in 1497), and an alphabetical index to cities named in the text. A double-rule chronological bar runs along every page, separating two calendars: on either side of the bar is printed, at the head of each annual section, the date since Creation and the Christian year. Finally, the quire register on the last leaf summarizes the contents of each gathering. - This copy was bound in the shop of the Würzburg Benedictine monks; the tools are: EBDB s004169, two birds on a lily; s004166 = Schwenke Schunke 379a, a banderole with the name of the monastery (san stef. mrt); s004167, a large rosette; s004170, a jumping dog (called a lion by Schunke); plus a diamond-shaped plant tool (38 x 27 mm.), not found in these repertories. - Covers rubbed. Top of first blank leaf clipped, sheet a3.7 (a3 signed "a2") on a guard and evidently supplied from another copy, occasional very minor thumb-soiling, foxing to sheet D1.8, minor small marginal dampstains in quire L. Provenance: Würzburg, Benedictines of St. Stephen (contemporary inscription on front pastedown, "Iste liber pertinet ad S. Stephanum In herbipoli"; a few contemporary marginalia, mainly single words in books 2, 9 and 13). Latterly in the collection of the Aschaffenburg scholar and bookseller Bernd Pattloch (1940-2014) with his bookplate. {BN#48761}
¶ HC 2806*. Goff J-209. GW M10965. CIBN J-141. Walsh 3401. Bod-inc J-088. BMC VII 969. BSB-Ink I-122. Cf. Dizionario Bibliografico degli Italiani 48:801-803.

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A milestone of science, from the library of the Nuremberg humanist Joachim Camerarius

Agricola, Georg. De re metallica. Basel, J. Froben and N. Episcopius, 1556. Basel, J. Froben and N. Episcopius, 1556. Folio. (10), 538 (but: 502), (74) pp. With 2 (1 folded) woodcut plates and about 280 woodcut illustrations and diagrams in text, partly full-page. Contemporary vellum with ms. title to spine. Edges in blue.

EUR 65,000.00

First edition of "the first systematic treatise on mining and metallurgy, and one of the first technological works of modern times" (PMM), an immaculate copy with outstanding provenance. Dealing with "everything connected with the mining industry and metallurgical processes, including administration, prospecting, the duties of officials and companies, and the manufacture of glass, sulphur and alum" (PMM), Agricola's main work paved the way for further systematic study of the earth and of its rocks, minerals, fossils, refinery and oil. Illustrated with 2 plates (one folding) and more than 280 woodcuts in the text attributed to Hans Rudolf Manuel Deutsch (1525-72), some very large, showing the different stages of the extraction and transformation of metals. - From the library of the famous German physician and botanist Joachim Camerarius the Younger (1534-98) with his autograph ownership to the title page ("Joachimo Joach[imi] F[ilio] Camerario"; the Morgan Library holds another book from his library with an identical inscription, cf. Accession no. PML 129904) and a very few underlinings and marginalia most likely also in his hand. Unidentified 18th c. engraved bookplate with the motto "similare nescit" on verso of title. Acquired from the library of Werner Habel, with his stamp, signature and acquisition date (1977) to front pastedown. First and final pages very lightly brownstained in the edges, otherwise clean and crisp throughout. Complete with the two inserted plates following page 100. A very appealing, wide-margined copy in its first binding. {BN#48845}
¶ PMM 79. Adams A 349. Sparrow (Milestones of Science), 4 and pl. 26.

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Medical sammelband, including the first edition of his "Apotherkerordnung"

Brunfels, Otto. Reformation der Apotecken, welche inhaltet vil guter stück,... die eynem yeglichen fast nützlich sein [...]. Von edlen steynen, wie die zuken[n]en [...] Wie man Syrupen, Latwergen, und Confect machen soll, verteütscht auß dem Latein durch D. Hansen Eles. Strasbourg, Wendelin Rihel d. Ä., 1536. Strasbourg, Wendelin Rihel d. Ä., 1536. 4to. (4), LIV pp. With title woodcut and several woodcut initials. (Bound after) II: Ryff, Walther Hermann. Ein wolgegründet, nutzlich und heilsam handtbüchlin, gmeyner Practick der gantzen leib artzney [...]. (Strasbourg, Balthasar Beck), 1541. 4 parts. (224) ff. (last blank), (140), XC, (12) ff. (last blank). With 21 woodcuts in the text. Contemporary full pigskin over wooden boards with bevelled edges, blindstamped with evangelists' roll. 2 clasps.

EUR 58,000.00

I: Very rare first edition of this book on the equipping and the managing of pharmacies. A single copy in auction records (2011, Reiss, sale 142: 40,000 Euros, also bound in a medical sammelband). The pretty woodcut on the title page shows the interior of a pharmacy, with one apothecary taking over a client's recipe, another fetching a can from a shelf, and a third at work with mortar and pestle. - The humanist, physician and theologian Brunfels (1490-1534), "first in time and importance among the German botanists of the 16th century" (Garrison/Morton 279), turned to Lutheranism in 1521, after which he had to flee; Ulrich von Hutten found him a parish near Frankfurt. Later, Brunfels turned to Basel, where he earned an M.D. degree, and Strasbourg, where he published several works on pharmacy and paediatrics. - Slight brownstaining and waterstaining; a few occasional edge flaws. The lower margin of fol. 30 contains an extensive, roughly contemporary note on camphor: "Der recht natürlich campher wirdt also probiert: Nimm ein new backen brot als bald es auß dem ofen kommen ist, schneids mitten entzwei, leg den campher darein: so er wässerecht wirdt, ist er rechtschaffen, so er aber dierr und trucken bleibt ist er gemacht, sol wol bewart werden verschwinden liederlich, man soll in behalten in aine marmelsteinen oder Alabastunen geschirr, darzu gethan leinsamen [...]". - II: First edition of this copious medical manual. The woodcuts show babies in the womb, two Phlebotomy Men, the blood vessels of the head (used twice), and two different diagrams of the eye (one a cross-section such as it would be used three decades later in Alhazen's "Opticae Thesaurus"). Leonhard Fuchs would challenge the publication as an adaptation of his own "De medendis singularum humani corporis partium libri IV". - Old handwritten ownership on title page deleted; some browning and waterstaining. Slight worming to front endpapers; endpapers at rear have additional recipes in a contemporary hand. The pretty binding shows slight worming, otherwise well-preserved. {BN#47865}
¶ I: VD 16, B 8567. Durling 730. IA 125.663. Muller 394, 6. Adlung/Urdang 83f. - II: VD 16, R 4007-4008. Benzing 115. Muller II, 312, 94. Ritter (Rép.) 2035. Waller 8350. Not in Bird, Durling, Lesky, Osler, Ritter (Cat.), STC, Wellcome etc.

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Interleaved and with a contemporary linguist's annotations throughout: a unique volume documenting an obscure triangle of western oriental scholars and their reception of Arabic

Megiser, Hieronymus. Institutionum linguae Turcicae, libri quatuor [...]. (Leipzig [and Breslau, Kirstenius] sumptibus authoris), 1612. (Leipzig [and Breslau, Kirstenius] sumptibus authoris), 1612. 8vo. 4 parts in one volume. (8), (30 [instead of 28!] incl. final blank, with extra dedication to Hector von Ernau), (52 incl. final blank), (24 incl. final blank), (58) ff., interleaved and with generous stretches of blanks between individual parts; annotated and foliated 1-421 throughout by the annotator. Title page printed in red and black. Megiser's full-page coat of arms at the end of the Turkish-Latin dictionary. Contemporary vellum binding using a 15th century Biblical manuscript leaf (Daniel 13, "Susannah and the Elders"), with handwritten title to spine. Two Arabic inscriptions to upper cover (one reading "Law kana Allah ma'na, man yakunu 'alaina" - translated from Romans 8:31, "If God be with us, who can be against us?").

EUR 58,000.00

First edition of "the first full-fledged Turkish grammar to be published in Europe" (Smitskamp), "a landmark in Turkish studies" (Navari), one of the most important works produced by the versatile scholar Megiser (1554-1619) from Stuttgart. This copy contains not only the rare additional printed dedication to the Carinthian nobleman Hector von Ernau, but also the extensive handwritten notes of the contemporary Arabist Johann Melchior Mader. In fact, this unique volume constitutes the fullest document extant about an only vaguely known and unresearched triangle of early 17th century enthusiasts of Arabic: Megiser, Ernau, and Mader, only the first of whom achieved fame. - The most obvious asset of the present copy lies in Mader's generous scholarly annotations both in the text as well as on the interleaved pages which expand the book, usually encompassing a mere 167 leaves, to two and a half times its normal size. While the additions in the interleaving are mostly slight, those on the blanks inserted between the individual parts are often quite extensive. Part one (concerned with the Arabic alphabet and spelling, printed by the physician and orientalist Kirsten in Breslau and the only part to contain letterpress Arabic) is followed by 5½ densely handwritten pages of "Sententiae et proverbia Arabica", with 63 numbered sayings (both in Arabic script as well as in transliteration and Latin - and occasionally German - translation). Part two discusses grammar proper; part three contains specimen Turkish versions of the Lord's Prayer, the Apostles' Creed, the Decalogue, and Psalm 51, as well as two centuries of Turkish proverbs transliterated in Roman italics (including Latin, Italian, and German translations). Here, Mader has in several cases provided the Turkish in carefully pointed Ottoman script, and has sometimes corrected the printed text. In the blanks following this section, Mader has added a little over 26 closely written pages of "Proverbia et Sententiae Turcica" (he stops numbering them at 179, with a good ten pages to go). The fourth and final part offers a Latin-Turkish as well as a Turkish-Latin dictionary; this latter section in particular is replete with Mader's handwritten additions, which expand on the printed word list by a generous third. At the end are another three pages of handwritten "Proverbia et Sententiae Persicae", underlining Mader's specific interest in paroemiography - a focus shared by many scholars of the time, including Erpenius. The study of proverbs was thought to offer a window into the culture and mentality behind a language, and the literally hundreds of additional examples here given by Mader not only significantly extend the known corpus of oriental adages, but with their transliterations also tell us more about the pronunciation of early 17th century Turkish. - The other merit of this volume lies in Mader's notes about the editorial genesis and authorship of Megiser's work. At the end of the extra dedication to Ernau (two printed leaves in which Megiser calls Ernau "autor", inserted between A1 and A2 and not present in any other known copy), Mader asserts that Ernau is indeed the real author of this Introduction to Turkish. Megiser, writes Mader, inserted the extra dedication only in the presentation copies he sent to Ernau but deliberately omitted them from the general press run, so as that he himself might appear the author: "The lord of Ernau wrote and disposed the work during his stay at Constantinople, and Megiser published it as its author, though it was not so". In reinforcement of this statement, Mader has stricken out the word "Authore" referring to Megiser on the title page and corrected this to "Descriptore". - Mader's handwritten ownership of this volume ("Joannes Melchior Maderus e Quabilinis", with an Arabic inscription and quotes from Ovid) is on the front pastedown, dated 1620. Remarkably, Mader made a similar claim in print at almost the same time. In 1621 he published at Nuremberg, under a false imprint, an obscure 64-page book on horses and riding ("Equestria sive de arte equitandi") best remembered for providing a definition of a horse that would have satisfied Mr. Gradgrind: "A horse is a non-rational animal that whinnies" (E2r). More than half of this vanity production is taken up with dedications to Mader's noble Carinthian friends, and in this introduction he mentions not only Hector von Ernau and his labour undertaken while at the Ottoman court, but also how Megiser (somewhat unfairly called "ignorant of the Turkish language") appropriated his work and published it eight years previously. Strikingly, he goes on to discuss the very annotated copy here under consideration: "but we shall revise that book, and put it forth with other Turkish, Persian, and Arabic daintinesses, as well as with brief corrections" (D2v). Unfortunately, this planned revision, the draft of which has here survived, did not materialize. Far too little is known about Mader: ironically, although in the "Equestria" he signs his name as a "doctor of philosophy", that pamphlet cast him as a veterinarian in bibliographic history, and as such he is cited by Jöcher and Schrader (where it is also stated in error that he hailed "from Carniola"). In fact, Mader even then had two Arabist publications to his name: in 1617 he produced not only a ten-page "Grammatica Arabica", but also a long "Oratio pro lingua Arabica" (both printed by David Franck in Augsburg). While the former includes among the dedicatees Johann Ulrich von Ernau (curiously disguised as "Ioan. Ulricus Österreicherus"), the latter contains a long list enumerating the "illustres & clarissimi eruditione viri" to whose work in Arabic he is indebted, among them not only "Petrus Kirstenius M.D., amicus meus singularis", but also "Hieronymus Megiserus, polyglottus ille Archiducum Austriae"! - Mader was born in Waiblingen near Stuttgart, likely in the early 1590s; he matriculated at Tübingen in 1611, took a Master's degree in 1613 and left the university two years later (cf. Hermelink II, p. 65). His years as a travelling scholar from 1615 to 1620, which took him as far as Prague, Leipzig, Weimar, Leiden, Paris, Louvain, Basel, Strasbourg, Augsburg, Linz, Vienna, Seisenberg in Carniola, and Padua, can be traced in his friendship album (Frommann collection, Württembergische Landesbibliothek Stuttgart, StB-Nr. 138), which includes entries by Andreas Osiander the Younger, Thomas Erpenius, Gabriel Sionita, Johannes Hesronita, and Johann Buxtorf, as well as by many dedicatees of his works. His numerous friendships among Carinthian and Carniolan noblemen can best be explained by reference to his fellow Württembergian Megiser, who signed the album in Linz on June 14, 1618, while serving as historiographer to the Upper Austrian estates: the scholar sported a theory that the Dukes of Carinthia were descended from the Counts of Waiblingen, Mader's birthplace (cf. his Annales Carinthiae [1612], p. 12, likewise mainly the work of a different, uncredited writer), and so it was probably Megiser (whom Mader would soon come to view so critically) who first suggested that Carinthia was the place whence a full-blooded Swabian ought to turn. Mader's later fate is uncertain, but it is likely he died soon after producing the "Equestria", in the early years of the Thirty Years' War that claimed so many lives by famine and disease. - Hector von Ernau, born the son of the Carinthian mint-master in 1562, went on to serve his native country in high offices; he died in Basel in 1649 without having achieved notoriety as a linguist. His soujourn in Constantinople, likely as the member of an embassy, and the extent of his studies in oriental languages, so highly praised by Mader, must remain the subject of further investigation. - Provenance: 1) Mader; 2) 18th century ownership "L. V. Pantaleon" on title page; 3) ownership of Francis Watts, Geneva 1823, on flyleaf; 4) Sefik E. Atabey (his bookplate on the pastedown). In fine condition throughout. {BN#47193}
¶ VD 17, 12:152965L. Zenker I, 295. Smitskamp, PO 346. STC M 631 (wanting pt. 4). Silvestre de Sacy 2513. Cat. Bernstein 2131. Atabey 797 (this copy). Max Doblinger, Hieronymus Megisers Leben und Werke (MIÖG 26.3 [1905]), pp. 431-478, at p. 454 & 478, no. 32. Not in Blackmer.

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Illuminated with two miniatures

[Biblia latina]. Biblia latina. Nuremberg, Koberger, 14. VI. 1478. Nuremberg, Koberger, 14. VI. 1478. Large folio (280 x 360 mm). Including Menardus monachus. (1), CCCCLXI, (6) ff., with two coloured historiated initials. 16th century blindstamped pigskin binding over wooden boards, wants clasps.

EUR 50,000.00

Koberger's third Latin Bible, printed with the same types as the second: in the splendic Gothic typeface which Koberger used exclusively for his Bibles; at the same time, the earliest type he is known to have used (cf. Klemm, Bibliogr. Mus., 722). The initial on fol. i shows the evangelist Mark with the lion; the tendril decoration reaches from the upper edge (slightly trimmed) to the lower one, ending in a coat of arms bearing the monogram "S-A-B". The second historiated initial on fol. iiii shows the Fall from Grace (Adam and Eve in paradise, with the apple tree and the serpent in the centre); here, the tendrils reach as far as the lower third of the page and also end in a coat of arms. Very exactingly rubricated throughout; signed at the end: "91 Jo fec". Several handwritten ownerships to fol. A1r, some contemporary, others as late as 1876: the name and printed bookplate of "C. R. Earley, Ridgway, Pa." (1823-98). Several manuscript marginalia. Some slight browning to the gutter of the first few leaves, staining to upper edge of fol. i. Insignificant waterstaining to upper edge of several leaves; occasional foxing or tiny smudged inkstains. Handwritten marginalia trimmed in places, but altogether a crisp, wide-margined copy. Some staining to the hefty binding; edges as well as a crack to the upper cover have been unobtrusively repaired. {BN#47450}
¶ Hain 3068. Goff B-556. GW 4232. BMC II, 415. Polain 648. Pellechet 2296. Oates 988. Hase 27.

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Presentation copy of an early work on musical theory, no copy recorded at auction

Quercu, Simon de. Opusculum musices perquam brevissimum. Vienna, Johann Winterburger, 1509. Vienna, Johann Winterburger, 1509. 4to. 48 unnumbered pages. With the Guidonian hand woodcut in red and black, 4 woodcut initials, woodcut device at end, several xylographic tables and music examples. Modern white boards with title lettered on spine.

EUR 48,000.00

Rare first edition, of which just a few copies survive: the author's presentation copy, a partly erased inscription at the end reading "Munus Autoris [...] An 11, 7 martii [...]". Quercu was choirmaster to Duke Ludovico Sforza of Milan and accompanied his two sons as a tutor to the court of Vienna. The present treatise, a famous and highly original book on musical theory for young scholars, was probably used in the musical education of the duke's sons. "The first part, 'Musica plana', deals with the modes, intervals, note names, solmization and solmization syllables, and mutation. The second part, 'Musica mensuralis', deals with note lengths, rests, ligatures, mensuration signs, alteration, imperfection and mensural proportions. The third part, 'Contrapunctus', considers consonances, dissonances and polyphonic writing. His teaching is illustrated with many music examples" (New Grove). The finely printed book includes on p. (4) the Guidonian hand, named after Guido of Arezzo (992?-1050), who introduced into music theory this mnemonic device to help teach singers learn to sight-read. Each portion of the hand represents a specific note in the hexachord system; during instruction, a teacher would indicate the series of notes by pointing to them on their hand to have the students sing them. - Light washing traces. Inscription recording "A gift from the author, 7 March [15]11", on the final page. German dealer’s catalogue clipping bound in before title. A monogram stamp on the lower pastedown identifies the collection of Otto Schäfer in Schweinfurt (purchased in 1958). No auction record for this edition (and only one for the second edition; cf. ABPC/RBH). USTC lists 5 copies only held in libraries including this copy. {BN#48444}
¶ VD 16, Q 39. Denis p. 22. Panzer IX, p. 3, no. 13. New Grove XV, 504. MGG X, 1811. USTC 679907.

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Rarer Than Vesalius - No Copy Recorded at Auction

Tagault, Jean. De chirurgica institutione libri quinque. His accessit sextus... liber de materia chirurgica, authore Jacobo Hollerio Stempano [...]. Paris, Christian Wechel, 1543. Paris, Christian Wechel, 1543. Folio (210 x 294 mm). (48), 421 pp., 1 leaf of errata, plus 2-leaf illustrated insert after p. 354 as called for. With 10 full-page woodcuts in text. Bound in contemporary vellum with endpapers skillfully renewed. Stored in custom-made half calf clamshell box.

EUR 45,000.00

Rare first edition, and the only folio printing, of the author's chef d'oeuvre, published in the same year as "De corporis humani fabrica", the similarly grand production of his most famous pupil, Andreas Vesalius. Although lesser-known as a text than his student's groundbreaking masterpiece, Tagault's "De chirurgica institutione" provides an essential piece of the puzzle in understanding the context in which Vesalius came to break new ground. The book's publishing history uncannily mirrors that of "De fabrica", and several of its anatomical diagrams were in fact plagiarized from the "Tabulae sex" through a chain of events yet to be elucidated. - Although he cannot be held in the same light as his eminent pupil, Tagault was an important figure on the cusp of the Vesalian revolution. O'Malley calls him "one of the few members of the faculty actively interested in anatomical studies" (p. 425) and notes that he was performing public dissections as early as 1535, during the period in which Vesalius studied under him (cf. p. 58). O'Malley also notes a story to the effect that the anatomist Jacobus Sylvius - a successful instructor at the University of Paris, but also terribly jealous of Vesalius's rising star - was responsible for advising Tagault on stylistic changes to improve the presentation of his "De chirurgica institutione". - The five books of Tagault's treatise elaborate the writings of Guy de Chauliac (1300-68) on the surgical aspects of tumors, wounds, hernias, ulcers, fractures, and dislocations. 2 full-page woodcut figures ultimately based on Gersdorff show the wound-man and the extraction of an arrow on the battlefield; a further three, in fact plagiarized from the "Tabulae sex", are found on the two leaves inserted at p. 354 following Tagault's treatise, accompanied by numbered legends in Latin and Greek. The precise circumstances surrounding their appearance in this work are intriguing; their position suggests a late addition, perhaps in a nod to the growing popularity of his former student. According to Cushing, the four chief suspects in the transfer of the woodcuts are the anatomist Louis Vassé, the printers Charles Estienne and Christian Wechel, and Tagault himself. Moritz Roth (Andreas Vesalius Bruxellensis, 1892) indeed traced in detail the extent of the plagiarism and cross-flow of the woodblocks between successive editions of Tagault and Vesalius. - The sixth book contains the first appearance in print of Jacques Houiller's "De materia chirurgica", discussing and illustrating the tools of surgery in use during Vesalian times before Pare and Wurtz. - Like "De fabrica", later editions of "De chirurgica institutione" were issued only in reduced format to make the work more widely accessible; the present first edition is the only printing in folio, presenting its marvellous full-page woodcuts to full effect. The large number of editions which Tagault's text enjoyed during the 16th century certainly rivals that of Vesalius and perhaps suggests that the two texts might have competed on the European stage. - Unlike the first edition of "De fabrica", which is readily obtainable in commerce, we have not traced any copy of the first edition of "De chirurgica institutione" at Anglo-American or German auctions in the last 50 years. It is one of just two editions edited by Tagault himself and published during his lifetime; the second edition (1544) was a much less impressive (and far more commonly-encountered) octavo. - A very good copy, fresh and charming despite a very light dampstain to the upper blank margin of a few leaves. {BN#44303}
¶ Cushing 27. Waller 9444 (lacking index). Not in the Wellcome. Heirs of Hippocrates 190 (the earliest edition noted being 1560).

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The pearl of all books printed in Vienna (Mayer)

Francolin, Hanns von. Thurnier Buech warhafftiger ritterlicher Thaten, so in dem... Monat Junii des vergangnen LX. Jars in und ausserhalb der Statt Wienn zu Rosz und zu Fueß, auff Waser und Lannd gehalten worden [...]. (Vienna, Raphael Skrzetusky gen. Hofhalter), [1561]. (Vienna, Raphael Skrzetusky gen. Hofhalter), [1561]. Small folio (202 x 279 mm). (6), LXXX (but: 84), (1) pp. (collation: A6; B-N4 [N4 blank], O-P4 Q2, R-X4, x2, Y-Z4). Title page printed in red and black surrounded by a border of 10 armorial woodcuts. With full-page woodcut portrait of Emperor Ferdinand I by Donat Hübschmann on verso, large emblematic etching by Johann Schlutpacher von Rauris (A6v), full-page woodcut by Hans Lautensack of the standard-bearer Heinrich the younger, Burgrave of Meissen (E1r), 45 woodcut coat-of-arms in quire x, on Z1r woodcut device incorporating the arms of the printer, a Polish nobleman. 7 large folded etched plates, including two by Hanns Lautensack (at G4 and N4), one attributed to Francesco Terzi (at H2), one by the monogrammist FA (at I3), one attributed to Giovanni Guerra (at Q2), one unsigned (at X3), and one attributed to Johann Thwenger. Early 19th century half calf.

EUR 35,000.00

First German edition of the finest early printed book on tournaments. It describes in detail and spectacularly illustrates the tournaments, staged battles (including an elaborate naval scene), balls and banquets, held at Vienna to honour the visit of Albrecht V Duke of Bavaria (1528-79), son-in-law of Emperor Ferdinand I and brother-in-law of King Maximilian of Bohemia (Emperor Maximilian II from 1564 onwards). According to Graesse (II, 629), the Latin edition of the same year has different illustrations, which he describes as "moins bonnes", and the same is true for Feyerabend's Frankfurt edition appended to Rüxner's "Thurnier Buch" (1566). The author served as herald to John II Sigismund, King of Hungary. - In complete condition with the full complement of etched plates, the book is of the utmost rarity; both Ruggieri copies were imperfect, and Bartsch describes only three of the etchings. - Fine impressions throughout. Some light browning and marginal fingerstaining; a few tears or flaws to the plates reinforced or rebacked. Rebound in the early 18th century for the Austrian infantry captain and secretary to the military court Franz von Grössing (his handwritten ownership at the bottom of title-page and colophon), preserving the upper third of the original flyleaf with handwritten ownerships dating from the 1560s (Rosina and H. V. Bastrig[o] 1561; gifted to Bernhard Kulmer by his sister Barbara Poltus, but returned to Bastrig in 1563 "as he will not allow the gift, and has a better right to the book"). Latterly in the library of the Viennese collector Werner Habel (1939-2015) with his handwritten and stamped ownership to the new flyleaf. {BN#48925}
¶ VD 16, F 2207. Ruggieri 827. Brunet Suppl. II, 767. BNHCat F 406. Mayer I, 88f. Watanabe 21.

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d'une rareté excessive

Heyden, Sebald. Musicae, id est, artis canendi libri duo. Nuremberg, Johann Petreius, 1537. Nuremberg, Johann Petreius, 1537. 4to. (8), 115, (1) pp. With armorial title woodcut, several initials and numerous music notes in the text. Contemporary limp vellum with manuscript spine title. Wants ties.

EUR 35,000.00

Extremely rare first edition of one of the most important of all classic works of musical theory, a book that enjoyed a high reputation even during the author's lifetime. In contrast to his first treatise, the 1532 "Musicae stoicheiosis" which treats exclusively "musica figurata", or polyphony, his present, second work is more comprehensive and more clearly written, though limited "to matters concerning musical compositions withount discussion of purely theoretical matters. This publication was outstanding for its many examples, drawn, according to the author's prefatory statement, from the works of the best and most renowned composers - Josquin, Obrecht, La Rue, Isaac, Brumel, Ghiselin - not only as the most useful examples but also as demonstrations of great music. The examples are presented mostly without texts or with incipits only" (New Grove). "Heyden s'est fait particulièrement connaître d'une manière avantageuse par un livre [...] ce livre est précieux pour l'histoire de l'art et de la science au seizieme siècle. Dans aucun livre de ce temps, les principes des nuances et de la notation ne sont exposés avec autant de clarté et de concision que dans celui-ci. Les nombreux exemples de Josquin, d'Obrecht, de Senfel, de Henri Isaac, de Ghiselin et d'autres, qui s'y trouvent, avec les résolutions de cas embarassants de l'ancien système de proportions, ajoutent encore au prix de cet ouvrage, qui est malheureusement d'une rareté excessive" (Fétis). All of Petreius's "printed music is of exquisite beauty [...] The printer's glory days began in 1537, with Heyden's highly respected work about choral music" (Cohen, Nürnberger Musikdrucker im 16. Jh., p. 25f.). - Occasional insignificant waterstaining to margins, but altogether a splendidly crisp, wide-margined copy with contemporary handwritten ownership of one "Anastasius de Verona" (erased) on the title page. Of the utmost rarity: a single copy in auction records of the past decades (1968, Hauswedell 158, no. 1246), and a single copy of the 1540 second edition (1942: Schab, cat. 5, no. 113; which is also the only edition kept at Cambridge). {BN#47554}
¶ BM-STC German 404. Eitner V, 137. RISM (Écrits impr.) 412. Hirsch I, 246. Wolffheim I, 705. Teramoto (Petreius) passim. New Grove VIII, 28.

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The astrology of carrots and related root vegetables, by an eccentric and colourful charlatan travelling in Egypt and Asia Minor: rare coloured copy

Thurneisser zum Thurn, Leonhard. Historia unnd Beschreibung influentischer, elementischer und natürlicher Wirckungen,... aller fremden unnd heimischen Erdgewechssen, auch irer Subtiliteten, sampt warhafftiger und künstlicher Conterfeitung derselbigen [...]. (Berlin, Michael Hentzke, 1578). (Berlin, Michael Hentzke, 1578). Folio (255 x 381 mm). (12), 156 [but: 158], (24) pp. With the title in a large and elaborately decorated woodcut, 36 large botanical, 12 large astronomical and about 112 small woodcut illustrations in text, and the author’s woodcut heraldic device above the colophon, nearly all coloured by a near-contemporary hand. 17th century gold-tooled, dark brown tanned sheepskin.

EUR 35,000.00

Elaborately coloured copy of the first German edition of a bizarre astrologico-botanical work, translated from the Latin edition published earlier that same year, by the Basel-born Berlin physician, alchemist, astrologist, botanist and linguist Leonard Thurneysser (1531-96). It discusses astrological influences on the growth, composition and medical efficacy of plants, and includes an index of plant names in the usual Latin and German, but also more interestingly in Hebrew, Syriac, Arabic and Persian. "Hand-colored copies [...] are rare" (Macphail). - Thurneysser, son of a Basel goldsmith, frequently came into trouble as a con-artist and swindler. He travelled in Egypt and Asia Minor in the 1560s collecting information on medicinal plants, astrology and other subjects under the patronage of Archduke Ferdinand of Austria, then settled in Berlin under patronage of the Elector of Brandenburg. He intended the present book on umbelliferous plants (carrots and related root vegetables) as the first in a ten-volume series covering all plants, but published only this first volume. Apart from the larger botanical and astrological woodcut illustrations, there are smaller ones showing human skeletons and organs (indicating where the plants supposedly takes its medicinal effect), as well as distilling and other equipment. While the book's "botanical value, as well as its medical value, was absolutely nil" (Anderson), it nevertheless proved influential. It is a typographic tour de force, set mostly in two columns with numerous headings, and notes printed in the fore-edge margins and sometimes in a third column between the text columns. - With two 20th-c. bookplates of the Italian physician and collector Piergiorgio Borio on the front pastedown. Waterstained at the head throughout and sometimes also along the fore-edge, mostly confined to the margins; slight browning, an occasional stain not affecting the colours of the illustrations. Margins of the title-page thumbed, but still generally in good condition. A rare, extensively coloured copy of an extraordinary work, as colourful as the text and the author’s life. {BN#46022}
¶ VD 16, T1172 (7 copies). Adams T 690. Nissen 1964. Durling 4353. Wellcome 6300. Ferguson II, 451. Anderson, Herbals, 181-186. Arber 215-218. Hunt 135. Macphail, Alchemy & Occult 45.

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One of the earliest editions of the Cosmographia

Münster, Sebastian. Cosmographiae universalis lib. VI. Basel, Heinrich Petri, (March 1559). Basel, Heinrich Petri, (March 1559). Folio (220 x 328 mm). (24), 474, (4), 475-476 pp, 477-480 ff., 481-608 pp., 609-612 ff., 613-1162, (2) pp. (complete thus). With woodcut title border, Münster's portrait on the verso, printer’s device on the final page by Urs Graf, 14 maps (11 double-page and 3 triple-page) as well as 37 double-page views and approximately 970 woodcuts in the text (including repeats). Contemporary full calf on six raised double bands with gilt central oval ornaments and corner fleurons to both covers; spine sparsely gilt.

EUR 28,000.00

An early edition of Münster’s monumental work. The Cosmographia by Sebastian Münster (1488-1552), the German cartographer and cosmographer, was one of the most successful and popular books of the 16th century. The most highly valued of all cosmographies, it passed through 24 editions within 100 years and was of principal importance for reviving the interest in geography in 16th century Europe. In spite of its numerous maps, Münster's Cosmography is largely a work of historical geography and history, and it was thus that it soon became the most popular work of its kind throughout Europe - not only in Germany, but also in France (where it saw several editions), Italy, and Bohemia. "The Latin edition, more scientific in many respects, was intended for the scholars in all of Europe" (cf. Burmeister, p. 14). - In good condition, with some frequent but slight waterstaining. A few near-contemporary underlinings and annotations, some in red ink. Binding rubbed, chafed and bumped. Provenance: handwritten ownership of Carl Isaak Rothovius, dated 1649 (possibly related to Isaacus Rothovius [1572-1652], the bishop of Turku, who oversaw the first complete translation of the Bible into Finnish). Late 18th century engraved armorial bookplate of the naturalist and Swedish civil servant Mathias Benzelstierna (1713-91), who studied with Carl Linné and became a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in 1786. {BN#49041}
¶ VD 16, M 6718. Burmeister 90. Hantzsch 77.33. Adams M 1911. Sabin 51382. Graesse IV, 622. Cf. Borba de Moraes II, 90f. Not in BM-STC German.

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First dated edition, with c. 800 hand-coloured woodcuts

[Lonicer, Adam (attrib.)]. Herbarum, arborum, fruticum, frumentorum ac leguminum, animalium praeterea... terrestrium, volatiliu[m] & aquatilium [...] imagines [...] depictae [...]. Kreutter, Bäume, Gesteude, unnd Frücht, deßgleichen Gethier, zam unnd wild, im Lufft, Wasser und Erdtrich lebende [...]. Frankfurt/Main, Christian Egenolph, (1546). Frankfurt/Main, Christian Egenolph, (1546). 4to. (16), 265, (1) pp. With a large woodcut on the title-page showing a gardener at work with his tools, and about 800 woodcut illustrations in the text. About 700 show trees, fruit, edible and medicinal plants, while the rest show insects, a tick, coral, shells, various sea and land animals and a view of a pond with plants and birds. It includes a two-headed snake, dragon, griffin, and a few other mythical creatures. With all woodcuts coloured by a contemporary hand. Contemporary pigskin over wooden boards, richly blind-tooled in a panel design with two rolls (one alternating heads and coats of arms, the other with standing figures), a large acorn and other stamps; brass clasps and catch-plates with engraved decoration.

EUR 28,000.00

Rare first dated edition of an extensively illustrated early herbal in contemporary hand-colour, with the title and most of the plant and animal names in Latin and German. The title-page is followed by a 13-page index of the Latin and German names. About 200 of the woodcuts are about half-page, while the last six pages show 16 small animal woodcuts per page. The Folger Library notes that F. W. E. Roth attributes this herbal to Adam Lonicer (1528-86) of Marburg and Frankfurt, who married Egenolph's daughter and became a partner in the firm after Egenolph died in 1555. The firm published herbals and related works under his name beginning in 1551. Egenolph published all three editions of the present herbal. VD 16 lists the undated one as ca. 1545 (citing only the Wellcome Library copy), which would make the present 1546 edition the second. Another appeared in 1552. Egenolph's successors were to become famous not only as printers but also as one of the largest and most important early typefoundries. The present book uses Roman and Italic for the Latin, but Fraktur and Schwabacher for the German, giving a good overview of the firm's stock of type at this early date. - This copy has early owner's inscriptions by the Nuremberg pharmacist Georg Volland (d. 1631) in Latin at the foot of the title-page and in Greek on the facing endleaf. - Binding worn; some browning and stains to interior, especially to the first and last leaves. {BN#27991}
¶ VD 16, H 2193 (4 copies). Adams H 294 (1 copy). Nissen, BBI 2345. Cf. Klebs, Early Herbals 71 (undated Egenolph ed.). Wellcome I, 1983 (same undated Egenolph ed.). Not in Stiftung Botanik.

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Number theory

(Lefèvre d'Étaples, Jacques). In hoc libro contenta epitome compendiosaq[ue] introductio in... libris arithmeticos divi Severini Boetii [...]. (Paris, Henricus Stephanus, 15 March 1510). (Paris, Henricus Stephanus, 15 March 1510). Small folio (205 x 285 mm). XLVIII pp. With wide woodcut title border and full-page woodcut (scribe) on verso of final leaf. (Bound with) II: (The same). In hoc opere contenta arithmetica decem libris demonstrata. Musica libris demonstrata quatuor. Epitome in libros arithmeticos divi Severini Boetii. Rithmimachie ludus qui et pugna numerorum appellantur. Paris, Henricus Stephanus, (7 Sept. 1514). (72) ff. With wide woodcut title border. Contemporary blindstamped brown calf.

EUR 25,000.00

Fine sammelband of two works edited by the leading French humanist. Lefèvre (1455-1536), a native of Étaples near Amiens and also known as Faber Stapulensis, had studied in Italy before teaching philosophy and theology in Paris, also publishing on matematical subjects. - I: An early edition of this work, mainly concerned with arithmetic and based on Lefèvre's studies of the works of Boethius. Another edition, radically abridged and without the commentary, is included as the third part of the following collection. - II: Second edition of this combination of works. "The greater part of this volume is devoted to the ten books on arithmetic by Jordanus Nemorarius, [the greatest mathematician of his time save Leonardo Fibonacci of Pisa], with the commentary of Jacobus Faber Stapulensis. The work of Jordanus is similar to that of Boethius, and is concerned only with theory of numbers. In particular, the Greek theory of ratios, as elaborated in the Middle Ages, is extensively treated. The second part consists of the work of Jacobus Faber Stapulensis on music, in four books. The third part is the Epitome of the Arithmetic of Boethius [...] The fourth part, consisting of four and a half pages, is a description of the arithmetical game of Rithmimachia, possibly by Shirewode (John Sirwood, Bishop of Durham, who died in 1494), but usually ascribed to Faber Stapulensis" (Smith, 62f.). "Books of this character, evidently intended as the bases of lectures to university students, show in what a hopeless state the Boethian arithmetic found itself at the end of the Middle Ages" (ibid., 82). - Both works feature a very wide title woodcut. Binding rubbed; extremeties bumped. Slight staining throughout. Extremely rare: neither work is recorded in the trade or at auctions of the last decades. {BN#47552}
¶ I: Adams F 19. Cf. RISM B VI, 1, p. 492 (1511 ed.). - II: Adams J 324. BM-STC French 246. RISM B VI, 1, p. 492. Smith, Rara Arithmetica, 65. Cf. Smith, History of Mathematics I, p. 307.

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The first opera in the history of music

Rinuccini, Ottavio. La Dafne. Florence, Giorgio Marescotti, 1600. Florence, Giorgio Marescotti, 1600. 4to. (24) pp. With armorial woodcut to title page and printer's device to verso of final leaf. Modern half vellum with handwritten spine title and marbled covers using old material.

EUR 25,000.00

Exceptionally rare first publication of the libretto of the first opera in musical history, also the first opera libretto ever printed. The music by Jules Caccini and Jacopoto Peri, composed for the first performance on the occasion of a carnival soirée at the Palazzo Corsi in Florence in 1598, is lost. Ottavio Rinuccini (1562-1621), who also wrote the textbook for "Euridice", was not an occasional librettist, but a court poet among who also composed sonnets and verse drama (cf. Honolka, Geschichte des Librettos, p. 22). The present libretto was probably published for a later performance at the Corsis' in August 1600 (for the history of genesis and performance history cf. the extensive account in Sonneck I, p. 339-345). Rinuccini's "Dafne" was again performed, with new music by Marco da Gagliano (1582-1643), in 1608: this score is preserved to this day, and the opera has been performed repeatedly on European stages throughout the 20th century. - Marescotti's fine woodcut device on the final page shows a naval emblem with the motto "Et vult et potest". Very occasional slight browning. On leaf C2v the setting error "DEL" has been corrected by "AL" pasted over the erroneous word. A fine copy. {BN#46874}
¶ Edit 16, CNCE 29328. BM-STC Italian 556. Sartori 7015. Sonneck 339. Wotquenne 47. Wolffheim II, 1083. Fuld 61.

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Three scarce works of Christian mysticism

[Bertholdus]. Horologium devotionis circa vitam Christi. [Basel, J. Amerbach, not after 1490]. [Basel, J. Amerbach, not after 1490]. 8vo. Gothic type. 66 unn. ff. (incl. final blank). With 36 coloured woodcuts in the text. (Bound with) II: Thomas Aquinas. Novum insigneq[ue] opusculu[m] pro Christi verbu[m] eva[n]geliza[n]tibus. Ubi plures et copiosi: et aurei sermones co[n]tinentt[ur]: de septe[m] peccatis mortalibus. Basel, M. Furter, 1514. 36 unn. ff. (incl. final blank). Title page printed in red and black. (Bound with) III: St John Chrysostomus. Libellus cui est titulus Neminem posse ledi nisi a semetipso. [Basel, A. Petri], 1509. 24 unn. ff. With full-page coloured woodcut on reverse of title page. Early 16th century pigskin binding over wooden boards, richly blindstamped with floral tools. A single central clasp.

EUR 25,000.00

I: First Basel edition. "Devotional work in the mystical tradition, first written in German, then - at the request of the educated - translated into Latin. The woodcuts are by the master of the 'Bereittung'; [...] and by the master of 'Heinz Narr'" (cf. Hieronymus). All woodcuts in stark contemporary colour, mainly in yellow but also in grey and occasional blue. 16th-century ownerships and old stamps to title page. - II: Rare edition. Contains the "Regulae quaedam perutiles, quae ad omnes religiosos pertinent" and "Tabula super totius quadragesimae evangeliis et epistolis" (an extract from the Summa theologica). - III: Exceedingly rare edition. The fine woodcut, coloured in yellow and green hues, is attributed to Hans Baldung Grien. "Anonymous printing [...], attributed by Benzing to the Basel printer Petri. The woodcut, without intrinsic connection to the text, shows Christ on Mount Olivet with three sleeping disciples in the foreground and the henchmen nearing. Its style points to Dürer's school rather than Basel" (cf. Hieronymus). - Several 16th century ownerships by one Ulrich Fuchsli on front pastedown as well as title and end of third work. An exceptionally well preserved sammelband containing three scarce works of Christian mysticism. The last copy of the Horologium sold in the trade was incomplete (Sotheby's, July 1, 1994, lot 48: £7,000, to Tenschert). {BN#32369}
¶ I: I. Hain/C. 2993 (= H. 2990 & 8928). GW 4175. BMC III, 753. Goff B-506. Fairfax Murray 60. Schramm XXI, 617, 620, 632, 679-709. Hieronymus, Inkunabelholzschnitte 44. - II: VD 16, T 1024 (R 642 & S 5890). Stockmeyer/R. 84, 46. - III: VD 16, J 438. Hieronymus 81.

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